Corpus overview


Overview

MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Transmission

Seroprevalence

There are no seroprevalence terms in the subcorpus

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    Clinical, Behavioral and Social Factors Associated with Racial Disparities in Hospitalized and Ambulatory COVID-19 Patients from an Integrated Health Care System in Georgia

    Authors: Felipe Lobelo; Alan X Bienvenida; Serena Leung; Armand N Mbanya; Elizabeth J. Leslie; Kate E Koplan; S. Ryan Shin

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.08.20148973 Date: 2020-07-10 Source: medRxiv

    Introduction: Racial and ethnic minorities have shouldered a disproportioned burden of coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) infection MESHD to date in the US, but data on the various drivers of these disparities is limited. Objectives: To describe the characteristics and outcomes of COVID-19 patients and explore factors associated with hospitalization risk by race. Methods: Case series of 448 consecutive patients with confirmed COVID-19 seen at Kaiser Permanente Georgia (KPGA), an integrated health care system serving the Atlanta metropolitan area, from March 3 to May 12, 2020. KPGA members with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19. Multivariable analyses for hospitalization risk also included an additional 3489 persons under investigation (PUI) with suspected infection MESHD. COVID-19 treatment and outcomes, underlying comorbidities and quality of care management metrics, socio-demographic and other individual and community-level social determinants of health (SDOH) indicators. Results: Of 448 COVID-19 positive members, 68,3% was non-Hispanic Black (n=306), 18% non-Hispanic White (n=81) and 13,7% Other race (n=61). Median age TRANS was 54 [IQR 43-63) years. Overall, 224 patients were hospitalized, median age TRANS 60 (50-69) years. Black race was a significant factor in the Confirmed + PUI, female TRANS and male TRANS models (ORs from 1.98 to 2.19). Obesity MESHD Obesity HP was associated with higher hospitalization odds in the confirmed, confirmed + PUI, Black and male TRANS models (ORs from 1.78 to 2.77). Chronic disease MESHD control metrics (diabetes, hypertension MESHD hypertension HP, hyperlipidemia MESHD hyperlipidemia HP) were associated with lower odds of hospitalization ranging from 48% to 35% in the confirmed + PUI and Black models. Self-reported physical inactivity was associated with 50% higher hospitalization odds in the Black and Female TRANS models. Residence in the Northeast region of Atlanta was associated with lower hospitalization odds in the Confirmed + PUI, White and female TRANS models (ORs from 0.22 to 0.64) Conclusions: We found that non-Hispanic Black KPGA members had a disproportionately higher risk of infection TRANS risk of infection TRANS infection MESHD and, after adjusting for covariates, twice the risk of hospitalization compared to other race groups. We found no significant differences in clinical outcomes or mortality across race/ethnicity groups. In addition to age TRANS, sex and comorbidity burden, pre-pandemic self-reported exercise, metrics on quality of care and control of underlying cardio- metabolic diseases MESHD, and location of residence in Atlanta were significantly associated with hospitalization risk by race groups. Beyond well-known physiologic and clinical factors, individual and community-level social indicators and health behaviors must be considered as interventions designed to reduce COVID-19 disparities and the systemic effects of racism are implemented.

    COVID-19 Comorbidity and Metabolic Syndrome MESHD: Is There a Molecular Basis?

    Authors: Madhurima Basu; Chinmay Saha; Kamalika Roy Choudhury; Susmita Dutta; Sujoy Ghosh; Subhankar Chowdhury; Satinath Mukhopadhyay; Nitai P. Bhattacharyya

    id:10.20944/preprints202006.0245.v1 Date: 2020-06-21 Source: preprints.org

    The risk factors associated with COVID-19 related severity, morbidity, and mortality, i.e., obesity MESHD obesity HP (often associated with NAFLD), hyperglycemia MESHD hyperglycemia HP, hypertension MESHD hypertension HP and dyslipidemia all cluster together as metabolic syndrome MESHD (MetS). Instead of studying association of these risk factors with COVID-19, it makes sense studying the association between MetS on one hand and COVID-19 on the other. This study explores a molecular basis underpinning the above association. Severity of COVID-19 patients with MetS could be due to functional alterations of host proteins due to their interactions with viral proteins. We collected data from Enrichr (https://amp.pharm.mssm.edu/Enrichr/), DisGeNET (https://www.disgenet.org/) and others and carried out enrichment analysis using Enrichr. Various biological processes and pathways associated with viral protein interacting partners are known to involve in metabolic diseases MESHD. The molecular pathways underlying insulin resistance MESHD insulin resistance HP, insulin signaling and insulin secretion are not only involved in diabetes but also in CVD and obesity MESHD obesity HP (associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease MESHD; NAFLD). Lipid metabolism/lipogenesis, fatty acid oxidation and inflammation MESHD are associated with MetS. Viral interacting host proteins are associated and enriched with terms like hyperglycemia MESHD hyperglycemia HP, coronary artery disease MESHD, hypertensive disease MESHD related to CVD and liver diseases MESHD in DisGeNET. Association of viral interacting proteins with disease MESHD-relevant biological processes, pathways and disease MESHD-related terms suggests that altered host protein function following interaction with viral proteins might contribute to frequent occurrence and/or severity of COVID-19 in subjects with MetS. Such analysis not only provides a molecular basis of comorbidity but also incriminates host proteins in viral replication, growth and identifies possible drug targets for intervention.

    The hypothalamus as a hub for putative SARS-CoV-2 brain infection MESHD

    Authors: Sreekala Nampoothiri; Florent Sauve; Gaetan Ternier; Daniela Fernandois; Caio Coelho; Monica Imbernon; Eleonora Deligia; Romain Perbet; Vincent Florent; Marc Baroncini; Florence Pasquier; Francois Trottein; Claude-Alain Maurage; Virginie Mattot; Paolo Giacobini; S. Rasika; Vincent Prevot

    doi:10.1101/2020.06.08.139329 Date: 2020-06-09 Source: bioRxiv

    Most patients with COVID-19, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), display neurological symptoms, and respiratory failure HP in certain cases could be of extra-pulmonary origin. Hypothalamic neural circuits play key roles in sex differences, diabetes, hypertension MESHD hypertension HP, obesity MESHD obesity HP and aging, all risk factors for severe COVID-19, besides being connected to olfactory/gustative and brainstem cardiorespiratory centers. Here, human brain gene-expression analyses and immunohistochemistry reveal that the hypothalamus and associated regions express angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 and transmembrane proteinase, serine 2, which mediate SARS-CoV-2 cellular entry, in correlation with genes or pathways involved in physiological functions or viral pathogenesis. A post-mortem patient brain shows viral invasion and replication in both the olfactory bulb and the hypothalamus, while animal studies indicate that sex hormones and metabolic diseases MESHD influence this susceptibility.

    Molecular Mechanisms Involved in the Positive Effects of Physical Activity on Coping with COVID-19

    Authors: Ersilia Nigro; Rita Polito; Andreina Alfieri; Annamaria Mancini; Esther Imperlini; Ausilia Elce; Peter Krustrup; Stefania Orrù; Pasqualina Buono; Aurora Daniele

    id:202006.0084/v1 Date: 2020-06-07 Source: preprints.org

    Purpose: At a time of a pandemic SARS-CoV2 infection MESHD, and in the context of the multiorgan crosstalk widely accepted as a mechanism participating in the pathophysiology of all organs and systems, a correlation between adipose tissue, muscle and the immune system has been investigated. Physical Activity (PA) represents the first line of defence against metabolic diseases MESHD and infections MESHD, like SARS-CoV2, modulating several crucial functions such as inflammation MESHD and immune response. Conversely, obesity MESHD obesity HP, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disorders – all correlated with PA - negatively impact on general health status, including susceptibility to infections MESHD. Here we review the complex interplay between type 2 diabetes, obesity MESHD obesity HP, immune response, inflammation MESHD and viral infections MESHD, such as the current SARS-CoV2, focusing on the molecular mechanisms modulated by exercise. Methods: A comprehensive literature search was completed to identify joint biomarkers previously used to investigate acute and chronic exercise training. Results: we show that PA may counteract/mitigate viral adverse effects. We also describe data suggesting that vitamin D supplementation, frequently observed in practitioners of sport and regular exercise, could represent an additional positive factor in supporting COVID-19 with fighting against the virus. Conclusion: Altogether this evidence confirms that an active lifestyle and PA not only counteract dysmetabolic diseases MESHD but could also be effective for counteracting SARS-CoV2 infection MESHD. It is therefore essential to persuade people to keep active.

    Are German endoscopy units prepared for the COVID-19 pandemic? A nationwide survey

    Authors: Jakob Garbe; Stephan Eisenmann; Clara Sophie Heidemann; Marko Damm; Sebastian Krug; Steffen Walter; Frank Lammert; Kaid Darwiche; Patrick Michl; Jonas Rosendahl

    doi:10.1101/2020.04.19.20071340 Date: 2020-04-23 Source: medRxiv

    Objective: The COVID-19 pandemic challenges health care systems worldwide. In this situation, guidelines for health care professionals in endoscopy units with increased risk of infection TRANS risk of infection TRANS infection MESHD from inhalation of airborne droplets, conjunctival contact and faeces are urgently needed. Recently, the European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE) and the German Society for Pneumology (DGP) issued recommendations. However, real-world data on the conditions and requirements of endoscopy units to adhere to this guidance are missing. Design: We conducted an internet-based survey among German endoscopy units from all levels of care from April 1st to 7th, 2020. The survey comprised 33 questions and was distributed electronically by the German Society of Gastroenterology, Digestive and Metabolic Diseases MESHD (DGVS) and the DGP. Results: In total, 656 endoscopy units completed the survey. Overall, 253 units (39%) cancelled fewer than 40% of their procedures. Of note, private practices cancelled less procedures than hospital-based units. Complete separation of high-risk and COVID-19 positive patients was achieved in only 20% of the units. Procedural measures were well adopted, with 91% of the units systematically identifying patients at risk and 85% using risk-adapted personal protective equipment (PPE). For the future, shortages in PPE (81%), staff (69%) and relevant financial losses (77%) were expected. Conclusion: Concise definitions of non-urgent, elective interventions and endoscopic surveillance strategies are needed to better guide endoscopic activity and intervention cancellations. In the short term, a lack of PPE can constitute considerable impairment of endoscopy units' operability and patient outcomes.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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