Corpus overview


MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

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    Correlation of the two most frequent HLA haplotypes in the Italian population to the differential regional incidence of Covid-19

    Authors: Simona Pisanti; Joris Deelen; Anna Maria Gallina; Mariella Caputo; Marianna Citro; Mario Abate; Nicoletta Sacchi; Carmine Vecchione; Rosanna Martinelli

    doi:10.21203/ Date: 2020-07-31 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: Understanding how HLA polymorphisms may affect both susceptibility, course and severity of Covid-19 infection MESHD could help both at the clinical level to identify individuals at higher risk from the disease MESHD and at the epidemiological one to explain the differences in the epidemic trend among countries or even within a specific country. Covid-19 disease MESHD in Italy showed a peculiar geographical distribution from the northern most affected regions to the southern ones only slightly touched. Methods: In this study we analysed the regional frequencies for the most common Italian haplotypes from the Italian Bone Marrow Donor Registry (HLA-A, -B, -C and -DRB1 at four-digit level). Then we performed Pearson correlation analyses among regional haplotypes estimated frequency in the population and Covid-19 incidence and mortality.Results: In this study we found that the two most frequent HLA haplotypes in the Italian population, HLA-A*:01:01g-B*08:01g-C*07:01g-DRB1*03:01g and HLA-A*02.01g-B*18.01g-C*07.01g-DRB1*11.04g, had a regional distribution overlapping that of Covid-19 and showed respectively a positive (suggestive of susceptibility) and negative (suggestive of protection) significant correlation with both Covid-19 incidence and mortality. Conclusions: Based on these results, in order to define such HLA polymorphisms as a factor effectively associated to the disease susceptibility MESHD, the creation of national networks that can collect patients’ samples from all regions for HLA typing should be highly encouraged.

    Impact of urban structure on COVID-19 spread

    Authors: Javier Aguilar; Aleix Bassolas; Gourab Ghoshal; Surendra Hazarie; Alec Kirkley; Mattia Mazzoli; Sandro Meloni; Sayat Mimar; Vincenzo Nicosia; Jose J. Ramasco; Adam Sadilek

    id:2007.15367v1 Date: 2020-07-30 Source: arXiv

    The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has created a global crisis of massive scale. Prior research indicates that human mobility is one of the key factors involved in viral spreading. Indeed, in a connected planet, rapid world-wide spread is enabled by long-distance air-, land- and sea-transportation among countries and continents, and subsequently fostered by commuting trips within densely populated cities. While early travel TRANS restrictions contribute to delayed disease MESHD disease spread TRANS spread, their utility is much reduced if the disease MESHD has a long incubation period TRANS or if there is asymptomatic TRANS transmission TRANS. Given the lack of vaccines, public health officials have mainly relied on non-pharmaceutical interventions, including social distancing measures, curfews, and stay-at-home orders. Here we study the impact of city organization on its susceptibility to disease MESHD disease spread TRANS, and amenability to interventions. Cities can be classified according to their mobility in a spectrum between compact-hierarchical and decentralized-sprawled. Our results show that even though hierarchical cities are more susceptible to the rapid spread of epidemics, their organization makes mobility restrictions quite effective. Conversely, sprawled cities are characterized by a much slower initial spread, but are less responsive to mobility restrictions. These findings hold globally across cities in diverse geographical locations and a broad range of sizes. Our empirical measurements are confirmed by a simulation of COVID-19 spread in urban areas through a compartmental model. These results suggest that investing resources on early monitoring and prompt ad-hoc interventions in more vulnerable cities may prove most helpful in containing and reducing the impact of present and future pandemics.

    Gut Microbiota May Underlie the Predisposition of Healthy Individuals to COVID-19-Sensitive Proteomic Biomarkers

    Authors: Wanglong Gou; Yuanqing Fu; Liang Yue; Geng-dong Chen; Xue Cai; Menglei Shuai; Fengzhe Xu; Xiao Yi; Hao Chen; Yi Zhu; Mian-li Xiao; Zengliang Jiang; Zelei Miao; Congmei Xiao; Bo Shen; Xiaomai Wu; Haihong Zhao; Wenhua Ling; Jun Wang; Yu-ming Chen; Tiannan Guo; Ju-Sheng Zheng

    doi:10.21203/ Date: 2020-07-20 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: The COVID-19 pandemic is spreading globally with high disparity in the susceptibility of the disease MESHD severity. Identification of the key underlying factors for this disparity is highly warranted. Results: Here we describe constructing a proteomic risk score (PRS) based on 20 blood SERO proteomic biomarkers which related to the progression to severe COVID-19. Among COVID-19 patients, per 10% increment in the PRS was associated with a 57% higher risk of progressing to clinically severe phase (RR=1.57; 95% CI, 1.35-1.82). We demonstrate that in our own cohort of 990 individuals without infection MESHD, this proteomic risk score is positively associated with proinflammatory cytokines mainly among older, but not younger, individuals. We further discovered that a core set of gut microbiota could accurately predict the blood SERO proteomic biomarkers of COVID-19 using a machine learning model. The core OTU-predicted PRS had a significant correlation with actual PRS both cross-sectionally (n=132, p<0.001) and prospectively (n=169, p<0.05). Most of the core OTUs were highly correlated with proinflammatory cytokines. Fecal metabolomics analysis suggested potential amino acid-related pathways linking the above core gut microbiota to inflammation MESHD.Conclusions: Our study suggests that gut microbiota may underlie the predisposition of healthy individuals to COVID-19-sensitive proteomic biomarkers.

    Substance Use Disorder in the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Systematic Review of Vulnerabilities and Complications

    Authors: Yufeng Wei; Rameen Shah

    id:10.20944/preprints202007.0061.v1 Date: 2020-07-05 Source:

    As the world endures the coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, conditions of 35 million vulnerable individuals struggling with substance use disorders (SUDs) worldwide have not received sufficient attention for their special health and medical needs. Many of these individuals are complicated by underlying health conditions, such as cardiovascular and lung diseases MESHD and undermined immune systems. During the pandemic, access to the healthcare systems and support groups is greatly diminished. Current research on COVID-19 has not addressed the unique challenges facing individuals with SUDs, including the heightened vulnerability and susceptibility to the disease MESHD. In this systematic review, we will discuss the pathogenesis and pathology of COVID-19, and highlight potential risk factors and complications to these individuals. We will also provide insights and considerations for COVID-19 treatment and prevention in patients with SUDs.

    Strong negative covariation between toxoplasmosis MESHD and CoVID-19 at a global scale: a spurious indirect effect?

    Authors: Łukasz Jankowiak; Lajos Rozsa; Piotr Tryjanowski; Anders Pape Møller

    doi:10.21203/ Date: 2020-05-12 Source: ResearchSquare

    Coronaviruses may exert severely negative effects on the mortality and morbidity of birds and mammals including humans and domestic animals. Most recently CoVID-19 has infected over 2,360,000 humans and killed more than 165,000. Susceptibility to this disease MESHD appears to differ markedly across different societies but the factors underlying this variability are not known. Given that toxoplasmosis MESHD exerts both direct and immune-mediated antiviral effects, we hypothesize a negative covariation between toxoplasmosis MESHD and measures of the Covid-19 pandemic across countries. We obtained aged TRANS-adjusted toxoplasmosis MESHD prevalence SERO of pregnant women from the literature. Since the differences in the CoVID-19 morbidity and mortality may depend on the different timing of the epidemics in each country, we applied a standard measure, i.e. the date of first documented CoVID-19 in each country as a proxy of susceptibility, with a statistical control for population size effects. Using these two indices, we show a highly significant negative co-variation between the two pandemics across 86 countries. Then, considering that the wealth of nations often co-varies with the prevalence SERO of diseases MESHD, we introduced Gross Domestic Product per capita into our model. The prevalence SERO of toxoplasmosis MESHD co-varies negatively, while the date of first CoVID-19 cases co-varies positively with GDP across countries. Further, to control for the strong spatial autocorrelation among countries, we carried out a Spatial Structure Analyses of the relationships between the date of first COVID-19, prevalence SERO of toxoplasmosis MESHD, and GDP. Results of this analysis did not confirm a direct causal relationship between toxoplasmosis MESHD and susceptibility to the CoVID-19 pandemics. As far as an analysis of observational data let us to suggest, it appears that the interaction between CoVID-19 and toxoplasmosis MESHD is mediated by GDP and spatial effects. This prompts the question whether the formerly known covariation between BCG vaccination and CoVID-19 might have also emerged as a spurious indirect effect.

    Pandemic Coronavirus Disease MESHD (COVID-19): Challenges and A Global Perspective

    Authors: Yashpal Singh Malik; Naveen Kumar; Shubhankar Sircar; Rahul Kaushik; Sudipta Bhatt; Kuldeep Dhama; Parakriti Gupta; Kapil Goyal; Mini P. Singh; Ujjala Ghoshal; Mohamed Ezzat Mahmoud El Zowalaty; O.R. Vinodh Kumar; Mohd. Iqbal Yatoo; Ruchi Tiwari; Mamta Pathak; Shailesh Kumar Patel; Ranjit Sah; Alfonso J. Rodriguez-Morales; Balasubramanian Ganesh; Prashant Kumar; Raj Kumar Singh

    id:10.20944/preprints202004.0469.v1 Date: 2020-04-26 Source:

    The technology-driven world of the 21st century is currently confronted with a major threat to humankind in the form of the coronavirus disease MESHD (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). As of April 22, 2020, COVID-19 has claimed 169, 006 human lives and had spread to over 200 countries with more than 2,471,136 confirmed cases TRANS. The perpetually increasing figures associated with COVID-19 are disrupting the social and economic systems globally. The losses are unmatched and significantly higher compared to those from previously encountered pathogenic infections MESHD. Previously, two CoVs (SARS-CoV and Middle East respiratory syndrome MESHD-CoV) affected the human population in 2002 and 2012 in China and Saudi Arabia, respectively. Based on genomic similarities, animal-origin CoVs, primarily those infecting bats, civet cats, and pangolins, were presumed to be the source of emerging human CoVs, including the SARS-CoV-2. The cohesive approach amongst virologists, bioinformaticians, big data analysts, epidemiologists, and public health researchers across the globe has delivered high-end viral diagnostics. Similarly, vaccines and therapeutics against COVID-19 are currently in the pipeline for clinical trials. The rapidly evolving and popular technology of artificial intelligence played a major role in confirming and countering the COVID-19 pandemic using digital technologies and mathematical algorithms. In this review, we discuss the noteworthy advancements in the mitigation of the COVID-19 pandemic, focusing on the etiological viral agent, comparative genomic analysis, population susceptibility, disease MESHD epidemiology, animal reservoirs, laboratory animal models, disease MESHD transmission TRANS, diagnosis using artificial intelligence interventions, therapeutics and vaccines, and disease MESHD mitigation measures to combat disease MESHD dissemination.

    Changes in RT-PCR test results and symptoms during the menstrual cycle of a female TRANS individual infected with SARS-CoV-2: a case report

    Authors: Hua Zheng; Juan Tan; Ke Ma; Weihua Meng

    doi:10.21203/ Date: 2020-04-24 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: The implications of the menstrual cycle for disease susceptibility MESHD, development, and severity of acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection MESHD are largely unknown.Case presentation: We report a 37-year-old woman infected with SARS-CoV-2 who showed a 16-day incubation period TRANS. She developed a fever MESHD fever HP on the first day of her menstrual period, and again on the first day of her next menstrual period after hospital discharge. RT-PCR test results were positive during the first menstrual period before admission, turned negative during hospitalization, and then positive again during the second menstrual period after hospital discharge.Conclusions: This case indicates sex hormones may play an important role in SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD. For women with history of exposure to SARS-CoV-2, the management protocol should include assessment of the menstrual status.

    In Search of Preventative Strategies: Novel Anti-Inflammatory High-CBD Cannabis Sativa Extracts Modulate ACE2 Expression in COVID-19 Gateway Tissues

    Authors: Bo Wang; Anna Kovalchuk; Dongping Li; Yaroslav Ilnytskyy; Igor Kovalchuk; Olga Kovalchuk

    id:10.20944/preprints202004.0315.v1 Date: 2020-04-19 Source:

    With the rapidly growing pandemic of COVID-19 caused by the new and challenging to treat zoonotic SARS-CoV2 coronavirus, there is an urgent need for new therapies and prevention strategies that can help curtail disease MESHD disease spread TRANS spread and reduce mortality. Inhibition of viral entry and thereby spread constitute plausible therapeutic avenues. Similar to other respiratory pathogens, SARS-CoV2 is transmitted through respiratory droplets, with potential for aerosol and contact spread. It uses receptor-mediated entry into the human host via angiotensin-converting enzyme II (ACE2) that is expressed in lung tissue, as well as oral and nasal mucosa, kidney, testes, and the gastrointestinal tract. Modulation of ACE2 levels in these gateway tissues may prove a plausible strategy for decreasing disease susceptibility MESHD. Cannabis sativa, especially one high in the anti-inflammatory cannabinoid cannabidiol (CBD), has been proposed to modulate gene expression and inflammation MESHD and harbour anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory properties. Working under the Health Canada research license, we have developed over 800 new Cannabis sativa lines and extracts and hypothesized that high-CBD C. sativa extracts may be used to modulate ACE2 expression in COVID-19 target tissues. Screening C. sativa extracts using artificial human 3D models of oral, airway, and intestinal tissues, we identified 13 high CBD C. sativa extracts that modulate ACE2 gene expression and ACE2 protein levels. Our initial data suggest that some C. sativa extract down-regulate serine protease TMPRSS2, another critical protein required for SARS-CoV2 entry into host cells. While our most effective extracts require further large-scale validation, our study is crucial for the future analysis of the effects of medical cannabis on COVID-19. The extracts of our most successful and novel high CBD C. sativa lines, pending further investigation, may become a useful and safe addition to the treatment of COVID-19 as an adjunct therapy. They can be used to develop easy-to-use preventative treatments in the form of mouthwash and throat gargle products for both clinical and at-home use. Such products ought to be tested for their potential to decrease viral entry via the oral mucosa. Given the current dire and rapidly evolving epidemiological situation, every possible therapeutic opportunity and avenue must be considered.

    HLA predictions from the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid samples of five patients at the early stage of the Wuhan seafood market COVID-19 outbreak

    Authors: Rene L Warren; Inanc Birol

    id:2004.07108v3 Date: 2020-04-15 Source: arXiv

    We are in the midst of a global viral pandemic, one with no cure and a high mortality rate. The Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) gene complex plays a critical role in host immunity. We predicted HLA class I and II alleles from the transcriptome sequencing data prepared from the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid samples of five patients at the early stage of the COVID-19 outbreak. We identified the HLA-I allele A*24:02 in four out of five patients, which is higher than the expected frequency (17.2%) in the South Han Chinese population. The difference is statistically significant with a p-value less than $10^{-4}$. Our analysis results may help provide future insights on disease susceptibility MESHD.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype

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