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Overview

MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Transmission

Seroprevalence
    displaying 1 - 10 records in total 35
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    Varicella Zoster Virus Induced Acute Retinal Necrosis MESHD Following Acute Meningoencephalitis MESHD in a Patient with Presumed COVID-19

    Authors: Kiana Hassanpour; Faezeh Khorasanizadeh; Hamid Ahmadieh; Mahmood Nabavi; Narsis Daftarian; Alireza Ramezani

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-54356/v1 Date: 2020-08-05 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: To report the coincidence of acute retinal necrosis syndrome MESHD (ARN) following acute meningoencephalitis MESHD and presumed coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) in an immunocompetent patient. Case presentation: A 58-year old female TRANS presented to our emergency MESHD department complaining of sudden unilateral visual loss HP following a recent hospitalization for a viral meningoencephalitis MESHD. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of the aqueous humor, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) of the nasopharyngeal swab specimen, chest computed tomography (CT), and fundus photography were performed for the patient. Ophthalmic examination revealed severe ocular inflammation MESHD and yellowish patches of necrotizing retinitis MESHD retinitis HP in the right eye compatible with the diagnosis of ARN. The result of PCR on the aqueous humor was positive for VZV. The patient received one intravitreal ganciclovir injection and 10 days intravenous ganciclovir followed by oral acyclovir. The patient underwent COVID-19 screening tests; chest CT-scan showed the features highly suggestive for COVID-19 while the RT-PCR was negative two times. Two months later, BCVA reached 20/70 in the right eye. The anterior chamber reaction and KPs resolved and the vitreous haziness significantly decreased Conclusion: A case of VZV induced ARN following acute meningoencephalitis MESHD was observed in association with presumed COVID-19. This could be an incidental finding in the pandemic era of COVID-19; however, it could also suggest that COVID-19 might trigger ARN in cases having latent herpes family viruses. 

    Decreased T Cell Levels in Critically Ill Coronavirus Patients: single-center, prospective and observational study

    Authors: Changsong Wang; Zhiyu Liu; Jingjing Xu; Haitao Liu; Yunpeng Luo; Kai Kang; Xueting Li; Wei Yang; Dongsheng Fei; Mingyan Zhao; Kaijiang Yu

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-52222/v1 Date: 2020-08-01 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: Since Dec. 2019, COVID-19 pandemic has been outbreak. T cells play an important role in dealing with various disease MESHD-causing pathogens. However, the role of T cells played in COVID-19 patients is still unknown. Our study aimed to describe immunologic state of the critical ill COVID-19 patients. Methods: 63 patients with confirmed COVID-19 pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP admitted Department of Intensive Care Unit of the First Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University. The immunologic characteristics(lymphocyte apoptosis, the expression of PD-1 and HLA-DR in T cells, T cell subset levels, redistribution and the production of inflammatory factors)as well as their laboratory parameters were compared between severe group and critical group.Results: The level of T cells in peripheral blood SERO was decreased in critical patients compared with that in severe patients, but the expression levels of PD-1 (CD4+: 24.71% VS 30.56%; CD8+: 33.05% VS 32.38%) and HLA-DR (T cells: 36.28% VS 27.44%; monocytes: 20.58% VS 23.83%) in T cells were not significantly changed, and apoptosis and necrosis MESHD were not different in lymphocytes (apoptosis: 1.04% VS 1.27%; necrosis MESHD: 0.67% VS 1.11%), granulocytes, or monocytes between those two groups.Conclusions: There is severe immunosuppression in critical ill COVID-19 patients. Redistribution of T cells might be the main reason for lymphocytic decline. Decreasing the infiltration of T lymphocytes in the lung may be beneficial for the treatment of COVID-19. Trial registration: The study was approved by the Ethics Committee of the First Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University. Code number: kyk2020003. 

    Treatment of sepsis MESHD sepsis HP-related Acute Respiratory Distress HP Syndrome MESHD with Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide

    Authors: Jihad G. Youssef; Sami Said; George Youssef; Matthew J. Javitt; Jonathan C Javitt

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-52237/v1 Date: 2020-08-01 Source: ResearchSquare

    Purpose: To assess the clinical safety and possible effectiveness of Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide in the treatment of Acute Respiratory Distress HP Syndrome MESHD (ARDS) related to sepsisMethods: Under FDA Investigational New Drug clearance, 8 patients with ARDS related to sepsis MESHD sepsis HP were treated with 50 pmole/kg/hr – 100 pmole/kg/hr of Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide by intravenous infusion for 12 hours. All patients were on mechanical ventilation and full telemetery.Results: No drug-related serious adverse events were seen. Hypotension was seen in association with two infusions and diarrhea MESHD diarrhea HP in association with one, but did not necessitate cessation of therapy. Bigeminy was seen in association with one infusion without sequelae. Seven of eight patients demonstrated a successful course during intensive care and were successfully removed from mechanical ventilation and discharged from intensive care. The eighth patient succumbed to purulent secretions in the lungs. Of those who were discharged from the ICU, six demonstrated successful 30 day survival. The seventh died from a cerebral infract at day 30, deemed unrelated to treatment with VIP. Serum levels of Tumor Necrosis MESHD Factor α were obtained in 6 patients at baseline and 24 hours and were seen to decrease with treatment in five patients.Conclusions: Initial clinical results of treatment with VIP in patients with ARDS demonstrated a safety profile consistent with previous studies in normal volunteers. The successful clinical course seen in 7 of 8 patients in the setting of an expected 50% survival may suggest that VIP shows promise in the treatment of other infectious conditions that damage the pulmonary epithelium, particularly COVID-19.Registration: This clinical trial was registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov under NCT00004494. Trial was registered before the first patient was enrolled.

    Circulating cytokines and lymphocyte subsets in patients who have recovered from COVID-19

    Authors: Hasi Chaolu; Xinri Zhang; Xin Li; Xin Li; Dongyan Li

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.22.20160259 Date: 2020-07-24 Source: medRxiv

    To investigate the immune status of people who previously had COVID-19 infections MESHD, we recruited patients 2 weeks post-recovery and analyzed circulating cytokines and lymphocyte subsets. We measured levels of total lymphocytes, CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, CD19+ B cells, CD56+ NK cells, and the serum SERO concentrations of interleukin (IL)-1, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, transforming growth factor beta (TGF-{beta}), tumor necrosis MESHD factor alpha (TNF-), and interferon gamma (IFN-{gamma}) by flow cytometry. We found that in most post-recovery patients, levels of total lymphocytes (66.67%), CD3+ T cells (54.55%), CD4+ T cells (54.55%), CD8 + T cells (81.82%), CD19+ B cells (69.70%), and CD56+ NK cells(51.52%) remained lower than normal, whereas most patients showed normal levels of IL-2 (100%), IL-4 (80.88%), IL-6 (79.41%), IL-10 (98.53%), TNF- (89.71%), IFN-{gamma} (100%) and IL-17 (97.06%). Compared to healthy controls, 2-week post-recovery patients had significantly lower absolute numbers of total lymphocytes, CD3+ T cells, CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, CD19+ B cells, and CD56+ NK cells, along with significantly higher levels of IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-, IFN-{gamma} and IL-17. Among post-recovery patients, T cells, particularly CD4+ T cells, were positively correlated with CD19+ B cell counts. Additionally, CD8+ T cells positively correlated with CD4+ T cells and IL-2 levels, and IL-6 positively correlated with TNF- and IFN-{gamma}. These correlations were not observed in healthy controls. By ROC curve analysis, post-recovery decreases in lymphocyte subsets and increases in cytokines were identified as independent predictors of rehabilitation efficacy. These findings indicate that the immune system has gradually recovered following COVID-19 infection MESHD; however, the sustained hyper-inflammatory response for more than 14 days suggests a need to continue medical observation following discharge from the hospital. Longitudinal studies of a larger cohort of recovered patients are needed to fully understand the consequences of the infection MESHD.

    The Important Herbal Pair for the Treatment of COVID-19 and Its Possible Mechanisms

    Authors: Shujie Xia; Zhangfeng Zhong; Bizhen Gao; Chi Teng Vong; Jin Cai; Xuejuan Lin; Shujiao Chen; Ging Chan; CanDong Li

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-46828/v1 Date: 2020-07-21 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: Corona Virus Disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) is an unprecedented disaster for people around the world. Many studies have shown that traditional Chinese medicines(TCM) are indeed effective in treating COVID-19. However, it is a hard work to find the most effective combination laws among numerous herbs as well as its potential mechanisms. The purpose of this article is to explore the combination laws of traditional Chinses medicine(TCM) prescriptions and pick out the most important herbal pair for treating COVID-19 and analyze the active components and potential mechanisms. Methods: We first systematically sorted out the TCM prescriptions recommended by leading experts for treating COVID-19 and the specific herbs they contained in different stages of disease MESHD. Next, the association rule approach was employed to examine the distribution and combination laws among these TCM prescription, and then picked out the most important herbal pair. On this basis, we further investigated the active ingredients and potential targets in the selected herbal pair by a network pharmacology approach. Result: We obtained 32 association rules for herb combinations in the process of TCM treatment for COVID-19. It was found that the combination of Amygdalus Communis Vas(ACV) and Ephedra sinica Stapf (ESS) had the highest confidence degree and lift value as well as high support degree, which can be used in almost all stages of COVID-19, so ACV and ESS (AE) was selected as the most important herbal pair. There were 26 active ingredients and 44 potential targets, which may be relate to the herbal pair of AE against COVID-19. The main active ingredients of AE against COVID-19 are quercetin, kaempferol, luteolin and the potential important targets are Interleukin 6 (IL-6), Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase 1 (MAPK)1, MAPK8, Interleukin-1β (IL-1β), Nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-kB) p65 subunit (RELA) and so on. The protein-protein interaction (PPI) cluster demonstrated that IL-6 was the seed in the cluster, which plays an important role in connecting other nodes in the PPI network. The significant pathways mainly involved in tumor necrosis MESHD factor (TNF), Toll-like receptor (TLR), hypoxia MESHD-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1), nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptor(NLRs). Conclusion: Amygdalus Communis Vas and Ephedra sinica Stapf was the most important herbal pair in the treatment of COVID-19. The main active ingredients of AE against COVID-19 were quercetin, kaempferol, luteolin and the important targets were IL-6,MAPK1, MAPK8, IL-1β, RELA and so on. AE may have therapeutic effects against COVID-19 by affecting the pathological processes such as inflammatory and immune responses, cell apoptosis, hypoxia MESHD damage and other pathological processes through multiple components, multiple targets and multiple pathways.

    Clinical Features and Histopathological Changes of Skeletal Muscle in Patients with COVID-19: Two Case reports

    Authors: Mei-Yan Liao; Ping Duan; Zhen-Yu Pan; Yu-Xiang Cai; Wei Fan; An-Song Ping

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-45595/v1 Date: 2020-07-19 Source: ResearchSquare

    BackgroundTo the best of our knowledge, muscle soreness is a common manifestation for the coronavirus disease MESHD-19 (COVID-19) patients, but the mechanism of the severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) injury to skeletal muscle remains unclear, there has been no publication focused on muscle involvement in COVID-19 patients.Case presentationWe present the case of two Chinese men with COVID-19, whose common symptoms were fatigue MESHD fatigue HP and muscle soreness. They went through different treatments, patient 1, 81-year-old, eventually died of multi-organ failure, and patient 2, 53-year-old, underwent amputation of the mid-lower section of left thigh. Laboratory tests in both patients showed abnormal biochemical parameters associated with skeletal muscle injury. We obtained skeletal muscle samples from these two patients, one from postmortem biopsy of gastrocnemius muscle and the other from a resected left lower limb due to thrombosis MESHD. The pathological findings in patient 1 were mainly scattered atrophic muscles, while fiber necrosis HP necrosis MESHD and minor inflammation MESHD were identified in patient 2, and the mild infiltrations were confirmed by CD68 and LCA staining to be predominantly macrophages and lymphocytes.ConclusionsWe report the clinical and laboratory features together with histopathological findings in skeletal muscle tissues from two COVID-19 cases and speculate that the SARS-CoV-2 may cause skeletal muscle injury. Due to the particularity of individual differences in case reports, the background of chronic neuromuscular disease MESHD in patient 1 and a minimal compartment syndrome MESHD caused by thrombosis MESHD in patient 2 need to be excluded prior to the conclusion that the skeletal muscles have been involved in COVID-19.

    Placental SARS-CoV-2 in a patient with mild COVID-19 disease MESHD

    Authors: Albert L. Hsu; Minhui Guan; Eric Johannesen; Amanda J. Stephens; Nabila Khaleel; Nikki Kagan; Breanna C. Tuhlei; Xiu-Feng Wan

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.11.20149344 Date: 2020-07-14 Source: medRxiv

    Background: The full impact of COVID-19 on pregnancy remains uncharacterized. Current literature suggests minimal maternal, fetal, and neonatal morbidity and mortality,1 and COVID-19 manifestations appear similar between pregnant and non-pregnant women.2 We present a case of placental SARS-CoV-2 virus in a woman with an uncomplicated pregnancy and mild COVID-19 disease MESHD. Methods: A pregnant woman was evaluated at University of Missouri Women and Childrens Hospital. Institutional review board approval was obtained; information was obtained from medical records. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was performed to detect SARS-CoV-2. A gynecological pathologist examined the placenta and performed histolopathology. Sections were formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded; slides were cut and subjected to hematoxylin-and-eosin or immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining. IHC was performed with specific monoclonal antibodies SERO to detect SARS-CoV-2 antigen or to identify trophoblasts. Findings: A 29 year-old multigravida presented at 40-4/7 weeks for labor induction. With myalgias MESHD myalgias HP two days prior, she tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. Her parents TRANS were in self-isolation for COVID-19 positivity; husband was asymptomatic TRANS and tested negative for COVID-19, but exposed to a workplace (meatpacking facility) outbreak. Prenatal course was uncomplicated, with no gestational hypertension MESHD hypertension HP. She was afebrile and asymptomatic TRANS with normal vital signs throughout hospitalization. Her myalgias MESHD myalgias HP improved prior to admission. A liveborn male TRANS infant was delivered vaginally. Newborn course was uneventful; he was appropriate for gestational age TRANS, physical was unremarkable, and he was discharged home at 36 hours. COVID-19 RT-PCR test was negative at 24 hours. At one-week follow-up, newborn was breastfeeding well, with no fevers MESHD fevers HP or respiratory distress HP. Overall placental histology is consistent with acute uterine hypoxia MESHD (subchorionic laminar necrosis MESHD) superimposed on chronic uterine hypoxia MESHD (extra-villous trophoblasts and focal chronic villitis). IHC using SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid-specific monoclonal antibody SERO demonstrated SARS-CoV-2 antigens throughout the placenta in chorionic villi endothelial cells, and rarely in CK7-expressing trophoblasts. Negative control placenta (November 2019 delivery) and ferret nasal turbinate tissues (not shown) were negative for SARS-CoV-2. Interpretation: In this report, SARS-CoV-2 was found in the placenta, but newborn was COVID-19 negative. Our case shows maternal vascular malperfusion, with no features of fetal vascular malperfusion. To our knowledge, this is the first report of placental COVID-19 despite mild COVID-19 disease MESHD in pregnancy (with no symptoms of COVID-19 aside from myalgias MESHD myalgias HP); specifically, this patient had no fever MESHD fever HP, cough MESHD cough HP, or shortness of breath, but only myalgias MESHD myalgias HP and sick contacts. Despite her having mild COVID-19 disease MESHD in pregnancy, we demonstrate placental vasculopathy and presence of SARS-CoV-2 virus across the placenta. Evidence of placental COVID-19 raises concern for possible placental vasculopathy (potentially leading to fetal growth restriction, pre-eclampsia MESHD eclampsia HP, and other pregnancy complications MESHD) as well as for potential vertical transmission TRANS -- especially for pregnant women who may be exposed to COVID-19 in early pregnancy. Further studies are urgently needed, to determine whether women with mild, pre-symptomatic, or asymptomatic TRANS COVID-19 may have SARS-CoV-2 virus that can cross the placenta, cause fetal vascular malperfusion, and possibly affect the fetus. This raises important public health and public policy questions of whether future pregnancy guidance should include stricter pandemic precautions, such as screening for a wider array of COVID-19 symptoms, increased antenatal surveillance, and possibly routine COVID-19 testing on a regular basis throughout pregnancy.

    Reduced inflammatory responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD in children TRANS presenting to hospital with COVID19 in China

    Authors: Guoqing Qian; Yong Zhang; Yang Xu; Weihua Hu; Ian Hall; Jiang Yue; Hongyun Lu; Liemin Ruan; Maoqing Ye; Jin Mei

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.02.20145110 Date: 2020-07-04 Source: medRxiv

    Background Infection MESHD Infection with severe HP with severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in children TRANS is associated with better outcomes than in adults TRANS. The inflammatory response to COVID-19 infection MESHD in children TRANS remains poorly characterised. Methods We retrospectively analysed the medical records of 127 laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 patients aged TRANS 1 month to 16 years from Wuhan and Jingzhou of Hubei Province. Patients presented between January 25th and March 24th 2020. Information on clinical features, laboratory results, plasma SERO cytokines/chemokines and lymphocyte subsets were analysed. Findings Children TRANS admitted to hospital with COVID-19 were more likely to be male TRANS (67.7%) and the median age TRANS was 7.3 [IQR 4.9] years. All but one patient with severe disease MESHD was aged TRANS under 2 and the majority (5/7) had significant co-morbidities. Despite 53% having viral pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP on CT scanning only 2 patients had low lymphocyte counts and no differences were observed in the levels of plasma SERO proinflammatory cytokines, including interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4, IL-6, tumour necrosis MESHD factor (TNF)-alpha; and interferon (IFN)-gamma; between patients with mild, moderate or severe disease MESHD. Interpretations We demonstrated that the immune responses of children TRANS to COVID-19 infection MESHD is significantly different from that seen in adults TRANS. Our evidence suggests that SARS-CoV-2 does not trigger a robust inflammatory response or "cytokine storm" in children TRANS with COVID-19, and this may underlie the generally better outcomes seen in children TRANS with this disease MESHD. These data also imply anti-cytokine therapies may not be effective in children TRANS with moderate COVID-19.

    Single-cell transcriptional atlas of the Chinese horseshoe bat (Rhinolophus sinicus) provides insight into the cellular mechanisms which enable bats to be viral reservoirs

    Authors: Lili Ren; Chao Wu; Li Guo; Jiacheng Yao; Conghui Wang; Yan Xiao; Angela Oliveira Pisco; Zhiqiang Wu; Xiaobo Lei; Yiwei Liu; Leisheng Shi; Lianlian Han; Hu Zhang; Xia Xiao; Jingchuan Zhong; Hongping Wu; Mingkun Li; Stephen R. Quake; Yanyi Huang; Jianbin Wang; jianwei wang

    doi:10.1101/2020.06.30.175778 Date: 2020-06-30 Source: bioRxiv

    Bats are a major "viral reservoir" in nature and there is a great interest in not only the cell biology of their innate and adaptive immune systems, but also in the expression patterns of receptors used for cellular entry by viruses with potential cross-species transmission TRANS. To address this and other questions, we created a single-cell transcriptomic atlas of the Chinese horseshoe bat (Rhinolophus sinicus) which comprises 82,924 cells from 19 organs and tissues. This atlas provides a molecular characterization of numerous cell types from a variety of anatomical sites, and we used it to identify clusters of transcription features that define cell types across all of the surveyed organs. Analysis of viral entry receptor genes for known zoonotic viruses showed cell distribution patterns similar to that of humans, with higher expression levels in bat intestine epithelial cells. In terms of the immune system, CD8+ T cells are in high proportion with tissue-resident memory T cells, and long-lived effector memory nature killer (NK) T-like cells (KLRG1, GZMA and ITGA4 genes) are broadly distributed across the organs. Isolated lung primary bat pulmonary fibroblast (BPF) cells were used to evaluate innate immunity, and they showed a weak response to interferon {beta} and tumor necrosis MESHD factor- compared to their human counterparts, consistent with our transcriptional analysis. This compendium of transcriptome data provides a molecular foundation for understanding the cell identities, functions and cellular receptor characteristics for viral reservoirs and zoonotic transmission TRANS.

    Association between lung injury MESHD and cytokine profile in COVID-19 pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP

    Authors: Li-da Chen; Zhen-Yu Zhang; Xiao-Jie Wei; Yu-Qing Cai; Weng-Zhen Yao; Ming-Hui Wang; Qiu-Fen Huang; Xiao-Bin Zhang

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-39142/v1 Date: 2020-06-30 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: Coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) is a systemic disease MESHD caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection MESHD. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the association between lung injury MESHD and cytokine profile in COVID-19 pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP.Methods: This retrospective study was conducted in COVID-19 patients. Demographic characteristics, symptoms, signs MESHD, underlying diseases MESHD, and laboratory data were collected. The patients were divided into COVID-19 with pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP and without pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP. CT severity score and PaO2/FiO2 ratio and were used to assess lung injury MESHD.Results: 106 patients with 12 COVID-19 without pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP and 94 COVID-19 with pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP were included. Compared with COVID-19 without pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP, COVID-19 with pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP had significant higher serum SERO interleukin (IL)-2R, IL-6, and tumor necrosis MESHD factor (TNF)-α. Correlation analysis showed that CT severity score and PaO2/FiO2 were significantly correlated with age TRANS, presence of any coexisting disorder, lymphocyte count, procalcitonin, IL-2R, and IL-6. In multivariate analysis, log IL6 was only independent explanatory variables for CT severity score (β=0.397, p<0.001) and PaO2/FiO2 (β=-0.434, p=0.003).Conclusions: Elevation of circulating cytokines was significantly associated with presence of pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP in COVID-19 and the severity of lung injury MESHD in COVID-19 pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP. Circulating IL-6 independently predicted the severity of lung injury MESHD in COVID-19 pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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