Corpus overview


Overview

MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Pneumonia (446)

Fever (329)

Cough (261)

Hypertension (151)

Respiratory distress (135)


Transmission

age categories (1143)

Transmission (1128)

fomite (556)

gender (486)

asymptotic cases (442)


Seroprevalence
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    The association of cardiovascular disease MESHD and other pre-existing comorbidities with COVID-19 mortality: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    Authors: Paddy Ssentongo; Anna E. Ssentongo; Emily S. Heilbrunn; Djibril M Ba; Vernon M. Chinchilli

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.10.20097253 Date: 2020-05-14 Source: medRxiv

    Background Exploring the association of coronavirus-2019 disease MESHD (COVID-19) mortality with chronic pre-existing conditions may promote the importance of targeting these populations during this pandemic to optimize survival. The objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to explore the association of pre-existing conditions with COVID-19 mortality. Methods We searched MEDLINE, OVID databases, SCOPUS, and medrxiv.org for the period December 1, 2019, to May 1, 2020. The outcome of interest was the risk of COVID-19 mortality in patients with and without pre-existing conditions. Comorbidities explored were cardiovascular diseases MESHD ( coronary artery disease MESHD, hypertension MESHD hypertension HP, cardiac arrhythmias MESHD arrhythmias HP, and congestive heart failure HP heart failure MESHD), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease MESHD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease HP, type 2 diabetes, cancer, chronic kidney disease HP kidney disease MESHD, chronic liver disease MESHD, and stroke MESHD stroke HP. Two independent reviewers extracted data and assessed the risk of bias. All analyses were performed using random-effects models and heterogeneity was quantified. Results Ten chronic conditions from 19 studies were included in the meta-analysis (n = 61,455 patients with COVID-19; mean age TRANS, 61 years; 57% male TRANS). Overall the between-study study heterogeneity was medium and studies had low publication bias and high quality. Coronary heart disease MESHD, hypertension MESHD hypertension HP, congestive heart failure HP heart failure MESHD, and cancer significantly increased the risk of mortality from COVID-19. The risk of mortality from COVID-19 in patients with coronary heart disease MESHD was 2.4 times as high as those without coronary heart disease MESHD (RR= 2.40, 95%CI=1.71-3.37, n=5) and twice as high in patients with hypertension MESHD hypertension HP as high as that compared to those without hypertension MESHD hypertension HP (RR=1.89, 95%CI= 1.58-2.27, n=9). Patients with cancer also were at twice the risk of mortality from COVID-19 compared to those without cancer (RR=1.93 95%CI 1.15-3.24, n=4), and those with congestive heart failure HP heart failure MESHD were at 2.5 times the risk of mortality compared to those without congestive heart failure HP heart failure MESHD (RR=2.66, 95%CI 1.58-4.48, n=3). Conclusions COVID-19 patients with all any cardiovascular disease MESHD, coronary heart disease MESHD, hypertension MESHD hypertension HP, congestive heart failure HP heart failure MESHD, and cancer have an increased risk of mortality. Tailored infection MESHD prevention and treatment strategies targeting this high-risk population are warranted to optimize survival.

    Analysis of ACE2 Genetic Variability Among Populations Highlights A Possible Link With COVID19-Related Neurological Complications 

    Authors: Claudia Strafella; Valerio Caputo; Andrea Termine; Shila Barati; Stefano Gambardella; Paola Borgiani; Carlo Caltagirone; Giuseppe Novelli; Emiliano Giardina; Raffaella Cascella

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-28871/v1 Date: 2020-05-14 Source: ResearchSquare

    The Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) has been recently recognized as the entry receptor of the novel pathogenic Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome MESHD Coronavirus 2 (SARS-Cov-2). The presence of structural and sequence variants in ACE2 gene may affect its expression in different tissues and determine a differential response to SARS-Cov-2 infection MESHD and COVID19-related phenotype. The present study investigated the genetic variability of ACE2 in terms of Single Nucleotide Variants (SNVs), Copy Number Variations (CNVs) and expression Quantitative Loci (eQTLs) in a cohort of 268 individuals representative of the Italian general population. The analysis identified 5 SNVs (rs35803318, rs41303171, rs774469453, rs773676270, rs2285666) which displayed a significantly different frequency distribution in the Italian cohort compared to the worldwide populations. The analysis of eQTLs located in and targeting ACE2, revealed a high distribution of eQTL variants in different brain tissues, suggesting a possible link between the genetic variability of ACE2 and the neurological complications in patients with COVID19. Further research is needed to clarify the possible relationship between ACE2 expression and the susceptibility to neurological complications in patients with COVID19. In fact, patients at higher risk of neurological involvement may need different monitoring and treatment strategies in order to prevent severe, permanent brain injury MESHD.

    Standardized Echinacea purpurea extract primes an IFN specific innate immune monocyte response via JAK1-STAT1 dependent gene expression and epigenetic control of endogenous retroviral sequences

    Authors: Ken Declerck; Claudina Perez Novo; Lisa Grielens; Guy Van Camp; Andreas Suter; Wim Vanden Berghe

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-28886/v1 Date: 2020-05-14 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: Herbal remedies of Echinacea purpurea tinctures are widely used today to reduce common cold MESHD respiratory tract infections MESHD respiratory tract infections HP.Methods: A system biology approach involving genomewide transcriptome, epigenome and kinome activity profiles was applied to characterize the immunomodulatory effects of a standardized Echinacea purpurea extract Echinaforce® in THP1 monocytes.Results: Gene expression and DNA methylation analysis revealed activation of innate immunity related antiviral signaling networks, involving IFN, chemotaxis and immunometabolic pathways. Furthermore, phosphopeptide based kinome activity profiling and pharmacological inhibitor experiments with filgotinib confirm a key role for Janus Kinase (JAK)-1 dependent gene expression changes in innate immune signaling. Finally, Echinaforce® treatment induces DNA hypermethylation at intergenic CpG, long/short interspersed nuclear DNA repeat elements (LINE, SINE) or long termininal DNA repeats (LTR). This changes transcription of flanking endogenous retroviral sequences (HERVs), involved in an evolutionary conserved (epi)genomic protective response against viral infections MESHD.Conclusions: Altogether, our results suggest that Echinaforce® phytochemicals strengthen antiviral innate immunity by JAK1 responsive gene expression and epigenetic regulation of HERVs in monocytes, which supports its prophylactic use against common cold MESHD corona viruses (CoV), Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome MESHD (SARS)-CoV, and new occurring strains such as SARS-CoV-2.

    Inverse correlation between average monthly high temperatures and COVID-19-related death MESHD rates in different geographical areas.

    Authors: Francesca Benedetti; Maria Pachetti; Bruna Marini; Rudy Ippodrino; Robert C. Gallo; Massimo Ciccozzi; Davide Zella

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-29039/v2 Date: 2020-05-14 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background With the aim of providing a dynamic evaluation of the effects of basic environmental parameters on COVID-19-related death MESHD rate, we assessed the correlation between average monthly high temperatures and population density, with death MESHD/rate (monthly number of deaths MESHD/1M people) for the months of March (start of the analysis and beginning of local epidemic in most of the Western World, except in Italy where it started in February) and April 2020 (continuation of the epidemic). Different geographical areas of the Northern Hemisphere in the United States and in Europe were selected in order to provide a wide range among the different parameters. The death MESHD rates were gathered from an available dataset. As a further control, we also included latitude, as a proxy for temperature.Methods Utilizing a publicly available dataset, we retrieved data for the months of March and April 2020 for 25 areas in Europe and in the US. We computed the monthly number of deaths MESHD/1M people of confirmed COVID-19 cases and calculated the average monthly high temperatures and population density for all these areas. We determined the correlation between number of deaths MESHD/1M people and the average monthly high temperatures, the latitude and the population density. Results We divided our analysis in two parts: analysis of the correlation among the different variables in the month of March and subsequent analysis in the month of April. The differences were then evaluated. In the month of March there was no statistical correlation between average monthly high temperatures of the considered geographical areas and number of deaths MESHD/1M people. However, a statistically significant inverse correlation became significant in the month of April between average monthly high temperatures (p=0.0043) and latitude (p=0.0253) with number of deaths MESHD/1M people. We also observed a statistically significant correlation between population density and number of deaths MESHD/1M people both in the month of March (p=0.0297) and in the month of April (p=0.0116), when three areas extremely populated (NYC, Los Angeles and Washington DC) were included in the calculation. Once these three areas were removed, the correlation was not statistically significant (p=0.1695 in the month of March, and p=0.7076 in the month of April). Conclusions The number of COVID-19-related deaths MESHD/1M people was essentially the same during the month of March for all the geographical areas considered, indicating essentially that the infection MESHD was circulating quite uniformly except for Lombardy, Italy, where it started earlier. Lockdown measures were implemented between the end of March and beginning of April, except for Italy which started March 9th. We observed a strong, statistically significant inverse correlation between average monthly high temperatures with the number of deaths MESHD/1M people. We confirmed the data by analyzing the correlation with the latitude, which can be considered a proxy for high temperature. Previous studies indicated a negative effect of high climate temperatures on Sars-COV-2 spreading. Our data indicate that social distancing measure are more successful in the presence of higher average monthly temperatures in reducing COVID-19-related death MESHD rate, and a high level of population density seems to negatively impact the effect of lockdown measures.

    Knowledge and perception of COVID-19 pandemic: Before-and-after online community survey.

    Authors: Wojciech Nazar; Julia Leszkowicz; Agata Pieńkowska; Michał Brzeziński; Agnieszka Szlagatys-Sidorkiewicz; Katarzyna Gabriela Plata-Nazar

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-28849/v1 Date: 2020-05-14 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background COVID-19 pandemic impacts many communities worldwide. In this study the Poles' knowledge about COVID-19 as well as people’s behaviours, attitudes and fears during the pandemic were assessed. Changes in these between the outset of the pandemic and the imposition of the strictest lockdown measures in Poland were investigated. Methods Physicians, nurses, students of medicine-oriented faculties, non-medical professionals, students of non-medicine-oriented faculties and secondary school students were surveyed by an anonymous online questionnaire two times: at the onset of the pandemic and in the second week of the strictest lockdown. Statistical analyses were performed using non-parametric tests - Chi square Persons, Kruskal-Wallis tests. Results In total 2618 responses were collected. At the beginning people knew that the respiratory system was attacked (97.9%); correctly identified the major symptoms of COVID-19 (95.0%) and ways to prevent infection MESHD: hand washing (99.8%), covering mouth (85.9%) and the need to call sanitary-epidemiological services if one experienced COVID-19-like symptoms (92.1%). The biggest changes between the first and second phase of the study concerned behaviours: more people wearing facial masks (+37.5%) and staying at home (+66.1%). Respondents in the second wave of the survey were also more scared of the pandemic (+19.6%), economic crisis (+64.1%), and worried about their families (+26.5%). However, they were less afraid of the quarantine (lockdown) (-18.2%). Nurses and physicians were the most worried groups. Conclusions The study showed that even at the outset of the pandemic Polish population had a good initial knowledge about symptoms, transmission TRANS, and preventive behaviours regarding COVID-19. People revealed more short-term concerns, such as the worries about coping with quarantine and isolation. After a month, the knowledge and the concerns among the respondents changed. A shift towards long-term pandemic management issues was observed. Respondents reported to experience more fears concerning the pandemic in general, as well as economic and healthcare crises. Medical professionals reported higher level of fear of the pandemic than other groups included in this study. This study uses before-and-after approach which highlights the changes in people’s knowledge and perception of the COVID-19 pandemic during the pandemic’s progression. Keywords online survey, COVID-19, medical personel, before-and-after study

    A Conjectural Experiment to Observe the Effect of Conditional locked-down in an Epidemic

    Authors: M. E. Hoque; S. K. Das

    id:2005.06767v1 Date: 2020-05-14 Source: arXiv

    In a pandemic like Covid-19, there are many countries of lower-earning cannot provide a complete locked-down within the duration of the detected case. The locked-down may result in famine throughout the region of underdeveloped countries after the outbreak. So, a conjectural setup of an epidemic has been studied by applying specific period of locked-down (30 days) in 5 different scenarios. The stochastic approach to the SEIR (Susceptible, Exposed, Infected and Recovered) model has been used to evaluate the dynamics and the effects of locked-down. It is observed that there exist a suitable period to apply locked-down where more susceptible escape from the infection MESHD. The effect of the early (as soon as the infected case detected) and late (with respect to the estimated peak of detected cases for no locked-down) implementation of the locked-down has also been studied and found that the late implementation of locked-down will take the least time to end the epidemic. The CFR (Case Fatality Rate) has also been found to be varied from 7.55 to 8.02 for all the considered scenarios.

    Studying the progress of COVID-19 outbreak in India using SIRD model

    Authors: Saptarshi Chatterjee; Apurba Sarkar; Swarnajit Chatterjee; Mintu Karmakar; Raja Paul

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.11.20098681 Date: 2020-05-13 Source: medRxiv

    We explore a standard epidemiological model, known as the SIRD model, to study the COVID-19 infection MESHD in India, and a few other countries around the world. We use (a) the stable cumulative infection MESHD of various countries and (b) the number of infection MESHD versus the tests carried out to evaluate the model. The time-dependent infection MESHD rate is set in the model to obtain the best fit with the available data. The model is simulated aiming to project the probable features of the infection MESHD in India, various Indian states, and other countries. India imposed an early lockdown to contain the infection MESHD that can be treated by its healthcare system. We find that with the current infection MESHD rate and containment measures, the total active infection MESHD in India would be maximum at the end of June or beginning of July 2020. With proper containment measures in the infected zones and social distancing, the infection MESHD is expected to fall HP considerably from August. If the containment measures are relaxed before the arrival of the peak infection MESHD, more people from the susceptible population will fall HP sick as the infection MESHD is expected to see a three-fold rise at the peak. If the relaxation is given a month after the peak infection MESHD, a second peak with a moderate infection MESHD will follow. However, a gradual relaxation applied well ahead of peak infection MESHD, leads to a two-fold increase in the peak infection MESHD. The projection of the model is highly sensitive to the choice of the parameters and the available data. Our model provides a semi-quantitative overview of the progression of COVID-19 in India, with model projections reasonably replicating the current progress. However, since the pandemic is an ongoing dynamic phenomenon, the reported results are subjected to regular updates in consonance with the acquired real data.

    Identification of Immune complement function as a determinant of adverse SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD outcome

    Authors: Vijendra Ramlall; Phyllis Thangaraj; Cem Meydan; Jonathan Foox; Daniel Butler; Ben May; Jessica de Freitas; Benjamin S Glicksberg; Christopher Mason; Nicholas P Tatonetti; Sagi D Shapira

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.05.20092452 Date: 2020-05-13 Source: medRxiv

    Understanding the pathophysiology of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD is critical for therapeutics and public health intervention strategies. Viral-host interactions can guide discovery of regulators of disease MESHD outcomes, and protein structure function analysis points to several immune pathways, including complement and coagulation, as targets of the coronavirus proteome. To determine if conditions associated with dysregulation of the complement or coagulation systems impact adverse clinical outcomes, we performed a retrospective observational study of 11,116 patients who presented with suspected SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD. We found that history of macular degeneration MESHD macular degeneration HP (a proxy for complement activation disorders) and history of coagulation disorders ( thrombocytopenia MESHD thrombocytopenia HP, thrombosis MESHD, and hemorrhage MESHD) are risk factors for morbidity and mortality in SARS-CoV-2 infected patients - effects that could not be explained by age TRANS, sex, or history of smoking. Further, transcriptional profiling of nasopharyngeal (NP) swabs from 650 control and SARS-CoV-2 infected patients demonstrated that in addition to innate Type-I interferon and IL-6 dependent inflammatory immune responses, infection MESHD results in robust engagement and activation of the complement and coagulation pathways. Finally, we conducted a candidate driven genetic association study of severe SARS-CoV-2 disease MESHD. Among the findings, our scan identified putative complement and coagulation associated loci including missense, eQTL and sQTL variants of critical regulators of the complement and coagulation cascades. In addition to providing evidence that complement function modulates SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD outcome, the data point to putative transcriptional genetic markers of susceptibility. The results highlight the value of using a multi-modal analytical approach, combining molecular information from virus protein structure-function analysis with clinical informatics, transcriptomics, and genomics to reveal determinants and predictors of immunity, susceptibility, and clinical outcome associated with infection MESHD.

    Infection MESHD Groups Differential (IGD) Score Reveals Infection MESHD Ability Difference between SARS-CoV-2 and Other Coronaviruses

    Authors: Ziwei Song; Xingchen Zhou; Yuanyuan Cai; Shou Feng; Tingting Zhang; Yun Wang; Maode Lai; Jing Li

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.12.090324 Date: 2020-05-13 Source: bioRxiv

    The Corona Virus Disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic that began in late December 2019 has resulted in millions of cases diagnosed worldwide. Reports have shown that SARS-CoV-2 shows extremely higher infection MESHD rates than other coronaviruses. This study conducted a phylogenetics analysis of 91 representative coronaviruses and found that the functional spike protein of SARS-CoV-2, which interacts with the human receptor ACE2, is actually not undergoing distinct selection pressure compared to other coronaviruses. Furthermore, we define a new measurement, infection MESHD group differential (IGD) score, in assessing the infection MESHD ability of two human coronavirus groups. There are nine extremely high IGD (ehIGD) sites in the receptor-binding domain (RBD) out of 40 high IGD (hIGD) sites that exhibit a unique infection MESHD-related pattern from the haplotype network and docking energy comparison. These 40 hIGD sites are basically conserved among the SARS-CoV-2, i.e. there are only two hIGD sites mutated in four out of 1,058 samples, defined as rare-mutation hIGD (rhIGD) sites. In conclusion, ehIGD and rhIGD sites might be of great significance to the development of vaccines.

    SARS-CoV-2 activates lung epithelia cell proinflammatory signaling and leads to immune dysregulation HP in COVID-19 patients by single-cell sequencing

    Authors: Huarong Chen; Weixin Liu; Dabin Liu; Liuyang Zhao; Jun Yu

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.08.20096024 Date: 2020-05-13 Source: medRxiv

    Objective: The outbreak of Coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD has become a global health emergency MESHD. We aim to decipher SARS-CoV-2 infected cell types, the consequent host immune response and their interplay in the lung of COVID-19 patients. Design: We analyzed single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) data of lung samples from 17 subjects (6 severe COVID-19 patients, 3 mild patients who recovered and 8 healthy controls). The expression of SARS-CoV-2 receptors (ACE2 and TMPRSS2) was examined among different cell types in the lung. The immune cells infiltration patterns, their gene expression profiles, and the interplay of immune cells and SARS-CoV-2 target cells were further investigated. Results: Compared to healthy controls, the overall ACE2 (receptor of SARS-CoV-2) expression was significantly higher in lung epithelial cells of COVID-19 patients, in particular in ciliated cell, club HP cell and basal cell. Comparative transcriptome analysis of these lung epithelial cells of COVID-19 patients and healthy controls identified that SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD activated pro-inflammatory signaling including interferon pathway and cytokine signaling. Moreover, we identified dysregulation of immune HP response in patients with COVID-19. In severe COVID-19 patients, significantly higher neutrophil, but lower T and NK cells in lung were observed along with markedly increased cytokines (CCL2, CCL3, CCL4, CCL7, CCL3L1 and CCL4L2) compared with healthy controls as well as mild patients who recovered. The cytotoxic phenotypes were shown in lung T and NK cells of severe patients as evidenced by enhanced IFN{gamma}, Granulysin, Granzyme B and Perforin expression. Moreover, SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD altered the community interplay of lung epithelial cells and immune cells: the interaction between epithelial cells with macrophage, T and NK cell was stronger, but their interaction with neutrophils was lost in COVID-19 patients compared to healthy controls. Conclusions: SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD activates pro-inflammatory signaling in lung epithelial cells expressing ACE2 and causes dysregulation of immune HP response to release more pro-inflammatory cytokines. Moreover, SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD breaks the interplay of lung epithelial cells and immune cells.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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