Corpus overview


Overview

MeSH Disease

Measles (7)

Disease (4)

Infections (4)

Death (3)

Diphtheria (2)


Human Phenotype

Transmission

Seroprevalence

There are no seroprevalence terms in the subcorpus

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    Possible Cross-Reactivity Between SARS-CoV-2 Proteins, CRM197 and Proteins in Pneumococcal Vaccines May Protect Against Symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 Disease MESHD and Death MESHD

    Authors: Robert Root-Bernstein

    id:10.20944/preprints202007.0141.v2 Date: 2020-08-04 Source: Preprints.org

    Various studies indicate that vaccination, especially with pneumococcal vaccines, protects against symptomatic cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD and death MESHD. This paper explores the possibility that pneumococcal vaccines in particular, but perhaps other vaccines as well, contain antigens that might be cross-reactive with SARS-CoV-2 antigens. Comparison of the glycosylation structures of SARS-CoV-2 with the polysaccharide structures of pneumococcal vaccines yielded no obvious similarities. However, while pneumococcal vaccines are primarily composed of capsular polysaccharides, some are conjugated to CRM197, a modified diphtheria MESHD toxin, and all contain about three percent protein contaminants, including the pneumococcal surface proteins PsaA, PspA and probably PspC. All of these proteins have very high degrees of similarity, using very stringent criteria, with several SARS-CoV-2 proteins including the spike protein, membrane protein and replicase 1a. CRM197 is also present in Hib and meningitis MESHD meningitis HP vaccines. Equivalent similarities were found at statistically significantly lower rates, or were completely absent, among the proteins in diphtheria MESHD, tetanus MESHD, pertussis, measles MESHD, mumps MESHD, rubella MESHD, and poliovirus vaccines. Notably, PspA and PspC are highly antigenic and new pneumococcal vaccines based on them are currently in human clinical trials so that their effectiveness against SARS-CoV-2 disease MESHD is easily testable.

    Do childhood measles MESHD and DTaP vaccination decrease the mortality rate caused by SARS CoV-2 in OECD countries?: An Epidemiologic Study

    Authors: Ramazan Guven; Muhammed Ikbal Sasmaz; Gokhan Eyupoglu; Seda Yilmaz Semerci

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-48106/v1 Date: 2020-07-23 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background The mortality rates caused by SARS CoV-2 differ between countries and this difference might be explained by several reasons. Childhood vaccination rate is thought to be one of them. Therefore, present study aimed to examine the possible relationship between DTaP ( diphtheria MESHD, tetanus MESHD, acellular pertussis vaccine) and measles MESHD vaccination rates of Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries and case fatality rate (CFR) caused by SARS CoV-2.Methods A total of 32 OECD countries, of northern hemisphere, have been included in this study. Statistical analysis performed according to the CFR data of these countries based on SARS CoV-2. The CFR data calculated according to the total mortality count of a specific country for the 3-month period down from the date when first SARS CoV-2 case was observed. Results Based on the correlation levels of vaccination rates of OECD countries with a period of 3-month CFR, a strong negative correlation of significance between CFR and measles MESHD (r=-0.479, p=0.006) were pointed, while a negative but not significant correlation were seen between CFR and DTaP vaccination rates (r=-264.0, p=0.145). Conclusion Depending on the results of the study, lower CFR based on COVID-19, is suggested to be related to the successful vaccination rates of those OECD countries. Therefore, further effort is required to improve rates of childhood vaccination not only for specified diseases MESHD, but either possible protection against COVID-19 worldwide. Trial Registration: This study is registered to clinicaltrials.gov with trial number: NCT04468802.

    Molecular Basis of Kidney Defects in COVID-19 Patients

    Authors: Smartya Pulai; Madhurima Basu; Chinmay Saha; Nitai P. Bhattacharyya; Arpita Ray Chaudhury; Sujoy Ghosh

    id:10.20944/preprints202007.0452.v1 Date: 2020-07-20 Source: Preprints.org

    Background: Kidney damage is considered to be one of the risk factors for severity and mortality among COVID-19 patients. However, molecular nature of such observations remains unknown. Hypothesis: Altered gene expressions due to infection MESHD infection and in chronic HP and in chronic kidney disease MESHD could explain severity in COVID-19 with kidney defects. Methods: We collected gene expression data from publicly available resources Gene Expression Omnibus CKD, Enrichr for deregulated genes in SARS-CoV infected cells in vitro, DisGeNET and others and carried out enrichment analysis using Enrichr. Result: Number of common genes altered in chronic kidney disease HP kidney disease MESHD (CKD) and SARS-CoV infected cells was 2834. Enrichment analysis revealed that biological processes related viral life cycle and growth, cytokines, immunity, interferon, inflammation MESHD, apoptosis, autophagy, oxidative stress and others were significantly enriched with common deregulated genes. Similarly, significantly enriched pathways related to viral and bacterial infections MESHD, immunity and inflammation MESHD, cell cycle, ubiquitin mediated proteolysis, signaling pathways like Relaxin signaling pathway, mTOR signaling pathway, IL-17 signaling pathway, NF-kappa B signaling pathway were enriched with the common deregulated genes. These processes and pathways are known to be related to kidney damage. DisGeNET terms enriched include and related to Dengue MESHD fever MESHD fever HP, chronic Hepatitis MESHD chronic Hepatitis HP, measles MESHD, retroviridae infections MESHD, respiratory syncytial virus Infections MESHD and many others. Kidney dysfunction related terms ischemia MESHD of kidney, renal fibrosis HP fibrosis MESHD and diabetic nephropathy MESHD nephropathy HP. Conclusion: Common deregulated genes in SARS-CoV infected cells and chronic kidney disease HP kidney disease MESHD, as well as their enrichment with molecular processes and pathways relevant for viral pathogenesis and renal dysfunctions, could explain the severity of COVID-19 with kidney disease MESHD. This observation not only provides molecular relation of severity in COVID-19 with renal dysfunctions but might also help in the management and treatment targets for these cases.

    Significantly Improved COVID-19 Outcomes in Countries with Higher BCG Vaccination Coverage: A Multivariable Analysis

    Authors: Danielle Klinger; Ido Blass; Nadav Rappoport; Michal Linial

    id:10.20944/preprints202006.0073.v1 Date: 2020-06-07 Source: Preprints.org

    COVID-19 pandemic that started in China has spread within 3 months to the entire globe. We tested the hypothesis that the vaccination against tuberculosis MESHD by BCG correlates with a better outcome for COVID-19 patients. Our analysis covers 55 countries complying with predetermined thresholds on the population size and number of deaths MESHD per million (DPM). We found a strong negative correlation between the years of BCG administration and the DPM along with the progress of the pandemic, corroborated by permutation tests. The results from multivariable regression tests with 23 economic, demographic, health-related, and pandemic restriction quantitative properties, substantiate the dominant contribution of BCG years to the COVID-19 outcomes. The analysis of countries according to an age-group TRANS partition reveals that the strongest correlation is attributed to the coverage in BCG vaccination of the young population (0-24 years). Furthermore, a strong correlation and statistical significance are associated with the degree of BCG coverage for the most recent 15 years, but no association was observed in these years for other broadly used vaccination protocols for measles MESHD and rubella MESHD. We propose that BCG immunization coverage, especially among the most recently vaccinated contributes to attenuation of the spread and severity of the COVID-19 pandemic.

    Protective roles of flu infections MESHD and BCG vaccination in lowering Covid-19 mortality

    Authors: Sanmoy Pathak; Mohit Kumar Jolly; Dipankar Nandi

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-33242/v1 Date: 2020-06-04 Source: ResearchSquare

    The recent Covid-19 pandemic has caused a great loss of lives as well as affected economies in several countries. The loss of Covid-19 deaths MESHD is far greater in some countries compared to others. This observation led us to perform epidemiological analysis using disease MESHD and vaccination data in the public domain with respect to measles MESHD, hepatitis B MESHD hepatitis HP virus, polio, tuberculosis MESHD and flu from twenty five countries across the globe. There is no correlation between Covid-19 incidences or deaths MESHD, as well as vaccination coverage, with respect to diseases MESHD such as measles MESHD, hepatitis B MESHD hepatitis HP virus and polio. However, countries with lower cases of tuberculosis MESHD and higher cases of flu have a significant correlation with respect to Covid-19 deaths MESHD. In fact, countries with high BCG vaccination coverage show a significant negative correlation with Covid-19 deaths MESHD. Surprisingly, countries such as the USA, Italy, France and Spain which have flu vaccination, but not BCG vaccination, show maximum number of Covid-19 deaths MESHD. It appears that high numbers of flu infections MESHD are protective and can decrease the number of Covid-19 deaths MESHD. Importantly, countries with high flu cases and BCG vaccination, such as India, Egypt, South Africa etc, show relatively lower Covid-19 deaths MESHD, reinforcing the protective roles of BCG vaccination. Notably, these general trends are statistically significant for Covid-19 deaths MESHD but not Covid-19 incidences. The implications of our results are discussed with respect to the roles of microbial infections in the respiratory tract MESHD infections in the respiratory tract HP, vaccinations and other factors in lowering Covid-19 deaths MESHD.

    Network theoretic analysis of JAK/STAT pathway and extrapolation to drugs and viruses including COVID-19

    Authors: Arindam Banerjee; Rudra Prosad Goswami; Moumita Chatterjee

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-25845/v1 Date: 2020-04-28 Source: ResearchSquare

    Whenever some phenomenon can be represented as a graph or a network it seems pertinent to explore how much the mathematical properties of that network impact the phenomenon. In this study we explore the same philosophy in the context of immunology. Our objective was to assess the correlation of “size” (number of edges and minimum vertex cover) of the JAK/STAT network with treatment effect in rheumatoid arthritis MESHD rheumatoid arthritis HP (RA), phenotype of viral infection MESHD and effect of immunosuppressive agents on a system infected with the coronavirus. We extracted the JAK/STAT pathway from Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG, hsa04630). The effects of the following drugs, and their combinations, commonly used in RA were tested: methotrexate, prednisolone, rituximab, tocilizumab, tofacitinib and baricitinib. Following viral systems were also tested for their ability to evade the JAK/STAT pathway: Measles MESHD, Influenza A, West Nile virus, Japanese B virus, Yellow Fever MESHD Fever HP virus, respiratory syncytial virus, Kaposi’s sarcoma MESHD sarcoma HP virus, Hepatitis B MESHD Hepatitis HP and C virus, cytomegalovirus, Hendra and Nipah virus and Coronavirus. Good correlation of edges and minimum vertex cover with clinical efficacy were observed (for edge, rho= -0.815, R2= 0.676, p=0.007, for vertex cover rho= -0.793, R2= 0.635, p=0.011). In the viral systems both edges and vertex cover were associated with acuteness of viral infections MESHD. In the JAK/STAT system already infected with coronavirus, maximum reduction in size was achieved with baricitinib. To conclude, algebraic and combinatorial invariant of a network may explain its biological behaviour. At least theoretically, baricitinib may be an attractive target for treatment of coronavirus infection MESHD.

    A Robust Stochastic Method of Estimating the Transmission TRANS Potential of 2019-nCoV

    Authors: Jun Li

    id:2002.03828v1 Date: 2020-02-07 Source: arXiv

    The recent outbreak of a novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) has quickly evolved into a global health crisis. The transmission TRANS potential of 2019-nCoV has been modelled and studied in several recent research works. The key factors such as the basic reproductive number TRANS, $R_{0}$, of the virus have been identified by fitting contagious disease MESHD disease spreading TRANS spreading models to aggregated data. The data include the reported cases both within China and in closely connected cities over the world. In this paper, we study the transmission TRANS potential of 2019-nCoV from the perspective of the robustness of the statistical estimation, in light of varying data quality and timeliness in the initial stage of the outbreak. Sample consensus algorithm has been adopted to improve model fitting when outliers are present. The robust estimation enables us to identify two clusters of transmission TRANS models, both are of substantial concern, one with $ R_0 TRANS:8\sim14$, comparable to that of measles MESHD and the other dictates a large initial infected group.

The ZB MED preprint Viewer preVIEW includes all COVID-19 related preprints from medRxiv and bioRxiv, from ChemRxiv, from ResearchSquare, from arXiv and from Preprints.org and is updated on a daily basis (7am CET/CEST).

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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