Corpus overview


Overview

MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Pneumonia (445)

Fever (326)

Cough (258)

Hypertension (196)

Respiratory distress (109)


Transmission

Seroprevalence
    displaying 31 - 40 records in total 4338
    records per page




    The Lebanese Cohort for COVID-19; A Challenge for the ABO Blood SERO Group System

    Authors: Athar Khalil; Mahmoud Hassoun; Rita Feghali

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.02.20166785 Date: 2020-08-04 Source: medRxiv

    A sudden outbreak of pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP caused by the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome MESHD Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has rapidly spread all over the world facilitating the declaration of the resultant disease MESHD as a pandemic in March,2020. In Lebanon, the fast action of announcing a state of emergency MESHD with strict measures was among the factors that helped in achieving a successful containment of the disease MESHD in the country. Predisposing factors for acquiring COVID-19 and for developing a severe form of this disease MESHD were postulated to be related to epidemiological and clinical characteristics as well as the genomics signature of a given population or its environment. Biological markers such as the ABO blood SERO group system was amongst those factors that were proposed to be linked to the variability in the disease MESHD course and/or the prevalence SERO of this infection MESHD among different groups. We therefore conducted the first retrospective case-control study in the Middle-East and North Africa that tackles the association between the blood SERO group types and the susceptibility as well as the severity of SARS-CoV2 infection MESHD. Opposing to the current acknowledged hypothesis, our results have challenged the association significance of this system with COVID-19. Herein, we highlighted the importance of studying larger cohorts using more rigorous approaches to diminish the potential confounding effect of some underlying comorbidities and genetic variants that are known to be associated with the ABO blood SERO group system.

    HIV and Human Coronavirus Coinfections MESHD: A Historical Perspective

    Authors: Palesa Makoti; Burtram C. Fielding

    id:10.20944/preprints202008.0032.v2 Date: 2020-08-04 Source: Preprints.org

    Seven human coronaviruses (hCoVs) are known to infect humans. The most recent one, SARS-CoV-2, was isolated and identified in January 2020 from a patient presenting with severe respiratory illness in Wuhan, China. Even though viral coinfections MESHD have the potential to influence the resultant disease MESHD pattern in the host, very few studies have looked at the disease MESHD outcomes in patients infected with both HIV and hCoVs. Groups are now reporting that even though HIV-positive patients can be infected with hCoVs, the likelihood of developing severe CoV-related diseases MESHD in these patients is often similar to what is seen in the general population. This review aimed to summarize the current knowledge of coinfections MESHD reported for HIV and hCoVs. Moreover, based on the available data, this review aimed to theorize why HIV-positive patients do not frequently develop severe CoV-related diseases MESHD.

    Containing the Spread of Infectious Disease MESHD on College Campuses

    Authors: Mirai Shah; Gabrielle Ferra; Susan Fitzgerald; Paul Barreira; Pardis Sabeti; Andres Colubri

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.31.20166348 Date: 2020-08-04 Source: medRxiv

    College campuses in the United States are highly vulnerable to infectious diseases MESHD outbreaks, and there is a mounting need to develop strategies that best mitigate their size and duration, particularly as colleges consider reopening their campuses in the midst of the COVID-19 pandemic. Towards addressing this need, we applied a stochastic transmission TRANS model to quantify the impact of university-level responses to past outbreaks on their campuses and used it to determine which control interventions are most effective. The model aims to simultaneously overcome three crucial issues: stochastic variation in small populations, missing or unobserved case data, and changes in disease MESHD transmission TRANS rates post-intervention. We tested the model and assessed various interventions using data from the 2014 and 2016 mumps MESHD outbreaks at Ohio State University and Harvard University, respectively. Our results suggest that universities should design more aggressive diagnostic procedures and stricter isolation policies to decrease infectious disease MESHD incidence on campus. Our model can be applied to data from other outbreaks in college campuses and similar small-population settings.

    Fitting models to the COVID-19 outbreak and estimating R

    Authors: Matt J Keeling; Louise Dyson; Glen Guyver-Fletcher; Alex Holmes; Malcolm G Semple; - ISARIC4C Investigators; Michael J Tildesley; Edward M Hill

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.04.20163782 Date: 2020-08-04 Source: medRxiv

    The COVID-19 pandemic has brought to the fore the need for policy makers to receive timely and ongoing scientific guidance in response to this recently emerged human infectious disease MESHD. Fitting mathematical models of infectious disease MESHD transmission TRANS to the available epidemiological data provides a key statistical tool for understanding the many quantities of interest that are not explicit in the underlying epidemiological data streams. Of these, the basic reproductive ratio, $R$, has taken on special significance in terms of the general understanding of whether the epidemic is under control ($R<1$). Unfortunately, none of the epidemiological data streams are designed for modelling, hence assimilating information from multiple (often changing) sources of data is a major challenge that is particularly stark in novel disease MESHD outbreaks. Here, we present in some detail the inference scheme employed for calibrating the Warwick COVID-19 model to the available public health data streams, which span hospitalisations, critical care occupancy, mortality and serological testing SERO. We then perform computational simulations, making use of the acquired parameter posterior distributions, to assess how the accuracy of short-term predictions varied over the timecourse of the outbreak. To conclude, we compare how refinements to data streams and model structure impact estimates of epidemiological measures, including the estimated growth rate and daily incidence.

    Epidemiological characteristics of SARS-COV-2 in Myanmar

    Authors: Aung Min Thway; Htun Tayza; Tun Tun Win; Ye Minn Tun; Moe Myint Aung; Yan Naung Win; Kyaw M Tun

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.02.20166504 Date: 2020-08-04 Source: medRxiv

    Coronavirus disease MESHD (COVID-19) is an infectious disease MESHD caused by a newly discovered severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). In Myanmar, first COVID-19 reported cases were identified on 23rd March 2020. There were 336 reported confirmed cases TRANS, 261 recovered and 6 deaths MESHD through 13th July 2020. The study was a retrospective case series and all COVID-19 confirmed cases TRANS from 23rd March to 13th July 2020 were included. The data series of COVID-19 cases were extracted from the daily official reports of the Ministry of Health and Sports (MOHS), Myanmar and Centers for Disease MESHD Control and Prevention (CDC), Myanmar. Among 336 confirmed cases TRANS, there were 169 cases with reported transmission TRANS events. The median serial interval TRANS was 4 days (IQR 3, 2-5) with the range of 0 - 26 days. The mean of the reproduction number TRANS was 1.44 with (95% CI = 1.30-1.60) by exponential growth method and 1.32 with (95% CI = 0.98-1.73) confident interval by maximum likelihood method. This study outlined the epidemiological characteristics and epidemic parameters of COVID-19 in Myanmar. The estimation parameters in this study can be comparable with other studies and variability of these parameters can be considered when implementing disease MESHD control strategy in Myanmar.

    Clinical Characteristics and Severity of COVID-19 Disease MESHD in Patients from Boston Area Hospitals

    Authors: Hesamaddin Torabi Dashti; David Bates; Julie M Fiskio; Elise C Roche; Samia Mora; Olga Demler

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.27.20163071 Date: 2020-08-04 Source: medRxiv

    We summarize key demographic, clinical, and medical characteristics of patients with respect to the severity of COVID-19 disease MESHD using Electronic Health Records Data of 4,140 SARS-CoV-2 positive subjects from several large Boston Area Hospitals. We found that prior use of antihypertensive medications as well as lipid lowering and other cardiovascular drugs (such as direct oral anticoagulants and antiplatelets) all track with increased severity of COVID-19 and should be further investigated with appropriate adjustment for confounders such as age TRANS and frailty MESHD. The three most common prior comorbidities are hyperlipidemia MESHD hyperlipidemia HP, hypertension MESHD hypertension HP, and prior pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP, all associated with increased severity.

    SARS-CoV-2 genome analysis of strains in Pakistan reveals GH, S and L clade strains at the start of the pandemic

    Authors: Najia K Ghanchi; Kiran I Masood; Asghar Nasir; Waqasuddin Khan; Syed H Abidi; Saba Shahid; Syed F Mahmood; Akbar R Kanji; Safina A Razzak; Zeeshan Ansar; Nazneen Islam; Mohammad B Dharejo; Zahra Hasan; Rumina Hasan

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.04.234153 Date: 2020-08-04 Source: bioRxiv

    ObjectivesPakistan has a high infectious disease MESHD burden with about 265,000 reported cases of COVID-19. We investigated the genomic diversity of SARS-CoV-2 strains and present the first data on viruses circulating in the country. MethodsWe performed whole-genome sequencing and data analysis of SARS-CoV-2 eleven strains isolated in March and May. ResultsStrains from travelers clustered with those from China, Saudi Arabia, India, USA and Australia. Five of eight SARS-CoV-2 strains were GH clade with Spike glycoprotein D614G, Ns3 gene Q57H, and RNA dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) P4715L mutations. Two were S (ORF8 L84S and N S202N) and three were L clade and one was an I clade strain. One GH and one L strain each displayed Orf1ab L3606F indicating further evolutionary transitions. ConclusionsThis data reveals SARS-CoV-2 strains of L, G, S and I have been circulating in Pakistan from March, at the start of the pandemic. It indicates viral diversity regarding infection MESHD in this populous region. Continuing molecular genomic surveillance of SARS-CoV-2 in the context of disease MESHD severity will be important to understand virus transmission TRANS patterns and host related determinants of COVID-19 in Pakistan.

    Characteristics of COVID-19 fatality cases in East Kalimantan, Indonesia

    Authors: Swandari Paramita; Ronny Isnuwardana; Krispinus Duma; Rahmat Bakhtiar; Muhammad Khairul Nuryanto; Riries Choiru Pramulia Yudia; Evi Fitriany; Meiliati Aminyoto

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.01.20166470 Date: 2020-08-04 Source: medRxiv

    Introduction. Coronavirus Disease MESHD (COVID-19) is caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD. On March 2, 2020, Indonesia announced the first confirmed cases TRANS of COVID-19 infection MESHD. East Kalimantan will play an important role as the new capital of Indonesia. There is attention to the preparedness of East Kalimantan to respond to COVID-19. We report the characteristics of COVID-19 fatality cases in here. Methods. We retrospectively analyzed the fatality cases of COVID-19 patients from the East Kalimantan Health Office information system. All patients were confirmed COVID-19 by RT-PCR examination. Results. By July 31, 2020, 31 fatality cases of patients had been identified as having confirmed COVID-19 in East Kalimantan. The mean age TRANS of the patients was 55.1 + 9.2 years. Most of the patients were men (22 [71.0%]) with age TRANS more than 60 years old (14 [45.2%]). Balikpapan has the highest number of COVID-19 fatality cases from all regencies. Hypertension MESHD Hypertension HP was the most comorbidities in the fatality cases of COVID-19 patients in East Kalimantan. Discussion. Older age TRANS and comorbidities still contributed to the fatality cases of COVID-19 patients in East Kalimantan, Indonesia. Hypertension MESHD Hypertension HP, diabetes, cardiovascular disease MESHD, and cerebrovascular disease MESHD were underlying conditions for increasing the risk of COVID-19 getting into a serious condition. Conclusion. Active surveillance for people older than 60 years old and having underlying diseases MESHD is needed for reducing the case fatality rate of COVID-19 in East Kalimantan. Keywords. Comorbidity, fatality cases, COVID-19, Indonesia.

    Aprepitant as a combinant with Dexamethasone reduces the inflammation MESHD via Neurokinin 1 Receptor Antagonism in severe to critical Covid-19 patients and potentiates respiratory recovery: A novel therapeutic approach

    Authors: Riffat Mehboob; Fridoon Ahmad; Ahad Qayyum; Muhammad Asim Rana; Muhammad Akram Tariq; Javed Akram

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.01.20166678 Date: 2020-08-04 Source: medRxiv

    Background: Corona virus infection MESHD is a respiratory infection MESHD, compromising the normal breathing in critical patients by damaging the lungs. Researches are ongoing to find an efficient treatment strategy for this disease MESHD by either inactivating the virus or boosting the immune system of patient or by managing the cytokine storm. Aim: To evaluate the clinical outcomes of Substance P receptor Neurokinin 1 antagonist in Covid 19 patients against the usual treatments as controls. Patients and Methods: It is a randomized clinical trial, open label, having two arms, one receiving normal management and care while other receiving Neurokinin 1 Receptor antagonist, Aprepitant, in addition. Dexamethasone, a corticosteroid is also administered orally to both the groups. PCR positive, hospitalized patients with more than 18 years of age TRANS, both genders TRANS, moderate to critical phase were included. 18 patients were randomly allocated in both arms, having 10 in group A and 8 in group B. Lab investigations were performed in both the groups before and after the intervention. We report preliminary results for the comparison of Aprepitant 80 mg given once daily for 3 to 5 days vs routine management. The primary outcome was total in hospital days and duration of disease MESHD. Results: Mean age TRANS of patients in group A was 47.63 +12.07years while 60.90+ 9.75 years in group TRANS B. There were 3 males TRANS in group A and 8 in group B. There were 2 critical patients in group A and 5 in group B. Biochemical and hematological parameters in both groups didnot show much difference except the C reactive protein reduction in the intervention group, indicative of a reduced inflammation MESHD. Oxygen saturation also improved but more patients should be enrolled to get a statistically significant data. One patient was discharged from each group within 5 days and one patient expired in each. Conclusions: It is a pilot study but the findings give a strong clue for the therapeutic potential of Aprepitant. Patients who received a combination therapy of Aprepitant and Dexamethasone were recovered earlier and showed improved clinical outcomes, laboratory findings and reduced C reactive protein which is an inflammatory marker. We suggest here a study on larger sample size to get a deeper insight of its potential and efficacy. It may be more effective in severe to critical patients having respiratory difficulties.

    SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD, disease MESHD and transmission TRANS in domestic cats

    Authors: Natasha N Gaudreault; Jessie D Trujillo; Mariano Carossino; David A Meekins; Igor Morozov; Daniel W Madden; Sabarish V Indran; Dashzeveg Bold; Velmurugan Balaraman; Taeyong Kwon; Bianca Libanori Artiaga; Konner Cool; Adolfo Garcia-Sastre; Wenjun Ma; William C Wilson; Jamie Henningson; Udeni BR Balasuriya; Juergen A Richt

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.04.235002 Date: 2020-08-04 Source: bioRxiv

    Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome MESHD Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the cause of Coronavirus Disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) and responsible for the current pandemic. Recent SARS-CoV-2 susceptibility and transmission TRANS studies in cats show that the virus can replicate in these companion animals and transmit to other cats. Here, we present an in-depth study of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD, associated disease MESHD and transmission TRANS dynamics in domestic cats. Six 4- to 5-month-old cats were challenged with SARS-CoV-2 via intranasal and oral routes simultaneously. One day post challenge (DPC), two sentinel contact cats were co-mingled with the principal infected animals. Animals were monitored for clinical signs, clinicopathological abnormalities and viral shedding throughout the 21 DPC observation period. Postmortem examinations were performed at 4, 7 and 21 DPC to investigate disease progression MESHD. Viral RNA was not detected in blood SERO but transiently in nasal, oropharyngeal and rectal swabs and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid as well as various tissues. Tracheobronchoadenitis of submucosal glands with the presence of viral RNA and antigen was observed in airways of the infected cats on 4 and 7 DPC. Serology showed that both, principal and sentinel cats, developed SARS-CoV-2-specific and neutralizing antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 SERO detectable at 7 DPC or 10 DPC, respectively. All animals were clinically asymptomatic TRANS during the course of the study and capable of transmitting SARS-CoV-2 to sentinels within 2 days of comingling. The results of this study are critical for our understanding of the clinical course of SARS-CoV-2 in a naturally susceptible host species, and for risk assessment of the maintenance of SARS-CoV-2 in felines and transmission TRANS to other animals and humans.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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