Corpus overview


Overview

MeSH Disease

Mumps (7)

Disease (6)

Infections (4)

Measles (3)

Rubella (3)


Human Phenotype

Transmission

Seroprevalence
    displaying 1 - 7 records in total 7
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    Containing the Spread of Infectious Disease MESHD on College Campuses

    Authors: Mirai Shah; Gabrielle Ferra; Susan Fitzgerald; Paul Barreira; Pardis Sabeti; Andres Colubri

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.31.20166348 Date: 2020-08-04 Source: medRxiv

    College campuses in the United States are highly vulnerable to infectious diseases MESHD outbreaks, and there is a mounting need to develop strategies that best mitigate their size and duration, particularly as colleges consider reopening their campuses in the midst of the COVID-19 pandemic. Towards addressing this need, we applied a stochastic transmission TRANS model to quantify the impact of university-level responses to past outbreaks on their campuses and used it to determine which control interventions are most effective. The model aims to simultaneously overcome three crucial issues: stochastic variation in small populations, missing or unobserved case data, and changes in disease MESHD transmission TRANS rates post-intervention. We tested the model and assessed various interventions using data from the 2014 and 2016 mumps MESHD outbreaks at Ohio State University and Harvard University, respectively. Our results suggest that universities should design more aggressive diagnostic procedures and stricter isolation policies to decrease infectious disease MESHD incidence on campus. Our model can be applied to data from other outbreaks in college campuses and similar small-population settings.

    Possible Cross-Reactivity Between SARS-CoV-2 Proteins, CRM197 and Proteins in Pneumococcal Vaccines May Protect Against Symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 Disease MESHD and Death MESHD

    Authors: Robert Root-Bernstein

    id:10.20944/preprints202007.0141.v2 Date: 2020-08-04 Source: Preprints.org

    Various studies indicate that vaccination, especially with pneumococcal vaccines, protects against symptomatic cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD and death MESHD. This paper explores the possibility that pneumococcal vaccines in particular, but perhaps other vaccines as well, contain antigens that might be cross-reactive with SARS-CoV-2 antigens. Comparison of the glycosylation structures of SARS-CoV-2 with the polysaccharide structures of pneumococcal vaccines yielded no obvious similarities. However, while pneumococcal vaccines are primarily composed of capsular polysaccharides, some are conjugated to CRM197, a modified diphtheria MESHD toxin, and all contain about three percent protein contaminants, including the pneumococcal surface proteins PsaA, PspA and probably PspC. All of these proteins have very high degrees of similarity, using very stringent criteria, with several SARS-CoV-2 proteins including the spike protein, membrane protein and replicase 1a. CRM197 is also present in Hib and meningitis MESHD meningitis HP vaccines. Equivalent similarities were found at statistically significantly lower rates, or were completely absent, among the proteins in diphtheria MESHD, tetanus MESHD, pertussis, measles MESHD, mumps MESHD, rubella MESHD, and poliovirus vaccines. Notably, PspA and PspC are highly antigenic and new pneumococcal vaccines based on them are currently in human clinical trials so that their effectiveness against SARS-CoV-2 disease MESHD is easily testable.

    Exploratory analysis of immunization records highlights decreased SARS-CoV-2 rates in individuals with recent non-COVID-19 vaccinations

    Authors: Colin Pawlowski; Arjun Puranik; Hari Bandi; AJ Venkatakrishnan; Vineet Agarwal; Richard Kennedy; John C O'Horo; Gregory J Gores; Amy W Williams; John Halamka; Andrew D Badley; Venky Soundararajan

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.27.20161976 Date: 2020-07-28 Source: medRxiv

    Multiple clinical studies are ongoing to assess whether existing vaccines may afford protection against SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD through trained immunity. In this exploratory study, we analyze immunization records from 137,037 individuals who received SARS-CoV-2 PCR tests. We find that polio, Hemophilus influenzae type-B (HIB), measles MESHD- mumps MESHD- rubella MESHD (MMR), varicella, pneumococcal conjugate (PCV13), geriatric flu, and hepatitis MESHD hepatitis MESHD hepatitis HP A / hepatitis B MESHD hepatitis HP (HepA-HepB) vaccines administered in the past 1, 2, and 5 years are associated with decreased SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD rates, even after adjusting for geographic SARS-CoV-2 incidence and testing rates, demographics, comorbidities, and number of other vaccinations. Furthermore, age TRANS, race/ethnicity, and blood SERO group stratified analyses reveal significantly lower SARS-CoV-2 rate among black individuals who have taken the PCV13 vaccine, with relative risk of 0.45 at the 5 year time horizon (n: 653, 95% CI: (0.32, 0.64), p-value: 6.9e-05). These findings suggest that additional pre-clinical and clinical studies are warranted to assess the protective effects of existing non-COVID-19 vaccines and explore underlying immunologic mechanisms. We note that the findings in this study are preliminary and are subject to change as more data becomes available and as further analysis is conducted.

    Online respondent-driven detection for enhanced contact tracing TRANS of close-contact TRANS infectious diseases MESHD: benefits and barriers for public health practice

    Authors: Yannick B. Helms; Nora Hamdiui; Renske Eilers; Christian Hoebe; Nicole Dukers-Muijrers; Hans van den Kerkhof; Aura Timen; Mart L. Stein

    doi:10.1101/2020.06.24.20138024 Date: 2020-06-24 Source: medRxiv

    Background: Online respondent-driven detection (online-RDD) is a novel method of case-finding that can enhance contact tracing TRANS. However, the advantages and challenges of online-RDD for contact tracing TRANS (CT) have not yet been investigated from the perspective of public health professionals (PHPs). Therefore, it remains unclear if, and under what circumstances, PHPs are willing to apply online-RDD for contact tracing TRANS. Methods: First, between March and April 2019, we conducted semi-structured interviews with Dutch PHPs responsible for CT in practice. Questions were derived from the diffusion of innovations theory. Second, between May and June 2019 we distributed an online questionnaire to 260 Dutch PHPs to quantify the main qualitative findings. Using hypothetical scenarios that involved close-contact TRANS pathogens ( scabies MESHD, shigella, and mumps MESHD), we assessed anticipated advantages and challenges of online-RDD and PHPs intention to apply online-RDD for contact tracing TRANS. Results: Twelve interviews were held and 70 PHPs filled in the online questionnaire. A majority of questionnaire respondents (71%) had a positive intention towards using online-RDD for contact tracing TRANS. Anticipated advantages of online-RDD were related to accommodating easy and autonomous participation in contact tracing TRANS of patients and contact persons, and reaching contact persons more efficiently. Anticipated challenges with online-RDD were related to limited opportunities for PHPs to support, motivate, and coordinate the execution of contact tracing TRANS, adequately conveying measures to patients and contact persons, and anticipated unrest among patients and contact persons. Online-RDD was considered more applicable when patients and their contact persons are reluctant to share sensitive information directly with PHPs, digitally skilled and literate persons are involved, and the scope of contact tracing TRANS is large. Online-RDD was considered less applicable when consequences of missing information or individuals are severe for individuals - or public health, when measures that patients and contact persons need to undertake are complex or impactful, and when a disease MESHD is perceived as particularly severe or sensitive by patients and their contact persons. Conclusions: PHPs generally perceived online-RDD as beneficial to public health practice. The method can help overcome challenges present in regular CT and could be used during outbreaks of infectious diseases MESHD diseases that spread TRANS that spread via close-contact TRANS, such as the SARS-CoV-2 virus. We propose a staggered implementation study to further investigate the application of online-RDD for enhanced CT during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic.

    Identification and enrichment of SECReTE cis-acting RNA elements in the Coronaviridae and other (+) single-strand RNA viruses

    Authors: Gal Haimovich; Tsviya Olender; Camila Baez; Jeffrey E Gerst

    doi:10.1101/2020.04.20.050088 Date: 2020-04-20 Source: bioRxiv

    cis-acting RNA motifs play a major role in regulating many aspects of RNA biology including posttranscriptional processing, nuclear export, RNA localization, translation and degradation. Here we analyzed the genomes of SARS-CoV-2 and other single-strand RNA (ssRNA) viruses for the presence of a unique cis RNA element called SECReTE. This motif consists of 10 or more consecutive triplet nucleotide repeats where a pyrimidine nucleotide (C or U) in present every third base, and which we identified in mRNAs encoding secreted proteins in bacteria, yeast, and humans. This motif facilitates mRNA localization to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), along with the enhanced translation and secretion of translated protein. We now examined for SECReTE presence in Group IV and V RNA viruses, the former including the Coronaviridae, like SARS-CoV-2 and other positive (+)ssRNA viruses, and the latter consisting of negative (-) ssRNA viruses. Interestingly, the SARS-CoV-2 genome contains 40 SECReTE motifs at an abundance of ~1.3 SECReTEs/kilobase (kb). Moreover, all ssRNA viruses we examined contain multiple copies of this motif and appears in (+)ssRNA viruses as non-random in occurrence and independent of genome length. Importantly, (+)ssRNA viruses (e.g. Coronaviruses and Hepaciviruses), which utilize ER membranes to create double membrane vesicles to serve as viral replication centers (VRCs), contain more SECReTE motifs per kb as compared to (-)ssRNA viruses (e.g. Rabies MESHD, Mumps MESHD, and Influenza), that replicate in the nucleus or the cytoplasm, or other (+)ssRNA viruses (e.g. Enteroviruses and Flaviviruses) which employ different organellar membranes. As predicted by our earlier work, SECReTE sequences are mostly found in membranal or ER-associated/secreted proteins. Thus, we propose that SECReTE motifs could be important for the efficient translation and secretion of secreted viral proteins, as well as for VRC formation. Future studies of SECReTE function and identification of SECReTE-binding proteins could provide new drug targets to treat COVID-19 and other (+)ssRNA related diseases MESHD.

    Homologous protein domains in SARS-CoV-2 and measles MESHD, mumps MESHD and rubella MESHD viruses: preliminary evidence that MMR vaccine might provide protection against COVID-19

    Authors: Robin Franklin; Adam Young; Bjoern Neumann; Rocio Fernandez; Alexis Joannides; Amir Reyahi; Yorgo Modis

    doi:10.1101/2020.04.10.20053207 Date: 2020-04-10 Source: medRxiv

    The COVID-19 disease MESHD is one of worst pandemics to sweep the globe in recent times. It is noteworthy that the disease MESHD has its greatest impact on the elderly TRANS. Herein, we investigated the potential of childhood vaccination, specifically against measles MESHD, mumps MESHD and rubella MESHD (MMR), to identify if this could potentially confer acquired protection over SARS-CoV-2. We identified sequence homology between the fusion proteins of SARS-CoV-2 and measles MESHD and mumps MESHD viruses. Moreover, we also identified a 29% amino acid sequence homology between the Macro (ADP-ribose-1-phosphatase) domains of SARS-CoV-2 and rubella MESHD virus. The rubella MESHD Macro domain has surface-exposed conserved residues and is present in the attenuated rubella MESHD virus in MMR. Hence, we hypothesize that MMR could protect against poor outcome in COVID-19 infection MESHD. As an initial test of this hypothesis, we identified that 1) age groups TRANS that most likely lack of MMR vaccine-induced immunity had the poorest outcome in COVID-19, and 2) COVID-19 disease MESHD burden correlates with rubella MESHD antibody SERO titres, potentially induced by SARS-CoV2 homologous sequences. We therefore propose that vaccination of at risk age groups TRANS with an MMR vaccination merits further consideration as a time-appropriate and safe intervention.

    Orthogonal genome-wide screenings in bat cells identify MTHFD1 as a target of broad antiviral therapy

    Authors: Danielle E Anderson; Jin Cui; Qian Ye; Baoying Huang; Wenhong Zu; Jing Gong; Weiqiang Liu; So Young Kim; Biao Guo Yan; Kristmundur Sigmundsson; Xiao Fang Lim; Fei Ye; Peihua Niu; Xuming Zhou; Wenjie Tan; Lin-Fa Wang; Xu Tan

    doi:10.1101/2020.03.29.014209 Date: 2020-03-30 Source: bioRxiv

    Bats are responsible for the zoonotic transmission TRANS of several major viral diseases MESHD including the 2003 SARS outbreak and the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. While bat genomic sequencing studies have revealed characteristic adaptations of the innate immune system, functional genomic studies are urgently needed to provide a foundation for the molecular dissection of the tolerance of viral infections MESHD in bats. Here we report the establishment and screening of genome-wide RNAi library and CRISPR library for the model megabat, Pteropus Alecto. We used the complementary RNAi and CRISPR libraries to interrogate Pteropus Alecto cells for infection MESHD with two different viruses, mumps MESHD virus and Influenza A virus, respectively. Screening results converged on the endocytosis pathway and the protein secretory pathway as required for both viral infections MESHD. Additionally, we revealed a general dependence of the C-1-tetrahydrofolate synthase gene, MTHFD1, for viral replication in bat cells as well as in human cells. MTHFD1 inhibitor carolacton potently blocked replication of several RNA viruses including SARS-CoV-2. Our studies provide a resource for systematic inquiry into the genetic underpinnings of bat biology and a potential target for developing broad spectrum antiviral therapy.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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