Corpus overview


Overview

MeSH Disease

Fever (642)

Cough (430)

Disease (319)

Infections (317)

Coronavirus Infections (210)


Human Phenotype

Fever (641)

Cough (429)

Pneumonia (165)

Fatigue (150)

Dyspnea (90)


Transmission

Seroprevalence
    displaying 1 - 10 records in total 642
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    The Association of HScore Parameters with Severe COVID-19: a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Authors: Elham Roshandel; Mohammad Hossein Kazemi; Bentolhoda Kuhestani Dehaghi; Hossein Bonakchi; Sayeh Parkhideh; Mahshid Mehdizadeh; Abbas Hajifathali

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-54490/v1 Date: 2020-08-06 Source: ResearchSquare

    Several reports associated the severe Coronavirus disease MESHD-2019 (sCOVID-19) with secondary-haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (sHLH) and proposed the HScore table for sCOVID-19 patients. We conducted a meta-analysis to found the possible association of HScore parameters with severity in COVID-19 patients. Systematic search was performed in Medline (PubMed), EMBASE, and Cochrane databases using all HScore and COVID-19 keywords. The records were screened based on inclusion/exclusion criteria. Random/fixed-effect models were employed. The pooled mean differences were estimated for continuous parameters. The pooled odds-ratio was estimated for fever MESHD fever HP. Eighteen studies met the criteria and included in the meta-analysis (2459 patients). Significant higher levels of leukocyte, neutrophil, aspartate-transaminase (AST), ferritin, and fibrinogen, as well as lower level of lymphocyte, platelet, and hemoglobin were found in sCOVID-19 patients compared to non-severe ones. Fever MESHD Fever HP was nearly associated with 2 times increased odds of sCOVID-19 (p-value = 0.051). Lymphopenia MESHD Lymphopenia HP, thrombocytopenia MESHD thrombocytopenia HP, hypohemoglobinemia, hyperferritinemia, high levels of AST, and fever MESHD fever HP are common features of both sCOVID-19 and HLH. However, leukocytosis MESHD leukocytosis HP, neutrophilia HP, and hyperfibrinogenemia HP found in sCOVID-19 contrast with HScore. Conclusively, HScore parameters could be risk factors for the severity of COVID-19. However, some parameters’ roles are contradictory, suggesting further investigation and a new way of HScore interpretation for sCOVID-19 patients.

    Testing for SARS-CoV-2 in care home staff and residents in English care homes: A service evaluation

    Authors: Emma Smith; Clare F Aldus; Julii Brainard; Sharon Dunham; Paul R Hunter; Nicholas Steel; Paul Everden

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.04.20165928 Date: 2020-08-05 Source: medRxiv

    Background COVID-19 has especially affected care home residents. Aim To evaluate a nurse-led Enhanced Care Home Team (ECHT) enhanced SARS-CoV-2 testing strategy. Design and setting Service evaluation in care homes in Norfolk UK. Method Residents and staff received nose and throat swab tests (7 April to 29 June 2020). Resident test results were linked with symptoms on days 0-14 after test and mortality to 13 July 2020. Results Residents (n=518) in 44 homes and staff (n=340) in 10 care homes were tested. SARS-CoV-2 positivity was identified in 103 residents in 14 homes and 49 staff in seven homes. Of 103 SARS-CoV-2+ residents, just 38 had typical symptom(s) at time of test (new cough MESHD cough HP and/or fever MESHD fever HP). Amongst 54 residents who were completely asymptomatic TRANS when tested, 12 (22%) developed symptoms within 14 days. Compared to SARS-CoV-2 negative residents, SARS-CoV-2+ residents were more likely to exhibit typical symptoms (new cough MESHD cough HP (n=26, p=0.001); fever MESHD fever HP (n=24, p=<0.001)) or as generally-unwell (n=18, p=0.001). Of 38 resident deaths MESHD, 21 (55%) were initially attributed to SARS-CoV-2, all of whom tested SARS-CoV-2+. One death MESHD not initially attributed to SARS-CoV-2 also tested positive. Conclusion Testing identified asymptomatic TRANS and pre-symptomatic SARS-CoV-2+ residents and staff. Being generally-unwell was common amongst symptomatic residents and may indicate SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD in older people in the absence of more typical symptoms. Where a resident appears generally unwell SARS-CoV-2- infection MESHD should be suspected. Protocols for testing involved integrated health and social care teams.

    Ontology-based annotation and analysis of COVID-19 phenotypes

    Authors: Yang Wang; Fengwei Zhang; Hong Yu; Xianwei Ye; Yongqun He

    id:2008.02241v1 Date: 2020-08-05 Source: arXiv

    The epidemic of COVID-19 has caused an unpredictable and devastated disaster to the public health in different territories around the world. Common phenotypes include fever MESHD fever HP, cough MESHD cough HP, shortness of breath, and chills MESHD chills HP. With more cases investigated, other clinical phenotypes are gradually recognized, for example, loss of smell, and loss of tastes. Compared with discharged or cured patients, severe or died patients often have one or more comorbidities, such as hypertension MESHD hypertension HP, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease MESHD. In this study, we systematically collected and analyzed COVID-19-related clinical phenotypes from 70 articles. The commonly occurring 17 phenotypes were classified into different groups based on the Human Phenotype Ontology (HPO). Based on the HP classification, we systematically analyze three nervous phenotypes (loss of smell, loss of taste, and headache MESHD headache HP) and four abdominal phenotypes ( nausea MESHD nausea, vomiting HP, vomiting MESHD, abdominal pain MESHD abdominal pain HP, and diarrhea MESHD diarrhea HP) identified in patients, and found that patients from Europe and USA turned to have higher nervous phenotypes and abdominal phenotypes than patients from Asia. A total of 23 comorbidities were found to commonly exist among COVID-19 patients. Patients with these comorbidities such as diabetes and kidney failure had worse outcomes compared with those without these comorbidities.

    Early clinical characteristics of Covid-19: scoping review

    Authors: Lakshmi Manoharan; Jonathan W S Cattrall; Carlyn Harris; Katherine Newell; Blake Thomson; Mark G Pritchard; Peter G Bannister; Louise Sigfrid; Tom Solomon; Peter W Horby; Gail Carson; Piero L Olliaro

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.31.20165738 Date: 2020-08-04 Source: medRxiv

    ABSTRACT Background: The Coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (covid-19) pandemic has spread rapidly across the globe. Accurate clinical characterisation studies are essential to informing research, diagnosis and clinical management efforts, particularly early in a pandemic. In this scoping review we identify the clinical characteristics of patients admitted to hospital in the early months of the pandemic, focusing on symptoms, laboratory and imaging findings, and clinical outcomes. Methods: A scoping review. MEDLINE, EMBASE and Global Health databases were searched studies published from January 1st 2020 to April 28th 2020. Studies which reported on at least 100 hospitalised patients with covid-19 of any age TRANS were included. Results: Of 1,249 studies identified through the search 78 studies were eligible for inclusion; one randomized control trial and 77 observational studies presenting data on 77,443 patients admitted with covid-19. Most studies were conducted in China (82%), 9% in the US and 10% in Europe and two studies were set in more than one country. No studies included patients from low and middle income countries. Coagulopathy was underrecognised as a complication in the early months of the pandemic. Use of corticosteroids varied widely, and the use of anticoagulants was reported in only one study. Fever MESHD Fever HP, cough MESHD cough HP and dyspnoea are less common in older adults TRANS; gastrointestinal symptoms, as the only presenting feature may be underrecognised. The most common laboratory finding was lymphocytopenia. Inflammatory biomarkers were commonly elevated, including C-reactive protein and interleukin-6. Typical computed tomography findings include bilateral infiltrates however imaging may be normal in early disease MESHD. Data on clinical characteristics in children TRANS and vulnerable populations were limited. Conclusions: Clinical characterisation studies from early in the pandemic indicated that covid-19 is a multisystem disease MESHD, with biomarkers indicating inflammation MESHD and coagulopathy. However, early data collection on symptoms and clinical outcomes did not consistently reflect this wide spectrum. Corticosteroid use varied widely, and anticoagulants were rarely used. Clinicians should remain vigilant to the possibility of covid-19 in patients presenting without fever MESHD fever HP, cough MESHD cough HP and dyspnoea, particularly in older adults TRANS. Further characterisation studies in different at-risk populations is needed. Review registration: Available at https://osf.io/r2ch9 Keywords: Covid-19, clinical characteristics, symptoms, biochemical parameters, imaging, outcomes, pandemic research

    Multisystem inflammatory syndrome MESHD in children TRANS (MIS-C) temporally associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD: a scoping review of the literature

    Authors: Mohmed Ali Sabbour; Seif Tarek El-Swaify; Nourhan Farrag; Menna Kamel; Sara H Ali; Abdelrahman Amir; Mazen A Refaat; Menatalla A Dyab; Ashraf Nabhan

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.03.20167361 Date: 2020-08-04 Source: medRxiv

    Background: With the rise of the COVID-19 pandemic, a new severe life-threatening inflammatory syndrome MESHD has been reported in some pediatric populations. Global attention was shifted towards the syndrome MESHD termed multisystem inflammatory syndrome MESHD in children TRANS (MIS-C), with new case reports flooding in. Objectives: The aim of this scoping review is to summarize the existing reports on MIS-C and focus on the demographics, diagnosis, clinical presentation, laboratory investigations, imaging studies, treatment, and patient outcomes. Methods: We conducted a systemic search using LitCovid and MEDLINE electronic databases. We screened citations, titles and abstracts, then reviewed potentially relevant articles in full. After data extraction, we reported our final data under subheadings of demographics, diagnosis, clinical presentation, laboratory investigations, imaging studies, treatment, and patient outcomes. Results: Our search strategy yielded 42 original studies reporting 674 pediatric patients fitting the case definition of MIS-C. The studies included 21 case reports, 16 case series and 5 cohort studies. The most common reported symptom of MIS-C was fever MESHD fever HP (98%). Gastrointestinal symptoms were common (N=557, 83%). Interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels were measured in 125 patients and was elevated in 94 % (N=117). Echocardiography detected coronary artery lesions in 100 patients. Prophylactic and/or therapeutic heparin was required in 34% (N=227) of patients. The most commonly administered treatment modality targeting MIS-C was intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) (N=490). Corticosteroids (N=347) and aspirin (N=112) were also integral parts of the treatment regimens. Biologic therapy was integrated into the treatment regimen for 116 patients. Intensive care unit (ICU) admission was alarming (N=478, 71%). 9 fatalities were recorded due to MIS-C Conclusions: We believe MIS-C bears pathophysiological resemblance to the well-known Kawasaki disease MESHD but with some key differences highlighted. Understanding those differences will aid our management plan for such patients.

    Risk stratification as a tool to rationalize quarantine among health care workers exposed to COVID-19 cases - Evidence from a tertiary healthcare centre in India

    Authors: Ravneet Kaur; Shashi Kant; Mohan Bairwa; Arvind Kumar; Shivram Dhakad; Vignesh Dwarakanathan; Aftab Ahmad; Pooja Pandey; Arti Kapil; Rakesh Lodha; Naveet Wig

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.31.20166264 Date: 2020-08-04 Source: medRxiv

    Background: Quarantine of healthcare workers (HCWs) exposed to COVID 19 confirmed cases TRANS is a well known strategy for limiting the transmission TRANS of infection MESHD. However, there is a need for evidence-based guidelines for the quarantine of HCWs in COVID 19. Methods: We describe our experience of contact tracing TRANS and risk stratification of 3853 HCWs who were exposed to confirmed COVID-19 cases in a tertiary health care institution in India. We developed an algorithm, on the basis of risk stratification, to rationalize quarantine among HCWs. Risk stratification was based on the duration of exposure, distance from the patient, and appropriateness of personal protection equipment (PPE) usage. Only high-risk contacts were quarantined for 14 days. They underwent testing for COVID 19 after five days of exposure, while low risk contacts continued their work with adherence to physical distancing, hand hygiene, and appropriate use of PPE. The low-risk contacts were encouraged to monitor for symptoms and report for COVID 19 screening if fever MESHD fever HP, cough MESHD cough HP, or shortness of breath occurred. We followed up all contacts for 14 days from the last exposure and observed for symptoms of COVID 19 and test positivity. Results and interpretation: Out of total 3853 contacts, 560 (14.5%) were categorized as high-risk contacts, and 40 of them were detected positive for COVID 19, with a test positivity rate of 7.1% (95% CI = 5.2, 9.6). Overall, 118 (3.1%) of all contacts tested positive. Our strategy prevented 3215 HCWs from being quarantined and saved 45,010 person-days of health workforce until June 8, 2020, in the institution. We conclude that exposure-based risk stratification and quarantine of HCWs is a viable strategy to prevent unnecessary quarantine, in a healthcare institution.

    COVID-19 Vaccine Candidates by Identification of B and T Cell Multi-Epitopes Against SARS-COV-2

    Authors: Suresh Kumar; Sarmilah Mathavan; Wee Jia Jin; Nur Azznira Bt Azman; Devindren Subramanaiam; Nur Afiqah Binti Zainalabidin; Dhivashini Lingadaran; Zainah Binti Abdul Sattar; Danniya Lakshmi Manickam; Priscilla Sheba Anbananthan; Johan Ahmad Taqiyuddin; Yuvapriya Thevarajan

    id:10.20944/preprints202008.0092.v1 Date: 2020-08-04 Source: preprints.org

    Coronavirus disease MESHD (COVID-19) is a new discovered strain where WHO officially declares the disease MESHD as COVID-19 while the virus responsible for it called Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome MESHD Coronavirus 2 or SARS-CoV-2. The incubation period TRANS of this disease MESHD is between 14 days. Ordinary clinical symptoms that reported around the world include fever MESHD fever HP, cough MESHD cough HP, fatigue MESHD fatigue HP, diarrhoea and vomiting MESHD vomiting HP as well as asymptomatic TRANS for certain people. Infection MESHD is spread mainly through broad droplets. In early March 2020, WHO again has announced that COVID-19 is a pandemic with currently no specific treatment. The potential use of SARS-COV-2 proteome as a vaccine candidate by analysing through B-cell and T-cell antigenicity by using a immunoinformatics approach as a vaccine development early stage. In this study, we used consensus sequence for SARS-COV-2 proteome that was retrieved from NCBI database. VaxiJen 2.0 was mainly used to identify the antigenic property of SARS-COV-2 proteins. IEDB then used to analyse the B-cell epitope, the presence of T cell immunogenic epitope in SARS-COV-2 proteins was obtained by using compromise method of MHC class I and II tools that accessible respectively using ProPred-1 server and MHC II Binding Prediction in IEDB database. The best epitopes of B and T-cell epitopes were predicted with high antigencity and the information is disseminated through web-based database resource (https://covid-19.omicstutorials.com/epitopes/). This study will be useful to find a new epitope-based candidate for SARS-COV-2. However, further study needs to be done for the next stages of vaccine development.

    Diplopia MESHD Diplopia HP from abducens nerve paresis MESHD as a presenting symptom of COVID-19: a case report and review of literature

    Authors: Geulah Sarah Ben-David; Orly Halachmi-Eyal; Hana Shyriaiev; Shay Brikman; Guy Dori; Daniel Briscoe

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-53271/v1 Date: 2020-08-04 Source: ResearchSquare

    Neurological manifestations of COVID-19 are not well understood. We report a case of a 44-year-old man who presented with fever MESHD fever HP, double vision, and headache MESHD headache HP and was subsequently diagnosed with COVID-19 and transient abducens nerve paresis MESHD. He did not present with any respiratory symptoms or additional specific neurological findings. We suggest that as the number of cases rises worldwide, physicians should have a greater index of suspicion for COVID-19 in patients with cranial neuropathies even in mild cases without typical respiratory symptoms.

    Outcome of COVID-19 with co-existing surgical emergencies MESHD in children TRANS: our initial experiences and recommendations

    Authors: Md Samiul Hasan; Md Ayub Ali; Umama Huq

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.01.20166371 Date: 2020-08-04 Source: medRxiv

    Background: COVID 19 has changed the practice of surgery vividly all over the world. Pediatric surgery is not an exception. Prioritization protocols allowing us to provide emergency MESHD surgical care to the children TRANS in need while controlling the pandemic spread. The aim of this study is to share our experiences with the outcome of children TRANS with COVID 19 who had a co existing surgical emergency MESHD. Methods: This is a retrospective observational study. We reviewed the epidemiological, clinical, and laboratory data of all patients admitted in our surgery department through the emergency MESHD department and later diagnosed to have COVID 19 by RT PCR. The study duration was 3 months (April 2020 to June 2020). A nasopharyngeal swab was taken from all patients irrespective of symptoms to detect SARS CoV 2 by RT PCR with the purpose of detecting asymptomatic TRANS patients and patients with atypical symptoms. Emergency MESHD surgical services were provided immediately without delay and patients with positive test results were isolated according to the hospital protocol. We divided the test positive patients into 4 age groups TRANS for the convenience of data analysis. Data were retrieved from hospital records and analyzed using SPSS (version 25) software. Ethical permission was taken from the hospital ethical review board. Results: Total patients were 32. Seven (21.9%) of them were neonates. Twenty four (75%) patients were male TRANS. The predominant diagnosis was acute abdomen MESHD followed by infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis MESHD pyloric stenosis HP (IHPS), myelomeningocele HP, and intussusception MESHD intussusception HP. Only two patients had mild respiratory symptoms (dry cough MESHD cough HP). Fever MESHD Fever HP was present in 13 (40.6%) patients. Fourteen (43.8%) patients required surgical treatment. The mean duration of hospital stay was 5.5 days. One neonate with ARM died in the postoperative ward due to cardiac arrest HP. No patient had hypoxemia HP or organ failure. Seven health care workers (5.51%) including doctors & nurses got infected with SARS Co V2 during this period. Conclusion: Our study has revealed a milder course of COVID 19 in children TRANS with minimal infectivity even when present in association with emergency MESHD surgical conditions. This might encourage a gradual restart to mitigate the impact of COVID 19 on children TRANS surgery. Keywords: COVID 19, COVID 19 in children TRANS, Children TRANS Surgery, Surgical emergency MESHD, Surgery in COVID 19 positive patients.

    SARS-CoV-2 Seroprevalence SERO Across a Diverse Cohort of Healthcare Workers

    Authors: Joseph Ebinger; Gregory J. Botwin; Christine M. Albert; Mona Alotaibi; Moshe Arditi; Anders H. Berg; Aleksandra Binek; Patrick G. Botting; Justyna Fert-Bober; Jane C. Figueiredo; Jonathan D. Grein; Wohaib Hasan; Mir Henglin; Shehnaz K. Hussain; Mohit Jain; Sandy Joung; Michael Karin; Elizabeth H Kim; Dalin Li; Yunxian Liu; Eric Luong; Dermot P.B. McGovern; Akil Merchant; Noah M. Merin; Peggy B. Miles; Margo Minissian; Trevor-Trung Nguyen; Koen Raedschelders; Mohamad A. Rashid; Celine E. Riera; Richard V. Riggs; Sonia Sharma; Sarah Sternbach; Nancy Sun; Warren G. Tourtellotte; Jennifer E. Van Eyk; Kimia Sobhani; Jonathan G. Braun; Susan Cheng

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.31.20163055 Date: 2020-08-04 Source: medRxiv

    Importance: Antibody testing SERO is important for understanding patterns of exposure and potential immunity to SARS-CoV-2. Prior data on seroprevalence SERO have been subject to variations in selection of individuals and nature as well as timing of testing in relation to exposures. Objective: We sought to determine the extent of SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalance and the factors associated with seroprevelance across a diverse cohort of healthcare workers. Design: Observational cohort study of healthcare workers, including SARS-CoV-2 serology testing and participant questionaires. Participants: A diverse and unselected population of adults TRANS (n=6,062) employed in a multi-site healthcare delivery system located in Los Angeles County, including individuals with direct patient contact and others with non-patient-oriented work functions. Exposure: Exposure and infection MESHD with the SARS-CoV-2 virus, as determined by seropositivity. Main Outcomes: Using Bayesian and multi-variate analyses, we estimated seroprevalence SERO and factors associated with seropositivity and antibody SERO titers, including pre-existing demographic and clinical characteristics; potential Covid-19 illness related exposures; and, symptoms consistent with Covid-19 infection MESHD. Results: We observed a seroprevalence SERO rate of 4.1%, with anosmia HP as the most prominently associated self-reported symptom in addition to fever MESHD fever HP, dry cough MESHD cough HP, anorexia MESHD anorexia HP, and myalgias MESHD myalgias HP. After adjusting for potential confounders, pre-existing medical conditions were not associated with antibody SERO positivity. However, seroprevalence SERO was associated with younger age TRANS, Hispanic ethnicity, and African-American race, as well as presence of either a personal or household member having a prior diagnosis of Covid-19. Importantly, African American race and Hispanic ethnicity were associated with antibody SERO positivity even after adjusting for personal Covid-19 diagnosis status, suggesting the contribution of unmeasured structural or societally factors. Notably, number of people, or children TRANS, in the home was not associated with antibody SERO positivity. Conclusion and Relevance: The demographic factors associated with SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence SERO among our healthcare workers underscore the importance of exposure sources beyond the workplace. The size and diversity of our study population, combined with robust survey and modeling techniques, provide a vibrant picture of the demographic factors, exposures, and symptoms that can identify individuals with susceptibility as well as potential to mount an immune response to Covid-19.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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