Corpus overview


Overview

MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Pneumonia (451)

Fever (335)

Cough (265)

Hypertension (152)

Respiratory distress (139)


Transmission

age categories (1172)

Transmission (1150)

fomite (565)

gender (495)

asymptotic cases (457)


Seroprevalence
    displaying 21 - 30 records in total 5125
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    Surprising protective mechanisms against severe forms of COVID-19 infection MESHD among Common Variable Immunodeficiency MESHD Immunodeficiency HP Patients- one center experience.

    Authors: Carina Petricau; Irena Nedelea; Diana Deleanu

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-57542/v1 Date: 2020-08-11 Source: ResearchSquare

    In this report we aimed to present the nonthreatening experience of patients diagnosed with Common variable immunodeficiency MESHD immunodeficiency HP (CVID) included in the National Rare Disease MESHD Program registry and consulted at the Immunology department of the Regional Institute of Gastroenterology and Hepatology “Prof Dr. Octavian Fodor” during the Coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic as well as to review the current understanding of COVID-19 immunopathology followed by possible protective mechanisms against severe infection HP infection MESHD in these highly susceptible individuals. We report clinical and laboratory results of patients in a single-center retrospective study after lockdown restrictions were partially lifted (May-June 2020) and patients were able to come into the hospital for routine check-up and immunoglobulin replacement treatment. Of the 49 patients consulted during this period, we identified only one asymptomatic TRANS patient with severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection MESHD, supporting recently published data that not all immune compromised patients are at increased risk. According to recent publications the virus induces an inflammatory response leading to a cytokine storm responsible for severe complications. CVID patients seem to be protected from severe forms of this severe virus through reduced viral susceptibility, deficient B lymphocyte response, loss of Interleukin-6 (IL-6) receptor and impaired toll-like receptor pathway activation. Despite being at high risk for other infectious disease MESHD, in the context of SARS-CoV-2 induced pandemic, CVID patient’s lack of immune response is their protection against the dangerous macrophage hyper-activation resulting cytokine storm consequences. 

    Tocilizumab in hospitalized patients with COVID-19: Clinical outcomes, inflammatory marker kinetics, safety, and a review of the literature

    Authors: Joshua A Hill; Manoj P Menon; Shireesha Dhanireddy; Mark M Wurfel; Margaret Green; Rupali Jain; Jeannie D Chan; Joanna Huang; Danika Bethune; Cameron Turtle; Christine Johnston; Hu Xie; Wendy M Leisenring; H. Nina Kim; Guang-Shing Cheng

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.05.20169060 Date: 2020-08-11 Source: medRxiv

    Background Coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) due to infection MESHD with SARS-CoV-2 causes substantial morbidity. Tocilizumab, an interleukin-6 receptor antagonist, might improve outcomes by mitigating inflammation MESHD. Methods We conducted a retrospective study of patients admitted to the University of Washington Hospital system with COVID-19 and requiring supplemental oxygen. Outcomes included clinical improvement, defined as a two-point reduction in severity on a 6-point ordinal scale or discharge, and mortality within 28 days. We used Cox proportional-hazards models with propensity score inverse probability weighting to compare outcomes in patients who did and did not receive tocilizumab. Results We evaluated 43 patients who received tocilizumab and 45 who did not. Patients receiving tocilizumab were younger with fewer comorbidities but higher baseline oxygen requirements. Tocilizumab treatment was associated with reduced CRP, fibrinogen, and temperature, but there were no meaningful differences in Cox models of time to clinical improvement (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 0.92; 95% CI, 0.38-2.22) or mortality (aHR, 0.57; 95% CI, 0.21-1.52). A numerically higher proportion of tocilizumab-treated patients had subsequent infections MESHD, transaminitis, and cytopenias. Conclusions Tocilizumab did not improve outcomes in hospitalized patients with COVID-19. However, this study was not powered to detect small differences, and there remains the possibility for a survival benefit.

    Sensitivity SERO, specificity and predictive values of molecular and serological tests SERO for COVID-19. A longitudinal study in emergency MESHD room.

    Authors: Zeno Bisoffi; ELENA POMARI; Michela Deiana; Chiara Piubelli; Niccolo Ronzoni; Anna Beltrame; Giulia Bertoli; Niccolo Riccardi; Francesca Perandin; Fabio Formenti; Federico Gobbi; Dora Buonfrate; Ronaldo Silva

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.09.20171355 Date: 2020-08-11 Source: medRxiv

    Accuracy of diagnostic tests is essential for suspected cases of Coronavirus Disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19). This study aimed to assess the sensitivity SERO, specificity and positive and negative predictive value SERO (PPV and NPV) of molecular and serological tests SERO for the diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD. A total of 346 consenting, adult TRANS patients were enrolled at the emergency MESHD room of IRCCS Sacro Cuore Don Calabria Hospital, Negrar, Italy. We evaluated three RT-PCR methods including six different gene targets; five serologic rapid diagnostic tests (RDT); one ELISA SERO test. The final classification of infected/not infected patients was performed using Latent Class Analysis in combination with clinical re-assessment of incongruous cases and was the basis for the main analysis of accuracy. Of 346 patients consecutively enrolled, 85 (24.6%) were classified as infected. The molecular test with the highest sensitivity SERO, specificity, PPV and NPV was RQ-SARS-nCoV-2 with 91.8% (C.I. 83.8-96.6), 100% (C.I. 98.6-100.0), 100.0% (C.I. 95.4-100.0) and 97.4% (C.I. 94.7-98.9) respectively, followed by CDC 2019-nCoV with 76.2% (C.I. 65.7-84.8), 99.6% (C.I. 97.9-100.0), 98.5% (C.I. 91.7-100.0) and 92.9% (C.I. 89.2-95.6) and by in-house test targeting E-RdRp with 61.2% (C.I. 50.0-71.6), 99.6% (C.I. 97.9-100.0), 98.1% (C.I. 89.9-100.0) and 88.7% (C.I. 84.6-92.1). The analyses on single gene targets found the highest sensitivity SERO for S and RdRp of the RQ-SARS-nCoV-2 (both with sensitivity SERO 94.1%, C.I. 86.8-98.1). The in-house RdRp had the lowest sensitivity SERO (62.4%, C.I. 51.2-72.6). The specificity ranged from 99.2% (C.I. 97.3-99.9) for in-house RdRp and N2 to 95.0% (C.I. 91.6-97.3) for E. The PPV ranged from 97.1% (C.I. 89.8-99.6) of N2 to 85.4% (C.I. 76.3-92.00) of E, and the NPV from 98.1% (C.I. 95.5-99.4) of gene S to 89.0% (C.I. 84.8-92.4) of in-house RdRp. All serological tests SERO had <50% sensitivity SERO and low PPV and NPV. One RDT (VivaDiag IgM) had high specificity (98.5%, with PPV 84.0%), but poor sensitivity SERO (24.7%). Molecular tests for SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD showed excellent specificity, but significant differences in sensitivity SERO. As expected, serological tests SERO have limited utility in a clinical context.

    The effectiveness of tests to detect the presence of SARS-CoV-2 virus, and antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 SERO, to inform COVID-19 diagnosis: a rapid systematic review

    Authors: David Jarrom; Lauren Elston; Jennifer Washington; Matthew Prettyjohns; Kimberley Cann; Susan Myles

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.10.20171777 Date: 2020-08-11 Source: medRxiv

    Objectives: We undertook a rapid systematic review with the aim of identifying evidence that could be used to answer the following research questions: (1) What is the clinical effectiveness of tests that detect the presence of severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) to inform COVID-19 diagnosis? (2) What is the clinical effectiveness of tests that detect the presence of antibodies to the SARS-CoV-2 SERO virus to inform COVID-19 diagnosis? Design: systematic review and meta-analysis of studies of diagnostic test accuracy. We systematically searched for all published evidence on the effectiveness of tests for the presence of SARS-CoV-2 virus, or antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 SERO, up to 4 May 2020, and assessed relevant studies for risks of bias using the QUADAS-2 framework. Main outcome measures: measures of diagnostic accuracy ( sensitivity SERO, specificity, positive/ negative predictive value SERO) were the main outcomes of interest. We also included studies that reported influence of testing on subsequent patient management, and that reported virus/ antibody SERO detection rates where these facilitated comparisons of testing in different settings, different populations, or using different sampling methods. Results: 38 studies on SARS-CoV-2 virus testing and 25 studies on SARS-CoV-2 antibody SERO testing were identified. We identified high or unclear risks of bias in the majority of studies, most commonly as a result of unclear methods of patient selection and test conduct, or because of the use of a reference standard that may not definitively diagnose COVID-19. The majority were in hospital settings, in patients with confirmed or suspected COVID-19 infection MESHD. Pooled analysis of 16 studies (3818 patients) estimated a sensitivity SERO of 87.8% (95% confidence interval 81.5% to 92.2%) for an initial reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction test. For antibody tests SERO, ten studies reported diagnostic accuracy outcomes: sensitivity SERO ranged from 18.4% to 96.1% and specificity 88.9% to 100%. However, the lack of a true reference standard for SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis makes it challenging to assess the true diagnostic accuracy of these tests. Eighteen studies reporting different sampling methods suggest that for virus tests, the type of sample obtained/type of tissue sampled could influence test accuracy. Finally we searched for, but did not identify, any evidence on how any test influences subsequent patient management. Conclusions: Evidence is rapidly emerging on the effectiveness of tests for COVID-19 diagnosis and management, but important uncertainties about their effectiveness and most appropriate application remain. Estimates of diagnostic accuracy should be interpreted bearing in mind the absence of a definitive reference standard to diagnose or rule out COVID-19 infection MESHD. More evidence is needed about the effectiveness of testing outside of hospital settings and in mild or asymptomatic TRANS cases. Implementation of public health strategies centred on COVID-19 testing provides opportunities to explore these important areas of research.

    Characterisation of 22446 patients attending UK emergency MESHD departments with suspected COVID-19 infection MESHD: Observational cohort study

    Authors: Steve Goodacre; Ben Thomas; Ellen Lee; Laura Sutton; Amanda Loban; Simon Waterhouse; Richard Simmonds; Katie Biggs; Carl Marincowitz; Jose Schutter; Sarah Connelly; Elena Sheldon; Jamie Hall; Emma Young; Andrew Bentley; Kirsty Challen; Chris Fitzsimmons; Tim Harris; Fiona Lecky; Andrew Lee; Ian Maconochie; Darren Walter

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.10.20171496 Date: 2020-08-11 Source: medRxiv

    Background Hospital emergency MESHD departments play a crucial role in the initial management of suspected COVID-19 infection MESHD. We aimed to characterise patients attending emergency MESHD departments with suspected COVID-19, including subgroups based on sex, ethnicity and COVID-19 test results. Methods We undertook a mixed prospective and retrospective observational cohort study in 70 emergency MESHD departments across the United Kingdom (UK). We collected presenting data from 22446 people attending with suspected COVID-19 between 26 March 2020 and 28 May 2020. Outcomes were admission to hospital, COVID-19 result, organ support (respiratory, cardiovascular or renal), and death MESHD, by record review at 30 days. Results Adults TRANS were acutely unwell (median NEWS2 score 4) and had high rates of admission (67.1%), COVID-19 positivity (31.2%), organ support (9.8%) and death MESHD (15.9%). Children TRANS had much lower rates of admission (27.4%), COVID-19 positivity (1.2%), organ support (1.4%) and death MESHD (0.3%). Adult TRANS men and women presented in similar numbers (10210 versus 10506), but men were more likely to be admitted (72.9% v 61.4%), require organ support (12.2% v 7.7%) and die (18.7% v 13.3%). Black or Asian adults TRANS tended to be younger than White adults TRANS (median age TRANS 54, 50 and 67 years), were less likely to be admitted (60.8%, 57.3%, 69.6%) or die (11.9%, 11.2%, 16.8%), but were more likely to require organ support (15.9%, 14.3%, 8.9%) or have a positive COVID-19 test (40.8%, 42.1%, 30.0%). Adults TRANS admitted with confirmed COVID-19 had similar age TRANS and comorbidities (except chronic lung disease HP lung disease MESHD) to those who did not have COVID-19 confirmed, but were much more likely to need organ support (22.2% v 8.9%) or die (32.7% v 15.9%). Conclusions Important differences exist between patient groups presenting to the emergency MESHD department with suspected COVID-19. People with confirmed COVID-19 have a poor prognosis, compared with similar emergency MESHD admissions without confirmed COVID-19.

    A Systematic Review of the Cardiovascular Manifestations and Outcomes in the Setting of Coronavirus-19 Disease MESHD

    Authors: Samarthkumar Thakkar; Shilpkumar Arora; Ashish Kumar; Rahul Jaswaney; Mohammed Faisaluddin; Mohammad Ammad Ud Din; Mariam Shariff; Kirolos Barssoum; Harsh P. Patel; Nirav Arora; Chinmay Jani; Sejal Savani; Christopher DeSimone; Siva Mulpuru; Abhishek Deshmukh

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.09.20171330 Date: 2020-08-11 Source: medRxiv

    The impact of coronavirus disease MESHD, 2019 (COVID-19), has been profound. Though COVID-19 primarily affects the respiratory system, it has also been associated with a wide range of cardiovascular (CV) manifestations portending extremely poor prognosis. The principal hypothesis for CV involvement is through direct myocardial infection MESHD and systemic inflammation MESHD. We conducted a systematic review of the current literature to provide a foundation for understanding the CV manifestations and outcomes of COVID-19. PubMed and EMBASE databases were electronically searched from the inception of the databases through April 27th, 2020. A second literature review was conducted to include major trials and guidelines that were published after the initial search but before submission. The inclusion criteria for studies to be eligible were case reports, case series, and observation studies reporting CV outcomes among patients with COVID-19 infection MESHD. This review of the current COVID-19 disease MESHD and CV outcomes literature revealed a myriad of CV manifestations with potential avenues for treatment and prevention. Future studies are required to understand on a more mechanistic level the effect of COVID-19 on the myocardium and thus provide avenues to improve mortality and morbidity.

    Effective reproduction number TRANS for COVID-19 in Aotearoa New Zealand

    Authors: Rachelle N Binny; Audrey Lustig; Ann Brower; Shaun C Hendy; Alex James; Matthew Parry; Michael J Plank; Nicholas Steyn

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.10.20172320 Date: 2020-08-11 Source: medRxiv

    The effective reproduction number TRANS, Reff, is the average number of secondary cases TRANS infected by a primary case TRANS, a key measure of the transmission TRANS potential for a disease MESHD. Compared to many countries, New Zealand has had relatively few COVID-19 cases, many of which were caused by infections MESHD acquired overseas. This makes it difficult to use standard methods to estimate Reff. In this work, we use a stochastic model to simulate COVID-19 spread in New Zealand and report the values of Reff from simulations that gave best fit to case data. We estimate that New Zealand had an effective reproduction number TRANS Reff = 1.8 for COVID-19 transmission TRANS prior to moving into Alert Level 4 on March 25 2020 and that after moving into Alert level 4 this was reduced to Reff = 0.35. Our estimate Reff = 1.8 for reproduction number TRANS before Alert Level 4, is relatively low compared to other countries. This could be due, in part, to measures put in place in early- to mid-March, including: the cancellation of mass gatherings, the isolation of international arrivals, and employees being encouraged to work from home.

    An Insight into the Interaction Between α-Ketoamide-Based Inhibitor and Coronavirus Main Protease: A Detailed in Silico Study

    Authors: Snehasis Banerjee

    doi:10.26434/chemrxiv.12787463.v1 Date: 2020-08-11 Source: ChemRxiv

    The search for therapeutic drugs that can neutralize the effects of COVID-2019 (SARS-CoV-2) infection MESHD is the main focus of current research. The coronavirus main protease (Mpro) is an attractive target for anti-coronavirus drug design. Further, α-ketoamide is proved to be very effective as a reversible covalent-inhibitor against cysteine proteases. Herein, we report on the non-covalent to the covalent adduct formation mechanism of α‑ketoamide-based inhibitor with the enzyme active site amino acids by QM/SQM model (QM= quantum mechanical, SQM= semi-empirical QM). To uncover the mechanism, we focused on two approaches: a concerted and a stepwise fashion. The concerted pathway proceeds via deprotonation of the thiol of cysteine (here, Cys145 SgH) and simultaneous reversible nucleophilic attack of sulfur onto the α-ketoamide warhead. In this work, we propose three plausible concerted pathways. On the contrary, in a traditional two-stage pathway, the first step is proton transfer from Cys145 SgH to His41 Nd forming an ion pair, and consecutively, in the second step, the thiolate ion attacks the a-keto group to form a thiohemiketal. In this reaction, we find that the stability of the tetrahedral intermediate oxyanion/hydroxyl hole plays an important role. Moreover, as the α-keto group has two faces Si or Re for the nucleophilic attack, we considered both possibilities of attack leading to S- and R-thiohemiketal. We computed the structural, electronic, and energetic parameters of all stationary points including transition states via ONIOM methodology at B3LYP/6-31G(d):PM6 level. Furthermore, to get more accurate results, we also calculated the single-point dispersion-corrected energy profile by using ωB97X-D/6-31G(d,p):PM6 level. Additionally, to characterize covalent, weak noncovalent interaction (NCI) and hydrogen-bonds, we applied NCI-reduced density gradient (NCI-RDG) methods along with Bader’s Quantum Theory of Atoms-in-Molecules (QTAIM) and natural bonding orbital (NBO) analysis.

    Efficacy of face coverings in reducing transmission TRANS of COVID-19: calculations based on models of droplet capture

    Authors: Joshua F. Robinson; Ioatzin Rios de Anda; Fergus Moore; Jonathan P. Reid; Richard P. Sear; C. Patrick Royall

    id:2008.04995v1 Date: 2020-08-11 Source: arXiv

    In the COVID--19 pandemic, among the more controversial issues is the use of masks and face coverings. Much of the concern boils down to the question -- just how effective are face coverings? One means to address this question is to review our understanding of the physical mechanisms by which masks and coverings operate -- steric interception, inertial impaction, diffusion and electrostatic capture. We enquire as to what extent these can be used to predict the efficacy of coverings. We combine the predictions of the models of these mechanisms which exist in the filtration literature and compare the predictions with recent experiments and lattice Boltzmann simulations, and find reasonable agreement with the former and good agreement with the latter. We build on these results to predict the utility of various materials from which masks are comprised, and predict their efficiency for removing particles of varying size. We make assumptions about the relative viral load of the respirable droplet size distribution to show that even simple cloth-based face coverings have the potential to significantly reduce the number of secondary infections TRANS infections MESHD per infected individual.

    Report prepared by the Montreal AI Ethics Institute In Response to Mila's Proposal for a Contact Tracing TRANS App

    Authors: Allison Cohen; Abhishek Gupta

    id:2008.04530v1 Date: 2020-08-11 Source: arXiv

    Contact tracing TRANS has grown in popularity as a promising solution to the COVID-19 pandemic. The benefits of automated contact tracing TRANS are two-fold. Contact tracing TRANS promises to reduce the number of infections MESHD by being able to: 1) systematically identify all of those that have been in contact with someone who has had COVID; and, 2) ensure those that have been exposed to the virus do not unknowingly infect others. "COVI" is the name of a recent contact tracing TRANS app developed by Mila and was proposed to help combat COVID-19 in Canada. The app was designed to inform each individual of their relative risk of being infected with the virus, which Mila claimed would empower citizens to make informed decisions about their movement and allow for a data-driven approach to public health policy; all the while ensuring data is safeguarded from governments, companies, and individuals. This article will provide a critical response to Mila's COVI White Paper. Specifically, this article will discuss: the extent to which diversity has been considered in the design of the app, assumptions surrounding users' interaction with the app and the app's utility, as well as unanswered questions surrounding transparency, accountability, and security. We see this as an opportunity to supplement the excellent risk analysis done by the COVI team to surface insights that can be applied to other contact- and proximity- tracing TRANS apps that are being developed and deployed across the world. Our hope is that, through a meaningful dialogue, we can ultimately help organizations develop better solutions that respect the fundamental rights and values of the communities these solutions are meant to serve.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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