Corpus overview


Overview

MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Pneumonia (449)

Fever (332)

Cough (262)

Hypertension (151)

Respiratory distress (136)


Transmission

age categories (1158)

Transmission (1140)

fomite (560)

gender (492)

asymptotic cases (450)


Seroprevalence
    displaying 2661 - 2670 records in total 5068
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    Can Climatic Factors Explain The Differences In Covid-19 Incidence And Severity Across The Spanish Regions?: An Ecological Study

    Authors: Pedro Muñoz-Cacho; Jose Luis Hernandez; Marcos Lopez-Hoyos; Víctor M. Martínez-Taboada

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-29377/v1 Date: 2020-05-15 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: Environmental factors play a central role in seasonal epidemics. SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD in Spain has shown a heterogeneous geographical pattern This study aimed to assess the influence of several climatic factors on the infectivity of SARS-CoV-2 and the COVID-19 severity among the Spanish Autonomous Communities (AA.CC.).Methods: Data on coronavirus infectivity and severity of COVID-19 disease, as well MESHD as the climatic variables were obtained from official sources (Ministry of Health and Spanish Meteorological Agency, respectively). To assess the possible influence of climate on the development of the disease MESHD, data on ultraviolet ration (UVR) were collected during the months before the start of the pandemic. To analyze its influence on the infectivity of SARS-CoV-2, data on UVR, temperature, and humidity were obtained from the months with the highest contagiousness to the pandemic peak.Results: From October 2019 to January 2020, mean UVR was significantly related not only to SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD (cumulative incidence -previous 14 days- x105 habitants, rho=-0.0,666; p=0.009), but also with COVID-19 severity, assessed as hospital admissions (rho=-0.626; p=0.017) and ICU admissions (rho=-0.565; p=0.035). Besides, temperature (February: rho=-0.832; p<0.001 and March: rho=-0.904; p<0.001), was the main climatic factor responsible for the infectivity of the coronavirus and directly contributed to a different spread of SARS-CoV-2 across the Spanish regions. Conclusions: Climatic factors may partially explain the differences in COVID-19 incidence and severity across the different Spanish regions. The knowledge of these factors could help to develop preventive and public health actions against upcoming outbreaks of the disease MESHD.

    Predicting the Immunogenicity of T cell epitopes: From HIV to SARS-CoV-2

    Authors: Ang Gao; Zhilin Chen; Mary Carrington; Hendrik Streeck; Arup K. Chakraborty; Boris Juelg

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.14.095885 Date: 2020-05-15 Source: bioRxiv

    We describe a physics-based learning model for predicting the immunogenicity of Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte (CTL) epitopes derived from diverse pathogens, given a Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) genotype. The model was trained and tested on experimental data on the relative immunodominance of CTL epitopes in Human Immunodeficiency HP Virus infection MESHD. The method is more accurate than publicly available models. Our model predicts that only a fraction of SARS-CoV-2 epitopes that have been predicted to bind to HLA molecules is immunogenic. The immunogenic CTL epitopes across all SARS-CoV-2 proteins are predicted to provide broad population coverage, but the immunogenic epitopes in the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein alone are unlikely to do so. Our model predicts that several immunogenic SARS-CoV-2 CTL epitopes are identical to those contained in low-pathogenicity coronaviruses circulating in the population. Thus, we suggest that some level of CTL immunity against COVID-19 may be present in some individuals prior to SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD.

    Broad sarbecovirus neutralizing antibodies SERO define a key site of vulnerability on the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein

    Authors: Anna Z Wec; Daniel Wrapp; Andrew S Herbert; Daniel P Maurer; Denise Haslwanter; Mrunal Sakharkar; Rohit K Jangra; M. Eugenia Dieterle; Asparouh Lilov; Deli Huang; Longping V Tse; Nicole V Johnson; Ching-Lin Hsieh; Nianshuang Wang; Juergen H Nett; Elizabeth Champney; Irina Burnina; Michael Brown; Shu Lin; Melanie Sinclair; Carl Johnson; Sarat Pudi; Robert Bortz III; Ariel S Wirchnianski; Ethan Laudermilch; Catalina Florez; J. Maximilian Fels; Barney S Graham; David Nemazee; Dennis R Burton; Ralph S Baric; James E Voss; Kartik Chandran; John M Dye; Jason S McLellan; Laura M Walker

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.15.096511 Date: 2020-05-15 Source: bioRxiv

    Broadly protective vaccines against known and pre-emergent coronaviruses are urgently needed. Critical to their development is a deeper understanding of cross- neutralizing antibody SERO responses induced by natural human coronavirus (HCoV) infections MESHD. Here, we mined the memory B cell repertoire of a convalescent SARS donor and identified 200 SARS-CoV-2 binding antibodies SERO that target multiple conserved sites on the spike (S) protein. A large proportion of the antibodies SERO display high levels of somatic hypermutation and cross-react with circulating HCoVs, suggesting recall SERO of pre-existing memory B cells (MBCs) elicited by prior HCoV infections MESHD. Several antibodies SERO potently cross-neutralize SARS-CoV, SARS-CoV-2, and the bat SARS-like virus WIV1 by blocking receptor attachment and inducing S1 shedding. These antibodies SERO represent promising candidates for therapeutic intervention and reveal a new target for the rational design of pan-sarbecovirus vaccines.

    Impact of COVID-19 infection MESHD on maternal and neonatal outcomes: a review of 287 pregnancies

    Authors: Fatemeh Azarkish; Roksana Janghorban

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.09.20096842 Date: 2020-05-15 Source: medRxiv

    Pregnant women are vulnerable group in viral outbreaks especially in the severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic. The aim of this review was to identify maternal and neonatal outcomes in available articles on pregnancies affected by COVID-19. The articles that had assessed outcomes of pregnancy and perinatal of women with COVID-19 between Oct 2019 and Apr 30, 2020 without language limitation were considered. All kinds of studies such as case report, case series, retrospective cohort, case control were included. We searched databases, selected relevant studies and extracted data regarding maternal and neonatal outcomes from each article. Data of 287 pregnant women with COVID-19 of 6 countries were assessed from 28 articles between December 8, 2019 and April 6, 2020. Most pregnant women reported in their third trimester, 102 (35.5%) cases were symptomatic at the time of admission. Common onset symptoms TRANS, abnormal laboratory findings, and chest computed tomography pattern were fever MESHD fever HP (51.5%), lymphocytopenia (67.9%), and multiple ground-glass opacities (78.5%) respectively. 93% of all deliveries were done through cesarean section. No maternal mortality and 3 % ICU admission were reported. Vertical transmission TRANS was not reported but its possibility was suggested in three neonates. One neonatal death MESHD, one stillbirth MESHD, and one abortion were reported. All newborns were not breastfed. This review showed fewer adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes in pregnant women with COVID-19 in comparison with previous coronavirus outbreak infection MESHD in pregnancy. Limited data are available regarding possibility of virus transmission TRANS in utero, during vaginal childbirth and breastfeeding. Effect of COVID-19 on first and second trimester and ongoing pregnancy outcomes in infected mothers is still questionable.

    Is Novel Corona Virus Truly a Trigger for Kawasaki Disease MESHD in Infants?– Reporting the First Asian Case 

    Authors: Bhaswati C Acharyya; Saumyabrata Acharyya; Dhritabrata Das

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-29420/v1 Date: 2020-05-15 Source: ResearchSquare

    SARSCov2 pandemic has hit the world this year with alarming consequences in most of the continents. There are relatively few reported cases of COVID-19 infection MESHD in children TRANS, compared to the total number of cases in the general population. Children TRANS are battling the infection MESHD more positively unless they have pre-existing morbidity. Interestingly an inflammatory condition is being reported from western world in this COVID 19 era with increased risk of mortality. We report the first Asian infant with florid features of Kawasaki Disease MESHD who eventually tested positive for Novel Corona virus.

    Critical levels of mask efficiency and of mask adoption that theoretically extinguish respiratory virus epidemics

    Authors: Alan D Kot

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.09.20096644 Date: 2020-05-15 Source: medRxiv

    Using a respiratory virus epidemiological model we derive equations for the critical levels of mask efficiency (fraction blocked) and mask adoption (fraction of population wearing masks) that lower the effective reproduction number TRANS to unity. The model extends a basic epidemiological model and assumes that a specified fraction of a population dons masks at a given initial number of infections MESHD. The model includes a contribution from the ocular (nasolacrimal duct) route, and does not include contributions from contact ( fomite TRANS) routes. The model accommodates dose-response (probability of infection MESHD) functions that are linear or non-linear. Our motivation to study near-population-wide mask wearing arises from the concept that, between two mask wearers, the concentration of particles at inhalation should be the square of the mask penetration fraction. This combination, or team, of masks can provide a strong dose-lowering squaring effect, which enables the use of lower-efficiency, lower-cost, lower pressure-drop (easier breathing) masks. For an epidemic with basic reproduction number TRANS R0=2.5 and with a linear dose-response, the critical mask efficiency is calculated to be 0.5 for a mask adoption level of 0.8 of the population. Importantly, this efficiency is well below that of a N95 mask, and well above that of some fabric masks. Numerical solutions of the model at near-critical levels of mask efficiency and mask adoption demonstrate avoidance of epidemics. To be conservative we use mask efficiencies measured with the most-penetrating viral-particle sizes. The critical mask adoption level for surgical masks with an efficiency of 0.58 is computed to be 0.73. With surgical masks (or equally efficient substitutes) and 80% and 90% adoption levels, respiratory epidemics with R0 TRANS of about 3 and 4, respectively, would be theoretically extinguished.

    Screening of healthcare workers for SARS-CoV-2 highlights the role of asymptomatic TRANS carriage in COVID-19 transmission TRANS

    Authors: Lucy Rivett; Sushmita Sridhar; Dominic Sparkes; Matthew Routledge; Nicholas K. Jones; Sally Forrest; Jamie Young; Joana Pereira-Dias; William L Hamilton; Mark Ferris; Estee Torok; Luke Meredith; The CITIID-NIHR COVI Bioresource Collaboration; Martin Curran; Stewart Fuller; Afzal Chaudhry; Ashley Shaw; Richard J. Samsworth; John R. Bradley; Gordon Dougan; Kenneth G. C. Smith; Paul J. Lehner; Nicholas J. Matheson; Giles Wright; Ian Goodfellow; Stephen Baker; Michael P. Weekes

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.09.20082909 Date: 2020-05-15 Source: medRxiv

    Significant differences exist in the availability of healthcare worker (HCW) SARS-CoV-2 testing between countries, and existing programmes focus on screening symptomatic rather than asymptomatic TRANS staff. Over a 3-week period (April 2020), 1,032 asymptomatic TRANS HCWs were screened for SARS-CoV-2 in a large UK teaching hospital. Symptomatic staff and symptomatic household contacts TRANS were additionally tested. Real-time RT-PCR was used to detect viral RNA from a throat+nose self-swab. 3% of HCWs in the asymptomatic TRANS screening group tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. 17/30 (57%) were truly asymptomatic TRANS/pauci-symptomatic. 12/30 (40%) had experienced symptoms compatible with coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) >7 days prior to testing, most self-isolating, returning well. Clusters of HCW infection MESHD were discovered on two independent wards. Viral genome sequencing showed that the majority of HCWs had the dominant lineage B{middle dot}1. Our data demonstrates the utility of comprehensive screening of HCWs with minimal or no symptoms. This approach will be critical for protecting patients and hospital staff.

    Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Movement Control Order to Limit the Spread of COVID-19

    Authors: Md Amiruzzaman; M. Abdullah-Al-Wadud; Rizal Mohd Nor; Normaziah A. Aziz

    id:10.20944/preprints202005.0247.v1 Date: 2020-05-15 Source: preprints.org

    This study presents a prediction model based on Logistic Growth Curve to evaluate the effectiveness of Movement Control Order (MCO) on COVID-19 pandemic spread. The evaluation assesses and predicts the growth models. The estimated model is a forecast-based model that depended on partial data from the COVID-19 cases in Malaysia. The model is then studied together with the effectiveness of the three phases of MCO implemented in Malaysia. Evidence from this study suggests that results of the LGC prediction model match with the progress and effectiveness of the MCO to flatten the curve, thus helped to control the spike in number of active COVID-19 cases and spread of COVID-19 infection MESHD growth.

    Nebulized in-line endotracheal dornase alfa and albuterol administered to mechanically ventilated COVID-19 patients: A case series

    Authors: Andrew G. Weber; Alice S Chau; Mikala Egeblad; Betsy J Barnes; Tobias Janowitz

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.13.20087734 Date: 2020-05-15 Source: medRxiv

    Background Mechanically ventilated patients with coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) have a mortality of 24-53%, in part due to distal mucopurulent secretions interfering with ventilation. Dornase alfa is recombinant human DNase 1 and digests DNA in mucoid sputum. Nebulized dornase alfa is FDA-approved for cystic fibrosis MESHD treatment. DNA from neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) contributes to the viscosity of mucopurulent secretions. NETs are found in the serum SERO of patients with severe COVID-19, and targeting NETs reduces mortality in animal models of acute respiratory distress HP syndrome MESHD (ARDS). Thus, dornase alfa may be beneficial to patients with severe COVID-19, acting as a mucolytic and targeting NETs. However, delivery of nebulized drugs can aerosolize SARS-CoV-2, which causes COVID-19, increasing the infection MESHD infection risk TRANS infection risk TRANS risk for staff. Here, we report a single center case series where dornase alfa was administered through an in-line nebulizer system to minimize risk of virus aerosolization. Methods Demographic, clinical data, and outcomes were collected from the electronic medical records of five mechanically ventilated patients with COVID-19, including three requiring veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV-ECMO), treated with nebulized in-line endotracheal dornase alfa co-administered with albuterol (used to increase delivery to the alveoli), between March 31 and April 24, 2020. Data on tolerability and responses, including longitudinal values capturing respiratory function and inflammatory status, were analyzed. Results Following nebulized in-line administration of dornase alfa with albuterol, the fraction of inspired oxygen requirements was reduced for all five patients. All patients remain alive and two patients have been discharged from the intensive care unit. No drug associated toxicities were identified. Conclusions The results presented in this case series suggest that dornase alfa will be well-tolerated by critically ill patients with COVID-19. Clinical trials are required to formally test the dosing, safety, and efficacy of dornase alfa in COVID-19, and two have recently been registered (NCT04359654 and NCT04355364). With this case series, we hope to contribute to the development of management approaches for critically ill patients with COVID-19.

    COVID-19: Considerations for Children TRANS and Adolescents with Diabetes

    Authors: Devi Dayal

    id:10.20944/preprints202004.0225.v2 Date: 2020-05-15 Source: preprints.org

    Recent reports suggest that the clinical course of coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) in previously healthy children TRANS is usually milder as compared to adults TRANS. However, children TRANS with comorbid conditions such as diabetes are at increased risk of infection TRANS risk of infection TRANS infection MESHD infection with severe HP with severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) as well as morbidity and mortality due to COVID-19. Experience in adults TRANS with diabetes shows that they are prone to faster metabolic decompensation, develop diabetes-related complications, and have a poor prognosis when hospitalized with COVID-19. Data on children TRANS are limited. The aim of this mini-review is to discuss the possible risks to children TRANS and adolescents with diabetes during the current pandemic and the special considerations in management in those affected with COVID-19. The challenges for children TRANS who develop new-onset type 1 diabetes during the COVID-19 lockdown, especially in accessing healthcare, are also discussed.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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