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Overview

MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

There are no HP terms in the subcorpus


Transmission

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Seroprevalence
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    A Newcastle disease MESHD virus (NDV) expressing membrane-anchored spike as a cost-effective inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine

    Authors: Weina Sun; Stephen McCroskery; Wen-Chun Liu; Sarah R. Leist; Yonghong Liu; Randy A. Albrecht; Stefan Slamanig; Justine Oliva; Fatima Amanat; Alexandra Schaefer; Kenneth H. Dinnon III; Bruce L. Innis; Adolfo Garcia-Sastre; Florian Krammer; Ralph S. Baric; Peter Palese

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.30.229120 Date: 2020-07-31 Source: bioRxiv

    A successful SARS-CoV-2 vaccine must be not only safe and protective but must also meet the demand on a global scale at low cost. Using the current influenza virus vaccine production capacity to manufacture an egg-based inactivated Newcastle disease MESHD virus (NDV)/SARS-CoV-2 vaccine would meet that challenge. Here, we report pre-clinical evaluations of an inactivated NDV chimera stably expressing the membrane-anchored form of the spike (NDV-S) as a potent COVID-19 vaccine in mice and hamsters. The inactivated NDV-S vaccine was immunogenic, inducing strong binding and/or neutralizing antibodies SERO in both animal models. More importantly, the inactivated NDV-S vaccine protected animals from SARS-CoV-2 infections MESHD or significantly attenuated SARS-CoV-2 induced disease MESHD. In the presence of an adjuvant, antigen-sparing could be achieved, which would further reduce the cost while maintaining the protective efficacy of the vaccine.

    Newcastle disease MESHD virus (NDV) expressing the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 as vaccine candidate

    Authors: Weina Sun; Sarah R Leist; Stephen McCroskery; Yonghong Liu; Stefan Slamanig; Justine Oliva; Fatima Amanat; Alexandra Schaefer; Kenneth Dinnon III; Adolfo Garcia-Sastre; Florian Krammer; Ralph S. Baric; Peter Palese

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.26.221861 Date: 2020-07-26 Source: bioRxiv

    Due to the lack of protective immunity of humans towards the newly emerged SARS-CoV-2, this virus has caused a massive pandemic across the world resulting in hundreds of thousands of deaths MESHD. Thus, a vaccine is urgently needed to contain the spread of the virus. Here, we describe Newcastle disease MESHD virus (NDV) vector vaccines expressing the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 in its wild type or a pre-fusion membrane anchored format. All described NDV vector vaccines grow to high titers in embryonated chicken eggs. In a proof of principle mouse study, we report that the NDV vector vaccines elicit high levels of antibodies that are neutralizing SERO when the vaccine is given intramuscularly. Importantly, these COVID-19 vaccine candidates protect mice from a mouse-adapted SARS-CoV-2 challenge with no detectable viral titer and viral antigen in the lungs. Research in contextO_ST_ABSEvidence before this studyC_ST_ABSThe spike (S) protein of the SARS-CoV-2 is the major antigen that notably induces neutralizing antibodies SERO to block viral entry. Many COVID-19 vaccines are under development, among them viral vectors expressing the S protein of SARS-CoV-2 exhibit many benefits. Viral vector vaccines have the potential of being used as both live or inactivated vaccines and they can induce Th1 and Th2-based immune responses following different immunization regimens. Additionally, viral vector vaccines can be handled under BSL-2 conditions and they grow to high titers in cell cultures or other species restricted-hosts. For a SARS-CoV-2 vaccine, several viral vectors are being tested, such as adenovirus, measles MESHD virus and Modified vaccinia MESHD Ankara. Added value of this studyThe NDV vector vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 described in this study has advantages similar to those of other viral vector vaccines. But the NDV vector can be amplified in embryonated chicken eggs, which allows for high yields and low costs per dose. Also, the NDV vector is not a human pathogen, therefore the delivery of the foreign antigen would not be compromised by any pre-existing immunity in humans. Finally, NDV has a very good safety record in humans, as it has been used in many oncolytic virus trials. This study provides an important option for a cost-effective SARS-CoV-2 vaccine. Implications of all the available evidenceThis study informs of the value of a viral vector vaccine against SARS-CoV-2. Specifically, for this NDV based SARS-CoV-2 vaccine, the existing egg-based influenza virus vaccine manufactures in the U.S. and worldwide would have the capacity to rapidly produce hundreds of millions of doses to mitigate the consequences of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic.

    A Scalable Topical Vectored Vaccine Candidate Against SARS-CoV-2

    Authors: Mohammed A Rohaim; Muhammad Munir

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.31.126524 Date: 2020-06-01 Source: bioRxiv

    The severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) caused an ongoing unprecedented global public health crises of coronavirus disease MESHD in 2019 (CoVID-19). The precipitously increased death MESHD rates, its impact on livelihood and trembling economies warrant the urgent development of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine which would be safe, efficacious and scalable. Owing to unavailability of the vaccine, we propose a de novo synthesised avian orthoavulavirus 1 (AOaV-1)-based topical respiratory vaccine candidate against CoVID-19. Avirulent strain of Newcastle disease MESHD virus, proto-type virus of AOaV-1, was engineered to express full length spike (S) glycoprotein which is highly neutralizing and major protective antigen of the SARS-CoV-2. Broad-scale in vitro characterization of recombinant vaccine candidate demonstrated efficient co-expression of the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) of AOaV-1 and S protein of SARS-CoV-2, and comparable replication kinetics were observed in cell culture model. The recombinant vaccine candidate virus actively replicated and spread within cells independently of exogenous trypsin. Interestingly, incorporation of S protein of SARS-CoV-2 into the recombinant AOaV-1 particles attributed the sensitivity SERO to anti-SARS-CoV-2 antiserum and more prominently to anti-AOaV-1 antiserum. Finally, our results demonstrated that the recombinant vaccine vector stably expressed S protein after multiple propagation in chicken embryonated eggs, and this expression did not significantly impact the in vitro growth characteristics of the recombinant. Taken together, the presented respiratory vaccine candidate is highly attenuated in primates per se, safe and lacking pre-existing immunity in human, and carries the potential for accelerated vaccine development against CoVID-19 for clinical studies.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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