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Overview

MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

There are no HP terms in the subcorpus


Transmission

Seroprevalence
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    Detection of asymptomatic TRANS Leishmania infection MESHD in Bangladesh by novel antigen and antibody SERO diagnostic tools shows strong association with PKDL patients

    Authors: Sophie I Owen; Faria Hossain; Prakash Ghosh; Rajashree Chowdhury; Md. Sakhawat Hossain; Christopher Jewell; Isra Cruz; Albert Picado; Dinesh Mondal; Emily R Adams

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.26.20113431 Date: 2020-05-27 Source: medRxiv

    Background: Asymptomatic TRANS Leishmania infections MESHD outnumber clinical infections MESHD on the Indian sub-continent (ISC) where disease MESHD reservoirs are anthroponotic. Diagnostics which detect active asymptomatic infection MESHD asymptomatic TRANS, which are suitable for monitoring and surveillance, may be of benefit to the visceral leishmaniasis MESHD (VL) elimination campaign on the ISC. Methodology/Principal Findings: Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), loop mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), the direct agglutination test (DAT), and the Leishmania antigen ELISA SERO were carried out on blood SERO and urine samples collected from 720 household and neighbouring contacts of 276 VL and post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis MESHD (PKDL) index cases, with no symptoms or history of VL and PKDL, in endemic regions of Bangladesh between September 2016 and March 2018. Of the 720 contacts of index cases, asymptomatic infection MESHD asymptomatic TRANS was detected in 69 (9.6%) participants by a combination of qPCR (1.0%), LAMP (2.1%), DAT (3.9%), and Leishmania antigen ELISA SERO (3.3%). Only 1 (0.1%) participant was detected positive by all 4 diagnostic tests. Poor agreement between tests was calculated using Cohen's kappa statistics, however the Leishmania antigen ELISA SERO and DAT in combination capture all participants positive by more than one test. We find strong evidence for association between the index case being a PKDL case (OR 1.94, p = 0.009), specifically macular PKDL (OR 2.12, p = 0.004) and being positive for at least one of the four tests. Conclusions/Significance: Leishmania antigen ELISA SERO detects active asymptomatic infection MESHD asymptomatic TRANS, requires a non-invasive sample, and therefore may be of benefit for monitoring transmission TRANS and surveillance in an elimination setting in combination with serology. Development of an antigen detection test in RDT format would be of benefit to the elimination campaign.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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