### Overview

MeSH Disease

Infections (4957)

Disease (1908)

Death (1051)

Human Phenotype

Pneumonia (451)

Fever (335)

Cough (265)

Hypertension (152)

Respiratory distress (139)

Transmission

age categories (1172)

Transmission (1150)

fomite (565)

gender (495)

asymptotic cases (457)

Seroprevalence
displaying 11 - 20 records in total 5125
records per page

### Seroprevalence SERO of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies SERO in children TRANS with household exposition to adults TRANS with COVID-19: preliminary findings

Authors: danilo buonsenso; Piero Valentini; Cristina De Rose; Davide Pata; Dario Sinatti; Domenico Speziale; Rosalba Ricci; Angelo Carfi; Francesco Landi; Maurizio Sanguinetti; Michela Sali

doi:10.1101/2020.08.10.20169912 Date: 2020-08-12 Source: medRxiv

wheather children TRANS are easily susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD is still a debated question and a currently a hot topic, particularly in view of important decisions on school opening. For this reason, we decide to describe preliminary data showing the prevalence SERO of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG in children TRANS with known household exposure to SARS-CoV-2. Interestingly, our report shows that household transmission TRANS of SARS-CoV-2 is high in both adults TRANS and children TRANS, with similar rates of SARS-CoV-2 IgG in all age groups TRANS, including the younger children TRANS. A total of 44 out of 80 household contacts TRANS (55%) of index patients had anti SARS-CoV-2 IgG. In particular, 16 (59,26%) adult TRANS partners had IgG antibodies SERO compared with 28 (52,83%) of pediatric contacts (P > 0.05). Among the pediatric population, children TRANS [≥] 5 years of age TRANS had similar probability of having SARS-CoV-2 IgG (21/39, 53.8%) compared with those < 5 years (7/14, 50%) (P > 0.05). Adult TRANS partners and children TRANS also had a probability of having SARS-CoV-2 IgG. Interestingly, 35.7% of children TRANS and 33.3% of adults TRANS with SARS-CoV-2 IgG were previously diagnosed as COVID-19 cases. Since this evidence of high rate of IgG in children TRANS exposed to SARS-CoV-2 has public health implication, with this comment we highlight the need of establishing appropriate guidelines for school opening and other social activities related to childhood.

### Underdetection of COVID-19 cases in France in the exit phase following lockdown

Authors: Giulia Pullano; Laura Di Domenico; Chiara E Sabbatini; Eugenio Valdano; Clément Turbelin; Marion Debin; Caroline Guerrisi; Charly Kengne-Kuetche; Cécile Souty; Thomas Hanslik; Thierry Blanchon; Pierre-Yves Boëlle; Julie Figoni; Sophie Vaux; Christine Campèse; Sibylle Bernard-Stoecklin; Vittoria Colizza

doi:10.1101/2020.08.10.20171744 Date: 2020-08-12 Source: medRxiv

A novel testing policy was implemented in May in France to systematically screen potential COVID-19 infections MESHD and suppress local outbreaks while lifting lockdown restrictions. 20,736 virologically- confirmed cases TRANS were reported in mainland France from May 13, 2020 (week 20, end of lockdown) to June 28 (week 26). Accounting for missing data and the delay from symptom onset TRANS to confirmation test, this corresponds to 7,258 [95% CI 7,160-7,336] cases with symptom onset TRANS during this period, a likely underestimation of the real number. Using age TRANS-stratified transmission TRANS models parameterized to behavioral data and calibrated to regional hospital admissions, we estimated that 69,115 [58,072-77,449] COVID-19 symptomatic cases occurred, suggesting that 9 out of 10 cases with symptoms were not ascertained. Median detection rate increased from 7% [6-9]% to 31% [28-35]% over time, with regional estimates varying from 11% (Grand Est) to 78% (Normandy) by the end of June. Healthcare-seeking behavior in COVID-19 suspect cases remained low (31%) throughout the period. Model projections for the incidence of symptomatic cases (4.5 [3.9-5.0] per 100,000) were compatible with estimates integrating participatory and virological surveillance data, assuming all suspect cases consulted. Encouraging healthcare-seeking behavior and awareness in suspect cases is critical to improve detection. Substantially more aggressive and efficient testing with easier access is required to act as a pandemic-fighting tool. These elements should be considered in light of the currently observed resurgence of cases in France and other European countries.

### Turbulence dictates the fate of virus-containing liquid droplets in violent expiratory events

Authors: Marco E. Rosti; Mattia Cavaiola; Stefano Olivieri; Agnese Seminara; Andrea Mazzino

id:2008.05119v1 Date: 2020-08-12 Source: arXiv

Violent expiratory events, such as coughing MESHD coughing HP and sneezing MESHD sneezing HP, are highly nontrivial examples of two-phase mixture of liquid droplets dispersed into an unsteady humid turbulent fluid phase. Understanding the physical mechanisms determining the fate of droplets is becoming a priority given the global COVID-19 emergency MESHD caused by the SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD. By means of state-of-the-art fully resolved direct numerical simulations we contribute to solve this issue by identifying the key role of turbulence on the fate of exhaled droplets. Our results impact the current notion of social distance.

### Clustering of age TRANS standardised COVID-19 infection MESHD fatality ratios and death MESHD trajectories

Authors: Thu-Lan Kelly; Greer Humphrey; Caroline Miller; Jacqueline A Bowden; Joanne Dono; Paddy A Phillips

doi:10.1101/2020.08.11.20172478 Date: 2020-08-11 Source: medRxiv

Background An accurate measure of the impact of COVID-19 is the infection MESHD fatality ratio, or the proportion of deaths MESHD among those infected, which does not depend on variable testing rates between nations. The risk of mortality from COVID-19 depends strongly on age TRANS and current estimates of the infection MESHD fatality ratio do not account for differences in national age TRANS profiles. Comparisons of cumulative death MESHD trajectories allow the effect and timing of public health interventions to be assessed. Our purpose is to (1) determine whether countries are clustered according to infection MESHD fatality ratios and (2) compare interventions to slow the spread of the disease TRANS disease MESHD by clustering death MESHD trajectories. Methods National age TRANS standardised infection MESHD fatality ratios were derived from age TRANS stratified estimates from China and population estimates from the World Health Organisation. The IFRs were clustered into groups using Gaussian mixture models. Trajectory analysis clustered cumulative death MESHD rates in two time windows, 50 and 100 days after the first reported death MESHD. Findings Infection MESHD fatality ratios from 201 nations were clustered into three groups: young, medium and older, with corresponding means (SD) of 0.20% (0.03%), 0.38% (0.11%) and 0.93% (0.21%). At 50 and 100 days after the first reported death MESHD, there were two clusters of cumulative death MESHD trajectories from 113 nations with at least 25 deaths MESHD reported at 100 days. The first group had slowly increasing or stable cumulative death MESHD rates, while the second group had accelerating rates at the end of the time window. Fifty-two nations changed group membership between the time windows. Conclusion A cluster of younger nations have a lower estimated infection MESHD fatality ratio than older nations. The effect and timing of public health interventions in preventing the spread of the disease TRANS disease MESHD can be tracked by clustering death MESHD rate trajectories into stable or accelerating and comparing changes over time.

### Effectiveness of booster BCG vaccination in preventing Covid-19 infection MESHD

doi:10.1101/2020.08.10.20172288 Date: 2020-08-11 Source: medRxiv

Introduction : The evidence that BCG (bacille Calmette-Guerin) vaccine may increase the ability of the immune system to fight off pathogens other than tuberculosis MESHD has been studied in the past. This nonspecific immunity gained our interest, especially after initial reports of less cases in countries with universal BCG vaccination. In hopes of possible protective immunity, all staff of the Emirates International Hospital (United Arab Emirates) were offered a booster BCG vaccine in early March 2020. All the hospital staff were then tested for Covid-19 infection MESHD by the end of June 2020. Methodology : We divided the subjects into two groups: booster vaccinated, versus unvaccinated. The rate of Covid-19 infection MESHD was compared between the groups. Criteria included all staff who were offered the vaccine. Results: 71 subjects received the booster vaccination. This group had zero cases of positive COVID 19 infection MESHD. 209 subjects did not receive the vaccination, with 18 positive PCR confirmed COVID 19 cases The infection MESHD rate in the unvaccinated group was 8.6% versus zero in the booster vaccinated group. (Fishers exact test p-value=0.004). Conclusion : Our findings demonstrated the potential effectiveness of the booster BCG vaccine, specifically the booster in preventing Covid-19 infections MESHD in an elevated-risk healthcare population.

### Coordinated support for local action: A modeling study of strategies to facilitate behavior adoption in urban poor communities of Liberia for sustained COVID-19 suppression

Authors: Laura Skrip; Mosoka P Fallah; Jamie Bedson; Laurent Hébert-Dufresne; Benjamin Muir Althouse

doi:10.1101/2020.08.11.20172031 Date: 2020-08-11 Source: medRxiv

### Prediction and Analysis of SARS-CoV-2-Targeting microRNA in Human Lung Epithelium

Authors: Jonathan Tak-Sum Chow; Leonardo Salmena

id:10.20944/preprints202008.0253.v1 Date: 2020-08-11 Source: Preprints.org

Severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), an RNA virus, is responsible for coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic of 2020. Experimental evidence suggests that microRNA can mediate an intracellular defence mechanism against some RNA viruses. The purpose of this study was to identify microRNA with predicted binding sites in the SARS-CoV-2 genome, compare these to their microRNA expression profiles in lung epithelial tissue and make inference towards possible roles for microRNA in mitigating coronavirus infection MESHD. We hypothesize that high expression of specific coronavirus-targeting microRNA in lung epithelia may protect against infection MESHD and viral propagation, conversely low expression may confer susceptibility to infection MESHD. We have identified 128 human microRNA with potential to target the SARS-CoV-2 genome, most of which have very low expression in lung epithelia. Six of these 128 microRNA are differentially expressed upon in vitro infection MESHD of SARS-CoV-2. Twenty-eight and 23 microRNA also target the SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV, respectively. In addition, 48 and 32 microRNA are commonly identified in two other studies. Further research into identifying bona fide coronavirus targeting microRNA will be useful in understanding the importance of microRNA as cellular defence mechanism against pathogenic coronavirus infections MESHD.

### On the numbers of infected and deceased in the second Corona wave

Authors: Juergen Mimkes; Rainer Janssen

doi:10.1101/2020.08.10.20171553 Date: 2020-08-11 Source: medRxiv

In Germany and other countries, a second wave of corona infections MESHD has been observed since July 2020, after the first wave has subsided. We have investigated both waves by a modified SIR-SI infection MESHD model, adapted to the data to the Robert-Koch-Institute (RKI) or the Johns- Hopkins-University (JHU). The first wave is characterized by the SIR model: in a perfect lockdown only a small part of the society is infected and the infections MESHD end after a certain time. The SI part considers the incompleteness of any lockdown: at the end of the first wave infections MESHD do not completely go down to zero, but continue to rise again, but only slowly due to mouth protection, hygiene and distance keeping. During this first wave the number of deceased people follows the number of infected persons with a fixed time interval and percentage: mostly symptomatic ill people have been tested. This applied to nearly all countries observed, with different intervals and percentages. In the present second wave, the number of daily infections MESHD has risen again significantly in some countries, and it may be questioned whether this is due to the increased number of tests. The answer may be given by looking at the daily number of deaths MESHD. In Germany, Austria, Italy, Great Britain and others this number has still remained at a constant level for six weeks. In these countries a second wave of died people has not yet arrived. The increased number of tests include obviously mostly asymptomatically TRANS infected persons, who do not fall HP ill or die from coronavirus. However, in some countries, like USA or Israel, the second wave did arrive. The numbers of infected and deceased people both have grown. A real second wave is a permanent threat to all countries.

### A Monte Carlo approach to model COVID-19 deaths MESHD and infections MESHD using Gompertz functions

Authors: Tulio Rodrigues; Otaviano Helene

id:2008.04989v1 Date: 2020-08-11 Source: arXiv

This study describes the dynamics of COVID-19 deaths MESHD and infections MESHD via a Monte Carlo approach. The analyses include death MESHD's data from USA, Brazil, Mexico, UK, India and Russia, which comprise the four countries with the highest number of deaths MESHD/ confirmed cases TRANS, as of Aug 07, 2020, according to the WHO. The Gompertz functions were fitted to the data of weekly averaged confirmed deaths MESHD per day by mapping the $\chi^2$ values. The uncertainties, variances and covariances of the model parameters were calculated by propagation. The fitted functions for the average deaths MESHD per day for USA and India have an upward trend, with the former having a higher growth rate and quite huge uncertainties. For Mexico, UK and Russia, the fits are consistent with a slope down pattern. For Brazil we found a subtle trend down, but with significant uncertainties. The USA, UK and India data shown a first peak with a higher growth rate when compared to the second one, demonstrating the benefits of non-pharmaceutical interventions of sanitary measures and social distance flattening the curve. For USA, a third peak seems quite plausible, most likely related with the recent relaxation policies. Brazil's data are satisfactorily described by two highly overlapped Gompertz functions with similar growth rates, suggesting a two-steps process for the pandemic spreading. The 95% CI for the total number of deaths MESHD ($\times 10^3$) predicted by the model for Aug 31, 2020 are 160 to 220, 110 to 130, 59 to 62, 46.6 to 47.3, 54 to 63 and 16.0 to 16.7 for USA, Brazil, Mexico, UK, India and Russia, respectively. Our estimates for the prevalences SERO of infections MESHD are in reasonable agreement with some preliminary reports from serological studies carried out in USA and Brazil. The method represents an effective framework to estimate the line-shape of the infection MESHD curves and the uncertainties of the relevant parameters based on the actual data.

### The COVID-19 Early Detection in Doctors and Healthcare Workers (CEDiD) Study: study protocol for a prospective observational trial

Authors: Alexander Zargaran; Dina Radenkovic; Chelsea Trengrove; Gill Arbane; Kariem El-Boghdadly; Rocio Teresa Martinez-Nunez; Anne Greenough

doi:10.1101/2020.08.11.20172502 Date: 2020-08-11 Source: medRxiv

Background: The global COVID-19 pandemic has caused worldwide disruption with its exponential spread mandating national and international lockdown measures. Hospital-associated transmission TRANS has been identified as a major factor in the perpetuation of COVID-19, with healthcare workers at high-risk of becoming infected with SARS-CoV-2 and representing important vectors for spread, but not routinely having their clinical observations monitored or being tested for COVID-19. Methods: A single-center, prospective observational study of 60 healthcare workers will explore how many healthcare workers in high-risk areas develop COVID-19 infection MESHD over a thirty day period. High-risk areas are defined as COVID positive wards, the intensive care unit or the accident and emergency MESHD department. Healthcare workers (HCWs) will be recruited and have daily self-administered nasopharyngeal SARS-CoV-2 PCR tests. They will also be provided with a wearable medical device to measure their clinical observations during non-working hours, and be asked to complete a daily self-reported symptom questionnaire over the study period. Statistical analysis will assess the proportion of healthcare workers who develop COVID-19 infection MESHD as a primary objective, with secondary objectives exploring what symptoms are developed, time-to-event, and deviations in clinical observations. Discussion: At present clinical observations, symptoms and COVID-19 PCR swabs are not routinely undertaken for healthcare workers. If the CEDiD (COVID-19 Early Detection in Doctors and Healthcare Workers) study is successful, it will provide useful information for workforce decisions in reducing hospital-associated transmission TRANS of COVID-19. The data will help in determining whether there are early warning signs for development of COVID-19 infections MESHD amongst healthcare workers and may contribute to the evidence base advocating for more regular testing of healthcare workers observations, symptoms and COVID-19 status. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04363489. Registered on 27th July 2020

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 All None MeSH Disease Human Phenotype Transmission Seroprevalence

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