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Overview

MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Transmission

Seroprevalence
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    The Spectrum of Cardiovascular Complications in COVID-19- A Comprehensive Literature Review

    Authors: Raja Shakeel Mushtaque; Rabia Mushtaque; Shahbano Baloch; Aadil Raza; Haseeb Bhatti; Zohaib Khan

    id:10.20944/preprints202008.0257.v1 Date: 2020-08-11 Source: Preprints.org

    A newly identified novel coronavirus named as severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD-related coronavirus2 (SARS‐CoV 2) has given rise to the global pandemic. SARS-CoV2 which causes coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19), is a positive-stranded RNA virus with nucleocapsid. It binds to host angiotensin-converting enzyme2 (ACE2) receptor through surface glycoprotein (S protein). These ACE 2 receptors are attached to the cell membranes of many organs. Thus, COVID-19 does not only result in acute respiratory distress HP syndrome MESHD but also affects multiple organ systems, requiring a multidisciplinary approach to manage this disease MESHD. COVID-19 can damage the myocardial cells and result in fulminant myocarditis MESHD myocarditis HP, acute cardiac injury, cardiomyopathy MESHD cardiomyopathy HP, heart failure MESHD, cardiogenic shock MESHD cardiogenic shock HP, or arrhythmia HP. COVID-19 seeds harmful immune response through cytokine storm leading to indirect organ damage. In this literature review, the available data is comprehended regarding cardiovascular complications in COVID-19, and the correlation of biomarkers with the disease MESHD activity is discussed. This literature review also highlights the important treatment options and outcomes of the individual study.

    Impact of comorbidity burden on mortality in patients with COVID-19: a retrospective analysis of the Korean health insurance database

    Authors: Soo Ick Cho; Susie Yoon; Ho-Jin Lee

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-54298/v1 Date: 2020-08-05 Source: ResearchSquare

    We aimed to investigate the impact of comorbidity burden on mortality in patients with COVID-19. We analyzed the COVID-19 data from the nationwide health insurance claims of South Korea. Data on demographic characteristics, comorbidities, and mortality records of patients with COVID-19 were extracted from the database. The odds ratios of mortality according to comorbidities in patients with COVID-19 with and without adjustment for age TRANS and sex were calculated. The predictive value of the original Charlson comorbidity index (CCI) and the age TRANS-adjusted CCI (ACCI) for mortality in patients with COVID-19 were investigated using the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. Among 7,590 patients with COVID-19, 227 (3.0%) had died. After age TRANS and sex adjustment, hypertension MESHD hypertension HP, diabetes mellitus MESHD diabetes mellitus HP, congestive heart failure HP heart failure MESHD, dementia MESHD dementia HP, chronic pulmonary disease, liver MESHD, renal, and cancer were significant risk factors for mortality. The ROC curve analysis showed that ACCI threshold ≥4 yielded the best cut-off point for predicting mortality (area under the ROC 0.92; 95% CI, 0.91–0.94). Our study revealed multiple risk factors that were associated with mortality in patients with COVID-19. The high predictive power of the ACCI for mortality in our results could support the importance of old age TRANS and comorbidities in the severity of COVID-19.

    Association of Diabetes and Outcomes in Patients with COVID-19: A Propensity Score Matched Analyses from a French Retrospective Cohort

    Authors: Willy Sutter; Baptiste Duceau; Aurélie Carlier; Antonin Trimaille; Thibaut Pommier; Oriane Weizman; Joffrey Cellier; Laura Geneste; Vassili Panagides; Wassima Marsou; Antoine Deney; Sabir Attou; Thomas Delmotte; Sophie Ribeyrolles; Pascale Chemaly; Clément Karsenty; Gauthier Giordano; Alexandre Gautier; Corentin Chaumont; Pierre Guilleminot; Audrey Sagnard; Julie Pastier; maxime Vignac; delphine Mika; Charles Fauvel; Théo Pezel; Ariel Cohen; Guillaume Bonnet; Ronan Roussel; Louis POTIER

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-51775/v1 Date: 2020-07-31 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: To compare the clinical outcomes between patients with and without diabetes admitted to hospital with COVID-19.Methods: Retrospective multicentre cohort study from 24 academic tertiary medical centres in France including 2851 patients (675 with diabetes) hospitalised for COVID-19 between February 26 and April 20, 2020. A propensity score matching method (1:1 matching including patient characteristics, medical history, vital signs, and laboratory results) was used to compare patients with and without diabetes (n=603 in each group). The primary outcome was admission to intensive care unit (ICU) or in-hospital death MESHD. Results: Patients with diabetes were older (71 ± 13 vs. 65 ± 18 years; p<0.001), were less often female TRANS (38% vs. 44%; p<0.001) and more likely to have comorbidities: hypertension MESHD hypertension HP (79% vs 42%; p<0.001), coronary heart disease MESHD (23% vs 9%; p<0.001), stroke MESHD stroke HP (13% vs 8%; p<0.001), heart failure MESHD (17% vs 9%; p<0.001), chronic kidney disease HP kidney disease MESHD (26% vs 10%; p<0.001), and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease MESHD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease HP (7% vs 5%; p<0.05). The primary outcome occurred in 584 (36.4%) patients with diabetes compared to 246 (26.8%) in those without diabetes (p<0.001). After propensity score matching, the risk of primary outcome was similar in patients with and without diabetes (hazard ratio [HR] 1.16, 95%CI 0.95-1.41, p=0.14) and was 1.29 (95%CI 0.97 – 1.69) for in-hospital mortality, 1.26 (95%CI 0.93 – 1.72) for mortality without transfer in ICU, and 1.14 (95%CI 0.88 – 1.47) for transfer to ICU.Conclusions: In this retrospective cohort of patients hospitalised for COVID-19, diabetes was not significantly associated with a higher risk of COVID-19 severe outcomes after propensity score matching.Trial registration NCT04344327

    The incidence, risk factors and prognosis of acute kidney injury MESHD acute kidney injury HP in severe and critically ill patients with COVID-19 in mainland China: a retrospective study

    Authors: Ling Sang; Sibei Chen; Xia Zheng; Weijie Guan; Zhihui Zhang; Wenhua Liang; Ming Zhong; Li Jiang; Chun Pan; Wei Zhang; Jiaan Xia; Nanshan Chen; Wenjuan Wu; Hongkai Wu; Yonghao Xu; Xuesong Liu; Xiaoqing Liu; Jianxing He; Shiyue Li; Dingyu Zhang; Nanshan Zhong; Yimin Li

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-50431/v1 Date: 2020-07-29 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: Since the clinical correlates, prognosis and determinants of AKI in patients with Covid-19 remain largely unclear, we perform a retrospective study to evaluate the incidence, risk factors and prognosis of AKI in severe and critically ill patients with Covid-19.Methods: We reviewed medical records of all adult TRANS patients (>18 years) with laboratory-confirmed Covid-19 who were admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) between January 23rd 2020 and April 6th 2020 at Wuhan JinYinTan Hospital and The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University. The clinical data, including patient demographics, clinical symptoms and signs MESHD, laboratory findings, treatment [including respiratory supports, use of medications and continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT)] and clinical outcomes, were extracted from the electronic records, and we access the incidence of AKI and the use of CRRT, risk factors for AKI, the outcomes of renal diseases MESHD, and the impact of AKI on the clinical outcomes.Results: Among 210 subjects, 131 were males TRANS (62.4%). The median age TRANS was 64 years (IQR: 56-71). Of 92 (43.8%) patients who developed AKI during hospitalization, 13 (14.1%), 15 (16.3%) and 64 (69.6%) patients were classified as stage 1, 2 and 3, respectively. 54 cases (58.7%) received CRRT. Age TRANS, sepsis MESHD sepsis HP, Nephrotoxic drug, IMV and elevated baseline Scr were associated with AKI occurrence. The renal recover during hospitalization among 16 AKI patients (17.4%), who had a significantly shorter time from admission to AKI diagnosis, lower incidence of right heart failure MESHD and higher P/F ratio. Of 210 patients, 93 patients deceased within 28 days of ICU admission. AKI stage 3, critical disease MESHD, greater age TRANS and minimum P/F <150mmHg independently associated with it.Conclusions: Among patients with Covid-19, the incidence of AKI was high. age TRANS , sepsis MESHD sepsis HP, nephrotoxic drug, IMV and baseline Scr were strongly associated with the development of AKI. Time from admission to AKI diagnosis, right heart failure MESHD and P/F ratio were independently associated with the potential of renal recovery. Finally, AKI KIDGO stage 3 independently predicted the risk of death within 28 days of ICU admission.

    Comorbidities associated with regional variations in COVID-19 mortality revealed by population-level analysis

    Authors: Hongxing Yang; Fei Zhong

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.27.20158105 Date: 2020-07-29 Source: medRxiv

    Coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2 (SARS-Cov-2), has developed into a global health crisis. Understanding the risk factors for poor outcomes of COVID-19 is thus important for successful management and control of the pandemic. However, the progress and severity of the epidemic across different regions show great differentiations. We hypothesized the origination of these differences are based on location-dependent variations in underlying population-wide health factors. Disease MESHD prevalence SERO or incidence data of states and counties of the United States were collected for a group of chronic diseases MESHD, including hypertension MESHD hypertension HP, diabetes, obesity MESHD obesity HP, stroke MESHD stroke HP, coronary heart disease MESHD, heart failure MESHD, physical inactivation, and common cancers (e.g., lung, colorectal, stomach, kidney and renal). Correlation and regression analysis identified the prevalence SERO of heart failure MESHD as a significant positive factor for region-level COVID-19 mortality. Similarly, the incidence of gastric cancer and thyroid cancer were also identified as significant factors contributing to regional variation in COVID-19 mortality. To explore the implications of these results, we re-analyzed the RNA-seq data for stomach adenocarcinoma MESHD (STAD) and colon carcinoma MESHD carcinoma HP (COAD) from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) project. We found that expression of genes in the immune response pathways were more severely disturbed in STAD than in COAD, implicating higher probability for STAD patients or individuals with precancerous chronic stomach diseases MESHD to develop cytokine storm once infected with COVID-19. Taken together, we conclude that location variations in particular chronic diseases MESHD and cancers contribute significantly to the regional variations in COVID-19 mortality.

    Trends of in-hospital and 30-day mortality after percutaneous coronary intervention in England before and after the COVID-19 era

    Authors: Mohamed O Mohamed; Tim Kinnaird; Nick Curzen; Peter Ludman; Jianhua Wu; Muhammad Rashid; Ahmad Shoaib; Mark de Belder; John Deanfield; Chris Gale; Mamas A Mamas

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.18.20155549 Date: 2020-07-27 Source: medRxiv

    Objectives: To examine short-term primary causes of death MESHD after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in a national cohort before and during COVID-19. Background: Public reporting of PCI outcomes is a performance SERO metric and a requirement in many healthcare systems. There are inconsistent data on the causes of death MESHD after PCI, and what proportion of these are attributable to cardiac causes. Methods: All patients undergoing PCI in England between 1st January 2017 and 10th May 2020 were retrospectively analysed (n=273,141), according to their outcome from the date of PCI; no death MESHD and in-hospital, post-discharge, and 30-day death MESHD. Results: The overall rates of in-hospital and 30-day death MESHD were 1.9% and 2.8%, respectively. The rate of 30-day death MESHD declined between 2017 (2.9%) and February 2020 (2.5%), mainly due to lower in-hospital death MESHD (2.1% vs. 1.5%), before rising again from 1st March 2020 (3.2%) due to higher rates of post-discharge mortality. Only 59.6% of 30-day deaths MESHD were due to cardiac causes, the most common being acute coronary syndrome MESHD, cardiogenic shock MESHD cardiogenic shock HP and heart failure MESHD, and this persisted throughout the study period. 10.4% of 30-day deaths MESHD after 1st March 2020 were due to confirmed COVID-19. Conclusions: In this nationwide study, we show that 40% of 30-day deaths MESHD are due to non-cardiac causes. Non-cardiac deaths MESHD have increased even more from the start of the COVID-19 pandemic, with one in ten deaths MESHD from March 2020 being COVID-19 related. These findings raise a question of whether public reporting of PCI outcomes should be cause-specific.

    The impact of previous history of bariatric surgery on outcome of Covid-19: A nationwide medico-administrative French study.

    Authors: Antonio Iannelli; Samir Bouam; Anne-Sophie Schneck; Sébastien Frey; Jean Gugenheim; Marco Alifano

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-48313/v1 Date: 2020-07-24 Source: ResearchSquare

    Purpose: To determine the risk of invasive mechanical ventilation and death MESHD in obese individuals with history of bariatric surgery compared to standard ones admitted for Covid-19 infection MESHD.Methods: Nationwide retrospective observational study based on electronic health data. 4 248 253 individuals aged TRANS 15 to 75 years with a diagnosis of obesity MESHD obesity HP were included. All obese inpatients, undergoing bariatric surgery or not, recorded during a hospital stay by the French National Health Insurance were followed, during a mean observation time of 5.43 ± 2.93 years. This exposition was bariatric surgery (n=389,671) including adjustable gastric banding, sleeve gastrectomy, gastric bypass versus no bariatric surgery (n=3,858,582). The primary outcome was Covid-19 related death MESHD and the secondary outcome was the need for invasive mechanical ventilation.Results: 8 286 (0.2%) obese individuals were admitted for Covid-19 infection MESHD between January 1st and May 15th 2020 with a diagnosis of Covid-19 infection MESHD. 541 (0.14%) had a history of bariatric surgery and 7,745 (0.2%) did not. Invasive mechanical ventilation was necessary in 14.54% of patients and death MESHD occurred in 13.58% of cases. The need for an invasive mechanical ventilation and death MESHD occurred in 7% and 3.5% in the bariatric surgery group versus 15% and 14.2% in the non-bariatric surgery group, respectively (both p<0.0001). After a logistic regression, the risk of invasive mechanical ventilation significantly increased with age TRANS being higher in the age TRANS class 61-75, male TRANS gender TRANS, and hypertension MESHD hypertension HP, whereas bariatric surgery showed an independent protective effect. Mortality was independently associated with increasing age TRANS, male TRANS gender TRANS, known history of heart failure MESHD, cancer, and diabetes, whereas BS was in favor with a protective effect. Conclusion: This nationwide administrative study showed that bariatric surgery is independently associated with a reduced risk of death MESHD and invasive mechanical ventilation in obese individuals with Covid-19 infection MESHD.

    Place and causes of acute cardiovascular mortality during the COVID19 pandemic: retrospective cohort study of 580,972 deaths MESHD in England and Wales, 2014 to 2020

    Authors: Jianhua Wu; Mamas Mamas; Mohamed Mohamed; Chun Shing Kwok; Chris Roebuck; Ben Humberstone; Tom Denwood; Tom Luescher; Mark De Belder; John Deanfield; Chris Gale

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.14.20153734 Date: 2020-07-16 Source: medRxiv

    Importance. The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in a decline in admissions with cardiovascular (CV) emergencies MESHD. The fatal consequences of this are unknown. Objectives - To describe the place and causes of acute CV death MESHD during the COVID-19 pandemic. Design - Retrospective nationwide cohort. Setting - England and Wales. Participants - All adult TRANS ( age TRANS [≥]18 years) acute CV deaths MESHD (n=580,972) between 1st January 2014 and 2nd June 2020. Exposure - The COVID-19 pandemic (defined as from the onset of the first COVID-19 death MESHD in England on 2nd March 2020). Main outcomes - Place (hospital, care home, home) and acute CV events directly contributing to death MESHD as stated on the first part of the Medical Certificate of Cause of Death MESHD. Results - After 2nd March 2020, there were 22,820 acute CV deaths MESHD of which 5.7% related to COVID-19, and an excess acute CV mortality of 1752 (+8%) compared with the expected daily deaths MESHD in the same period. Deaths MESHD in the community accounted for nearly half of all deaths MESHD during this period. Care homes had the greatest increase in excess acute CV deaths MESHD (1065, +40%), followed by deaths MESHD at home (1728, +34%) and in hospital (57, +0%). The most frequent cause of acute CV death MESHD during this period was stroke MESHD stroke HP (8,290, 36.3%), followed by acute coronary syndrome MESHD (ACS) (5,532, 24.2%), heart failure MESHD (5,280, 23.1%), pulmonary embolism MESHD pulmonary embolism HP (2,067, 9.1%) and cardiac arrest HP (1,037, 4.5%). Deep vein thrombosis MESHD had the greatest increase in cause of excess acute CV death MESHD (18, +25%), followed pulmonary embolism MESHD pulmonary embolism HP (340, +19%) and stroke MESHD stroke HP (782, +10%). The greatest cause of excess CV death MESHD in care homes was stroke MESHD stroke HP (700, +48%), compared with cardiac arrest HP (80, +56%) at home, and pulmonary embolism MESHD pulmonary embolism HP (126, +14%) and cardiogenic shock MESHD cardiogenic shock HP (41, +14%) in hospital. Conclusions and relevance - The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in an inflation in acute CV deaths MESHD above that expected for the time of year, nearly half of which occurred in the community. The most common cause of acute CV death MESHD was stroke MESHD stroke HP followed by acute coronary syndrome MESHD and heart failure MESHD. This is key information to optimise messaging to the public and enable health resource planning.

    Status of Heart Failure MESHD During COVID-19 Lockdown: A Multi-centric Study From Southern India

    Authors: Ramachandran Meenakshisundaram; Subramanian Senthilkumaran; Ponniah Thirumalaikolundusubramanian; Melvin Joy; Narendra Nath Jena; Shyamsundar Ayyasamy; VP Chandrasekaran

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-41695/v1 Date: 2020-07-13 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background:Severe acute respiratory distress HP syndrome MESHD coronavirus (SARS CoV2) infection MESHD (COVID-19) has affected many countries globally. During COVID-19 lockdown, there has been a reduction in emergency MESHD room presentations and subsequent hospital admissions for many diseases MESHD. Objective: Our aim was to find out the statusof heart failure MESHD (HF) cases treated in the hospitals of during COVID-19 lockdown period, and to compare these with those cases treated during no-lockdown period and highlight the possible reasons for variations.  Methods: A retrospective observational study was carried out across the nine-private hospitals located in four different cities of Tamil Nadu state, Southern India. Data on HF and emergency MESHD room attendance were collected for lockdown period (April 2020) and no-lockdown period (February 2020 as well as April 2019 and 2018) and analysed statistically. Results: During the lockdown period, there were 30 to 33% reductions in the emergency MESHD room attendance, whereas the total HF cases were more than no-lockdown period. Among HF, the proportion of ischemic HF was decreased, but the proportion of non-ischemic HF was increased, and these were independent of gender TRANS and ejection fraction sub-category. Discussion: Our observations of reduction in ischemic HF was attributable to steep reduction in air quality index in these cities, and a rise in non-ischemic HF could be due to doctor centred practice, lack of doctor-patient communication, under-utilisation of healthcare technologies including telehealth services, and poor compliance resulting in acute decompensation.

    COVID-19: Role of the Inflammasome

    Authors: Claudio G. Gallo; Sirio Fiorino; Giovanni Posabella; Donato Antonacci; Antonio Tropeano; Emanuele Pausini; Carlotta Pausini; Tommaso Guarniero; Marco Zancanaro

    id:202007.0246/v1 Date: 2020-07-12 Source: preprints.org

    Covid-19 disease MESHD is caused by SARS Cov-2 virus. Despite its high transmissibility TRANS, the CFR (Case Fatality Rate) of COVID-19 seems to be lower than the SARS (9,5%) and MERS (34,4%) ones93 , but higher than the influenza one (0-1%)94,95 . The disease is asymptomatic MESHD asymptomatic TRANS or paucisymptomatic in most of the patients, although in few cases it can be characterized by serious complications. The main causes of hospitalization in intensive care are represented by ALI ( Acute Lung Injury MESHD), ARDS (Acute Respiratory Distress HP Syndrome MESHD), cardiovascular problems and coagulopathies (diffuse thrombosis MESHD, microthrombosis, embolisms MESHD, myocarditis MESHD myocarditis HP, arrhytmias, heart failure MESHD, stroke MESHD stroke HP)96-98, acute nephropathy99,100 and encephalopathies101. The virus presence in the vascular wall can cause endotheliitis, which triggers the process of diffuse coagulation that can lead to a worsening of the systemic inflammation MESHD. The exaggerated inflammatory response seems to be connected with the development of ARDS, MOF ( Multiple Organ Failure MESHD) and coagulopathies102-107.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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