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SARS-CoV-2 proteins

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    The Invasive Respiratory Infection Surveillance (IRIS) Initiative reveals significant reductions in invasive bacterial infections during the COVID-19 pandemic MESHD

    Authors: Angela B Brueggemann; Melissa J Jansen van Rensburg; David Shaw; Noel D McCarthy; Keith A Jolley; Martin CJ Maiden; Mark PG van der Linden

    doi:10.1101/2020.11.18.20225029 Date: 2020-11-20 Source: medRxiv

    BackgroundStreptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Neisseria meningitidis MESHD are leading causes of invasive diseases MESHD including bacteraemic pneumonia MESHD and meningitis MESHD, and of secondary infections post-viral respiratory disease MESHD. They are typically transmitted via respiratory droplets. We investigated rates of invasive disease MESHD due to these pathogens during the early phase of the COVID-19 pandemic MESHD COVID-19 pandemic MESHD. MethodsLaboratories in 26 countries across six continents submitted data on cases of invasive disease due to S pneumoniae, H influenzae and N meningitidis from 1 January 2018 to 31 May 2020. Weekly cases in 2020 vs 2018-2019 were compared. Streptococcus agalactiae data were collected from nine laboratories for comparison to a non-respiratory pathogen. The stringency of COVID-19 MESHD containment measures was quantified by the Oxford COVID-19 MESHD Government Response Tracker. Changes in population movements were assessed by Google COVID-19 MESHD Community Mobility Reports. Interrupted time series modelling quantified changes in rates of invasive disease in 2020 relative to when containment measures were imposed. FindingsAll countries experienced a significant, sustained reduction in invasive diseases due to S pneumoniae, H influenzae and N meningitidis, but not S agalactiae, in early 2020, which coincided with the introduction of COVID-19 MESHD containment measures in each country. Similar impacts were observed across most countries despite differing stringency in COVID-19 MESHD control policies. There was no evidence of a specific effect due to enforced school closures. InterpretationThe introduction of COVID-19 MESHD containment policies and public information campaigns likely reduced transmission of these bacterial respiratory pathogens, leading to a significant reduction in life-threatening invasive diseases in many countries worldwide.

    Reversible Lesion of the Corpus Callosum Associated With COVID-19 MESHD: A Case Report and Review of Literature

    Authors: Yagmur Inalkac Gemici; Irem Tasci

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-81684/v1 Date: 2020-09-21 Source: ResearchSquare

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) may affect the central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral nervous system (PNS). Major CNS manifestations of SARS-CoV-2 include seizures MESHD, meningitis MESHD, meningoencephalitis MESHD, ischemic stroke MESHD, hemorrhagic stroke MESHD, anosmia MESHD, hypogeusia MESHD, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis MESHD, hemorrhagic necrotizing encephalopathy MESHD, and nonfocal phenomena including lethargy, agitation MESHD, confusion MESHD, headache MESHD, and ataxia MESHD. The reversible splenial lesion syndrome MESHD ( MERS MESHD) was first described in 2004. Although MERS was initially recognized as a benign phenomenon, a second type of MERS was identified in later years, which has a poor prognosis and potentially serious sequela. MERS can be caused by numerous etiologies including viruses. In this report, we present a patient with SARS-CoV-2 who presented with ataxia MESHD and dizziness MESHD as the clinical symptoms of MERS, which is a rare clinical phenomenon and can be caused by numerous etiologies.

    nCoV-2019 infection induces neurological outcome and manifestation, linking its historical ancestor SARS-CoV & MERS-CoV: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    Authors: Ajay Prakash; Harvinder Singh; Phulen Sarma; Anusuya Bhattacharyya; Deba Prasad Dhibar; Neeraj Balaini; Ritu Shree; Manoj Goyal; Manish Modi; BIKASH MEDHI

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-35790/v1 Date: 2020-06-15 Source: ResearchSquare

    Importance: The first systematic review and meta-analysis to help clinician to identify early the sign and symptoms of neurological manifestation in COVID-19 MESHD positive patients which further help in early management of patients. Objective: Present systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to discuss the prevalence of neurological involvement of the 2019-nCoV patients and assess the symptomatic trend of events as compared to the 2002 “SARS” and 2012 “MERS” pandemics.Methods: The articles were systematically screened through several search engine and databases. The articles published or in preprint were included in the study till 15th May 2020. The systematic review done as per the published literatures which included 31 cross sectional, observational studies and case reports which revealed neural sign and symptoms in SARS-COV-2 disease MESHD. For meta-analysis, we included 09 observational and cross sectional studies which included COVID-19 MESHD positive patients and assessed the predominance of various neurological sign and symptoms in COVID-19 MESHD patients relation to SARS-2002 and MERS-2012. Data were analyzed by using the “MedCalc Statistical Software version 19.2.6 and reported as pooled prevalence. Heterogeneity was investigated (standard I2 test).  Results: We have collected and screened about a total 2615 articles, finally we have included 31 articles for the systematic review and 09 for meta-analysis as per the inclusion/exclusion criteria. The analysis was made as per the prevalence rate of neurological symptoms during the COVID-19 MESHD positive patients. The cumulative neurological outcome of SARS-2002 and MERS-2012 was assessed to get the trends which is next tried to correlate the events with the current pandemic. During the analysis severity and outcome of neurological manifestations range from simple headache MESHD to vague non-focal complaints to severe neurologic impairment MESHD associated with seizure MESHD or meningitis MESHD.Conclusion & Relevance: Central and peripheral nervous system (CNS/PNS) manifestations were seen during the SARS-2002, MERS-2012 and COVID-19 MESHD. However, none of the publication found with the primary or secondary objective of finding the neurological manifestation in the COVID-19 MESHD patients and their mechanism which strengthen the importance to start more precise clinical trials.

    Assessment of Experiences of Preventive Measures Practice including Vaccination History and Health Education among Umrah Pilgrims in Saudi Arabia, 1440H-2019

    Authors: Mansour Tobaiqy; Sami S Almudarra; Manal M Shams; Samar A Amer; Mohamed F Alcattan; Ahmed H Alhasan

    doi:10.1101/2020.06.09.20126581 Date: 2020-06-11 Source: medRxiv

    Background Annually, approximately 10 million Umrah pilgrims travel to the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia for Umrah from more than 180 countries. This event presents major challenges for the Kingdom public health sector, which strives to decrease the burden of infectious diseases MESHD and to adequately control its spread. Aims of the study The aims of the study were to assess the experiences of preventive measures practice, including vaccination history and health education, among Umrah pilgrims in Saudi Arabia. Methods A cross sectional survey administered to a randomly selected group of pilgrims by the research team members from February to the end of April 2019 at the departure lounge at King Abdul Aziz International airport, Jeddah city. The questionnaire was comprised of questions on the following factors: sociodemographic information, level of education, history of vaccinations and chronic illnesses, whether the pilgrim has received any health education and orientation prior to coming Saudi Arabia or on their arrival, and their experiences with preventive medicine. Results Pilgrims (n=1012) of 48 nationalities completed the survey and were reported in this study. Chronic diseases MESHD (n=230) were reported among pilgrims, with hypertension MESHD being the most reported morbidity (n=124, 53.9%). The majority of pilgrims had taken immunization prior to travel to Saudi Arabia, and the most commonly reported immunizations were meningitis MESHD (n=567, 56%), influenza (n=460, 45.5%), and Hepatitis B virus vaccinations MESHD (n=324, 32%); however, 223(22%) had not received any vaccinations prior to travel, including meningitis MESHD vaccine, which is mandatory in Saudi Arabia. 305 pilgrims (30.1%) had reported never using face masks in crowded areas; however, 63.2% reported lack of availability of these masks. The majority of participants had received health education on preventive measures, including hygienic aspects (n=799, 78.9%) mostly in their home countries (n=450, 56.3%). A positive association was found between receiving health education and practicing of preventive measures, such as wearing masks in crowded areas (P= 0.04) and other health practice scores (P= 0.02). Conclusion Although the experiences of the preventive measures among pilgrims in terms of health education, vaccinations, and hygienic practices were overall positive, this study identified several issues with the following preventive measures: immunizations particularly meningitis MESHD vaccine and using face masks in crowded areas. Further studies are required to develop a health education module to promote comprehensive preventive measures for pilgrims. Keywords Umrah, pilgrims, personal preventive measures, COVID-19 MESHD, Makkah, Saudi Arabia

    Benefit-risk analysis of health benefits of routine childhood immunisation against the excess risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHDs during the Covid-19 pandemic MESHD Covid-19 pandemic MESHD in Africa

    Authors: Kaja Abbas; Simon R Procter; Kevin van Zandvoort; Andrew Clark; Sebastian Funk; - LSHTM CMMID Covid-19 Working Group; Tewodaj Mengistu; Dan Hogan; Emily Dansereau; Mark Jit; Stefan Flasche

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.19.20106278 Date: 2020-05-26 Source: medRxiv

    Background: National immunisation programmes globally are at risk of suspension due to the severe health system constraints and physical distancing measures in place to mitigate the ongoing COVID-19 MESHD COVID-19 MESHD pandemic. Our aim is to compare the health benefits of sustaining routine childhood immunisation in Africa against the risk of acquiring SARS-CoV-2 infections MESHD through visiting routine vaccination service delivery points. Methods: We used two scenarios to approximate the child deaths that may be caused by immunisation coverage reductions during COVID-19 MESHD outbreaks. First, we used previously reported country-specific child mortality impact estimates of childhood immunisation for diphtheria, tetanus MESHD, pertussis, hepatitis B MESHD, Haemophilus influenzae type b, pneumococcal MESHD, rotavirus MESHD, measles, meningitis A MESHD, rubella MESHD, and yellow fever MESHD (DTP3, HepB3, Hib3, PCV3, RotaC, MCV1, MCV2, MenA, RCV, YFV) to approximate the future deaths averted before completing five years of age by routine childhood vaccination during a 6-month COVID-19 MESHD risk period without catch-up campaigns. Second, we analysed an alternative scenario that approximates the health benefits of sustaining routine childhood immunisation to only the child deaths averted from measles outbreaks during the COVID-19 MESHD risk period. The excess number of infections due to additional SARS-CoV-2 exposure during immunisation visits assumes that contact reducing interventions flatten the outbreak curve during the COVID-19 MESHD risk period, that 60% of the population will have been infected by the end of that period, that children can be infected by either vaccinators or during transport and that upon child infection the whole household would be infected. Country specific household age structure estimates and age dependent infection fatality rates are then applied to calculate the number of deaths attributable to the vaccination clinic visits. We present benefit-risk ratios for routine childhood immunisation alongside 95% uncertainty range estimates from probabilistic sensitivity analysis. Findings: For every one excess COVID-19 MESHD death attributable to SARS-CoV-2 infections MESHD acquired during routine vaccination clinic visits, there could be 84 (14-267) deaths in children prevented by sustaining routine childhood immunisation in Africa. The benefit-risk ratio for the vaccinated children, siblings, parents or adult care-givers, and older adults in the households of vaccinated children are 85,000 (4,900 - 546,000), 75,000 (4,400 - 483,000), 769 (148 - 2,700), and 96 (14 - 307) respectively. In the alternative scenario that approximates the health benefits to only the child deaths averted from measles outbreaks, the benefit-risk ratio to the households of vaccinated children is 3 (0 - 10) under these highly conservative assumptions and if the risk to only the vaccinated children is considered, the benefit-risk ratio is 3,000 (182 - 21,000). Interpretation: Our analysis suggests that the health benefits of deaths prevented by sustaining routine childhood immunisation in Africa far outweighs the excess risk of COVID-19 MESHD deaths associated with vaccination clinic visits, especially for the vaccinated children. However, there are other factors that must be considered for strategic decision making to sustain routine childhood immunisation in African countries during the COVID-19 pandemic MESHD. These include logistical constraints of vaccine supply chain problems caused by the COVID-19 pandemic MESHD, reallocation of immunisation providers to other prioritised health services, healthcare staff shortages caused by SARS-CoV-2 infections MESHD among the staff, decreased demand for vaccination arising from community reluctance to visit vaccination clinics for fear of contracting SARS-CoV-2 infections MESHD, and infection risk to healthcare staff providing immunisation services as well as to their households and onward SARS-CoV-2 transmission into the wider community.

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MeSH Disease
HGNC Genes
SARS-CoV-2 Proteins


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