Corpus overview


Overview

MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Transmission

Seroprevalence
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    Impact of tocilizumab administration on mortality in severe COVID-19

    Authors: Andrew Tsai; Oumou Diawara; Ronald G Nahass; Luigi Brunetti

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.30.20114959 Date: 2020-08-02 Source: medRxiv

    Background The novel coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) worldwide pandemic has placed a significant burden on hospitals and healthcare providers. The immune response to this disease MESHD is thought to lead to a cytokine storm, which contributes to the severity of illness. There is an urgent need to confirm whether the use of tocilizumab provides a benefit in individuals with COVID-19. Methods A single-center propensity-score matched cohort study, including all consecutive COVID-19 patients, admitted to the medical center who were either discharged from the medical center or expired between March 1, 2020, and May 5, 2020, was performed. Patients were stratified according to the receipt of tocilizumab for cytokine storm and matched to controls using propensity scores. The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality. Results A total of 132 patients were included in the matched dataset (tocilizumab=66; standard of care=66). Approximately 73% of the patients were male TRANS. Hypertension MESHD Hypertension HP (55%), diabetes mellitus MESHD diabetes mellitus HP (31%), and chronic pulmonary disease MESHD (15%) were the most common comorbidities present. There were 18 deaths MESHD (27.3%) in the tocilizumab group and 18 deaths MESHD (27.3%) in the standard of care group (odds ratio, 1.0; 95% confidence interval, 0.465 - 2.151; p=1.00). Advanced age TRANS, history of myocardial infarction MESHD myocardial infarction HP, dementia MESHD dementia HP, chronic pulmonary disease, heart MESHD failure, and malignancy were significantly more common in patients who died. Interpretation The current analysis does not support the use of tocilizumab for the management of cytokine storm in patients with COVID-19. Use of this therapeutic agent should be limited to the context of a clinical trial until more evidence is available.

    The Outcome of COVID-19 Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction MESHD Myocardial Infarction HP

    Authors: Hassan Altamimi; Yasser Alahmad; Fadi Khazal; Mowahib Elhassan; Hajar AlBinali; Abdulrahman Arabi; Awad AlQahtani; Nidal Asaad; Mohammed Al-Hijji; Tahir Hamid; Ihsan Rafie; Ali S. Omrani; Saad AlKaabi; Abdullatif Alkhal; Muna AlMalslmani; Mohammed Ali; Murad Alkhani; Mariam AlNesf; Salem Abu Jalala; Salaheddine Arafa; Reem ElSousy; Omar AlTamimi; Ezzeldine Soaly; Charbel Abi khalil; Jassim Al Suwaidi

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.21.20156349 Date: 2020-07-27 Source: medRxiv

    Background Coronavirus Disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) is a rapidly expanding global pandemic resulting in significant morbidity and mortality. COVID-19 patients may present with acute myocardial infarction MESHD myocardial infarction HP (AMI). The aim of this study is to conduct detailed analysis on patients with AMI and COVID-19. Methods We included all patients admitted with AMI and actively known or found to be COVID-19 positive by PCR between the 4th February 2020 and the 11th June 2020 in the State of Qatar. Patients were divided into ST-elevation myocardial infarction MESHD myocardial infarction HP (STEMI) and Non-STE (NSTEMI). Results There were 68 patients (67 men and 1 woman) admitted between the 4th of February 2020 and the 11th of June 2020 with AMI and COVID-19. The mean age TRANS was 49.1, 46 patients had STEMI and 22 had NSTEMI. 38% had diabetes mellitus MESHD diabetes mellitus HP, 31% had hypertension MESHD hypertension HP, 16% were smokers, 13% had dyslipidemia, and 14.7% had prior cardiovascular disease MESHD. Chest pain MESHD Chest pain HP and dyspnea MESHD dyspnea HP were the presenting symptoms in 90% and 12% of patients respectively. Fever MESHD Fever HP (15%) and cough MESHD cough HP (15%) were the most common COVID-19 symptoms, while the majority had no viral symptoms. Thirty-nine (33 STEMI and 6 NSTEMI) patients underwent coronary angiography, 38 of them had significant coronary disease MESHD. Overall in-hospital MACE was low; 1 patient developed stroke MESHD stroke HP and 2 died. Conclusion Contrary to previous small reports, overall in-hospital adverse events were low in this largest cohort of COVID-19 patients presenting with AMI. We hypothesize patient profile including younger age TRANS contributed to these findings. Further studies are required to confirm this observation.

    The Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on the Emergency MESHD Department Visits: A Retrospective Analysis in Shanghai, China

    Authors: Wei Long; Jiudong Hu; Lijuan Li; Sheng Zuo; Qian Yang; Zenghua Ren

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-49525/v1 Date: 2020-07-27 Source: ResearchSquare

    BackgroundThe novel coronavirus diseases MESHD (COVID-19) has led to a pandemic and affected people's lives greatly, including their health seeking behavior. We aimed to evaluate the impact of the current COVID-19 pandemic on characteristics and trends of emergency MESHD department (ED) visits in Shanghai, China.MethodsThis was a retrospective observational study using medical record databases from the Shanghai Sixth People's Hospital (East Campus) for years 2016 through 2020. All the patients referred to the ED between January 2016 and June 2020 were retrospectively reviewed. January 1, 2020, was chosen as the cutoff date for the statistical analysis and data of January and February in 2020 was compared with the same period of 2019.ResultsDuring the first two months of 2020, there was a 60.9% decline in ED visits when compared with the same period of 2019 (9,904 vs. 25,316, respectively), and the waiting time in ED has been greatly reduced correspondingly (12±4 vs. 66±19 min, p < 0.001); ED visits for acute ischemic stroke HP stroke MESHD (AIS) and acute coronary syndrome MESHD(ACS) decreased by 53.9% and 41.2% respectively; proportion of intravenous thrombolysis for AIS has dropped(42.1% vs. 11.4%, p = 0.003), and percutaneous coronary intervention for ACS was similar (70.6% vs. 63.3%, p = 0.668); and onset-to-door time (ODT) of these patients increased significantly (AIS: 217(136-374) vs. 378(260-510)min, ACS: 135(85-195) vs. 226(155-368)min, all p < 0.001).ConclusionThe outbreak of COVID-19 pandemic was correlated with a significant decline in the number of ED visits including AIS and ACS patients when compared to the pre-COVID-19 period. ODT of AIS and ACS patients increased significantly. Raising public awareness is necessary to avoid serious healthcare and economic consequences of undiagnosed and untreated stroke MESHD stroke HP and myocardial infarction MESHD myocardial infarction HP attack.

    Molecular mechanisms of Cardiac Injury associated with myocardial SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD

    Authors: XianFang Liu; Longquan Lou; Lei Zhou

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.27.220954 Date: 2020-07-27 Source: bioRxiv

    BackgroundCoronavirus Disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has spread around the world. Developing cardiac injury is a common condition in COVID-19 patients, but the pathogenesis remains unclear. MethodsThe RNA-Seq dataset (GES150392) compared expression profiling of mock human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs) and SARS-cov-2-infected hiPSC-CMs were obtained from Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO). We identified the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between those two groups. Through gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA), Gene Ontology (GO) analysis, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis, and CLINVAR human diseases MESHD analysis to identify the main effect of SARS-CoV-2 on cardiomyocytes. A protein-protein interaction (PPI) network was constructed to visualize interactions and functions of the hub genes. ResultsA total of 1554 DEGs were identified (726 upregulated genes and 828 downregulated genes). Gene enrichment analysis shown that SARS-CoV-2 activate immuno-inflammatory responses via multiple signal pathways, including TNF, IL6-JAK-STAT3, IL2-STAT5, NF-{kappa}B, IL17, and Toll-like receptor signaling pathway in hiPSC-CMs. Whereas, the muscle contraction, cellular respiration and cell cycle of hiPSC-CMs were inhibited by SARS-CoV-2. CLINVAR human diseases MESHD analysis shown SRAS-Cov-2 infection MESHD was associated with myocardial infarction MESHD myocardial infarction HP, cardiomyopathy MESHD cardiomyopathy HP and Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy MESHD Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy HP. 15 hub genes were identified based on PPI network. Function analysis revealed that 11 upregulated hub genes were mainly enriched in cytokine activity, chemokine activity, Inflammatory response, leukocyte chemotaxis, and lipopolysaccharide-mediated signaling pathway. Furthermore, 4 downregulated hub genes were related to cell cycle regulation. ConclusionThe present study elucidates that the SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD induced a strong defensive response in cardiomyocyte, leading to excessive immune inflammation MESHD, cell hypoxia MESHD, functional contractility reduction and apoptosis, ultimately result in myocardial injury.

    Estimating the proportion of coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) cases among households in France : a cross-sectional study on individuals with myocardial infarction MESHD myocardial infarction HP history

    Authors: Laurie Fraticelli; Julie Freyssenge; Clement Claustre; Mikael Martinez; Abdesslam Redjaline; Patrice Serre; Thomas Bochaton; Carlos El Khoury; - the RESCUe-RESUVal team

    doi:10.1101/2020.06.19.20135418 Date: 2020-06-20 Source: medRxiv

    Background: Previous studies have identified that adults TRANS with cardiovascular diseases MESHD were disproportionately associated with a significantly increased risk of a severe form of COVID-19 and all-cause mortality. We aimed to describe the diagnosed COVID-19 cases and to estimate the symptomatic and asymptomatic TRANS suspected cases among individuals with pre-existing myocardial infarction MESHD myocardial infarction HP myocardial infarction MESHD myocardial infarction HP and their relatives in lockdown period. Methods: We conducted a two-week cross-sectional telephone survey, from May 4 to May 15, 2020, including all households with at least one individual with pre-existing cardiovascular disease MESHD in the past two years. We defined a suspected COVID-19 case when living with at least one individual tested positive to COVID-19, or when an individual has been in contact with a suspected or confirmed case TRANS since the March 1rst, or when a relative from the same house has been hospitalized or deceased for COVID-19. Results: We observed high rates of compliance with health measures during the lockdown period, regardless of age TRANS or risk factors. Among individuals with myocardial infarction MESHD myocardial infarction HP history, two were COVID-19 confirmed, 13.37% were suspected (94/703) of whom 70.21% (66/94) asymptomatic TRANS. Conclusions: Individuals with myocardial infarction MESHD myocardial infarction HP history presented different symptoms association with more respiratory signs. This population, which is older and associated with more comorbidities, is exposed to a high risk of complication in the event of contamination. Infection MESHD rates are relevant to adjusting the management of emergency MESHD departments in our region.

    The Impact of COVID-19 Pandemic on Cardiology Services

    Authors: Omar Fersia; Sue Bryant; Rachael Nicholson; Karen McMeeken; Carolyn Brown; Brenda Donaldson; Aaron Jardine; Valerie Grierson; Vanessa Whalen; Alistair Mackay

    doi:10.1101/2020.06.10.20126458 Date: 2020-06-16 Source: medRxiv

    Objective: COVID-19 pandemic resulted in prioritisation of NHS resources to cope with the surge in infected patients. However, there have been no studies in the UK looking at the effect of COVID-19 work pattern on the provision of cardiology services. We aim to assess the impact of the pandemic on the cardiology services and clinical activity. Methods: We analysed key performance SERO indicators in cardiology services in a single centre in the UK in the intervals prior and during the lockdown to assess for reduction or changes to service provisions. Results: There has been more than 50% drop in patients presenting to cardiology and those diagnosed with myocardial infarction MESHD myocardial infarction HP. All cardiology service provisions sustained significant reductions which included outpatient clinics, investigations, procedures and cardiology community services such as heart failure MESHD and cardiac rehabilitation. Conclusion: As ischaemic heart disease MESHD continues to be the leading cause of death MESHD nationally and globally, cardiology services need to prepare for a significant increase in workload in the recovery phase and develop new pathways to urgently help those adversely affected by the changes in service provisions.

    Electrocardiographic findings of methanol toxicity: A cross-sectional study on 356 cases in Iran

    Authors: Mohammad Hossein Nikoo; Alireza Arjangzadeh; Maryam Pakfetrat; Shahrokh Sadeghi Boogar; Vahid Mohammadkarimi; Vahid Reza Ostovan; Zohre Khodamoradi; Jamshid Roozbeh; Mohammadreza Khalili; Farnaz Kamali Haghighi Shirazi; Paryia Kouhi; Seyyed Taghi Heydari

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-34297/v2 Date: 2020-06-08 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: Methanol is widely used in industry; however, methanol poisoning MESHD is not common. In this regard, a number of outbreaks have been recently reported due to inappropriate processing of alcoholic beverages. Shiraz, a city located in the southern part of Iran, faced one of such outbreaks in 2020 during COVID-19 pandemic. There is no sufficient literature on the electrocardiographic findings in methanol toxicity. This study aimed to address this gap in the literature.Method: A total of 356 cases with methanol toxicity referred to Shiraz University of Medical Science Tertiary Hospitals (Faghihi and Namazi) in March and April, 2020. The clinical findings of blindness MESHD blindness HP and impaired level of consciousness, lab data such as arterial blood SERO gas, electrolytes, and creatinine, and the most common findings from ECGs were collected. Results: The most common ECG findings were J point elevation (68.8%), presence of U wave (59.2%), QTc prolongation (53.2% in males TRANS and 28.6% in females TRANS), and fragmented QRS (33.7%). An outstanding finding in this study was the presence of myocardial infarction MESHD myocardial infarction HP in 5.3% of the cases. This finding, to the best of our knowledge, has only been reported in a few case reports. Brugada pattern (8.1%) and Osborn wave (3.7%) were the other interesting findings.In multivariate analysis, when confounding factors were adjusted, myocardial infarction MESHD myocardial infarction HP, atrioventricular conduction disturbances, sinus tachycardia MESHD sinus tachycardia HP, and the prolonged QTC>500 msecond were four independent factors correlated with methanol toxicity severity measured with arterial blood SERO PH on arterial blood SERO gas measurements, with odds ratios of 12.82, 4.46, 2.32 and 3.15 (P<0.05 for all) , respectively.Conclusion: Electrocardiographic variations during methanol intoxication are remarkable and well-correlated with poisoning MESHD severity. Myocardial infarction MESHD Myocardial infarction HP was an egregious and yet a common concerning finding in this sample, which need to be ruled out in methanol toxicity.

    Heart Disease MESHD Deaths MESHD during the Covid-19 Pandemic

    Authors: Jeremy Faust; Zhenqiu Lin; Harlan Krumholz

    doi:10.1101/2020.06.04.20122317 Date: 2020-06-07 Source: medRxiv

    The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic is associated with a reduction in hospitalization for an acute cardiovascular conditions. In a major health system in Massachusetts, there was a 43% reduction in these types of hospitalizations in March 2020 compared with March 2019.4 Whether mortality rates from heart disease MESHD have changed over this period is unknown. We assembled information from the National Center for Health Statistics (Centers for Disease MESHD Control and Prevention) for 118,356,533 person-weeks from Week 1 (ending January 4) through Week 17 (ending April 25) of 2020 for the state of Massachusetts. We found that heart disease MESHD deaths MESHD are unchanged during the Covid-19 pandemic period as compared to the corresponding period of 2019. This is despite reports that admissions for acute myocardial infarction MESHD myocardial infarction HP have fallen HP during this time.

    Ethnically diverse mutations in PIEZO1 associate with SARS-CoV-2 positivity

    Authors: Chew W Cheng; Vijayalakshmi Deivasikamani; Melanie J Ludlow; Dario De Vecchis; Antreas C Kalli; David J Beech; Piruthivi Sukumar

    doi:10.1101/2020.06.01.20119651 Date: 2020-06-03 Source: medRxiv

    COVID-19, caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus, carries significant risk of mortality and has spread globally with devastating societal consequences. Endothelial infection MESHD has been identified as a feature of the disease MESHD and so there is motivation to determine the relevance of endothelial membrane mechanisms affecting viral entry and response. Here, through a study of patient data in UK Biobank released on 16 April 2020, we suggest relevance of PIEZO1, a non-selective cation channel protein that both mediates endothelial responses to mechanical force and unusually indents the cell membrane. PIEZO1 notably has roles that may also be relevant in red blood SERO cell function, pulmonary inflammation MESHD, bacterial infection MESHD and fibrotic auto- inflammation MESHD. We provide evidence that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the gene encoding PIEZO1 are more common in individuals who test positive for SARS-CoV-2 regardless of pre-existing hypertension MESHD hypertension HP, myocardial infarction MESHD myocardial infarction HP, stroke MESHD stroke HP, diabetes mellitus MESHD diabetes mellitus HP or arthritis MESHD arthritis HP. Some of these SNPs are more common in African and Caribbean populations, which are groups that were recently shown to have greater susceptibility to infection MESHD. One of the SNPs is a missense mutation that results in an amino acid change in an evolutionarily conserved and previously unexplored N-terminal region PIEZO1. The data support the notion of genetic factors influencing SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD and suggest a specific role for PIEZO1.

    Greater risk of severe COVID-19 in non-White ethnicities is not explained by cardiometabolic, socioeconomic, or behavioural factors, or by 25(OH)-vitamin D status: study of 1,326 cases from the UK Biobank

    Authors: Zahra Raisi-Estabragh; Celeste McCracken; Mae S Bethell; Jackie Cooper; Cyrus Cooper; Mark J Caulfield; Patricia B Munroe; Nicholas C Harvey; Steffen E Petersen

    doi:10.1101/2020.06.01.20118943 Date: 2020-06-02 Source: medRxiv

    Background We examined whether the greater severity of coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) amongst men and non-White ethnicities is explained by cardiometabolic, socio-economic, or behavioural factors. Methods We studied 4,510 UK Biobank participants tested for COVID-19 (positive, n=1,326). Multivariate logistic regression models including age TRANS, sex, and ethnicity were used to test whether addition of: 1)cardiometabolic factors (diabetes, hypertension MESHD hypertension HP, high cholesterol, prior myocardial infarction MESHD myocardial infarction HP, smoking, BMI); 2)25(OH)-vitamin D; 3)poor diet; 4)Townsend deprivation score; 5)housing (home type, overcrowding); or 6)behavioural factors (sociability, risk taking HP) attenuated sex/ethnicity associations with COVID-19 status. Results There was over-representation of men and non-White ethnicities in the COVID-19 positive group. Non-Whites had, on average, poorer cardiometabolic profile, lower 25(OH)-vitamin D, greater material deprivation, and were more likely to live in larger households and flats/apartments. Male TRANS sex, non-White ethnicity, higher BMI, Townsend deprivation score, and household overcrowding were independently associated with significantly greater odds of COVID-19. The pattern of association was consistent for men and women; cardiometabolic, socio-demographic and behavioural factors did not attenuate sex/ethnicity associations. Conclusions Sex and ethnicity differential pattern of COVID-19 is not adequately explained by variations in cardiometabolic factors, 25(OH)-vitamin D levels, or socio-economic factors. Investigation of alternative biological pathways and different genetic susceptibilities is warranted.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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