Corpus overview


Overview

MeSH Disease

Obesity (150)

Disease (76)

Hypertension (62)

Death (59)

Infections (55)


Human Phenotype

Transmission

Seroprevalence
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    Network reinforcement driven drug repurposing for COVID-19 by exploiting disease MESHD-gene-drug associations

    Authors: Yonghyun Nam; Jae-Seung Yun; Seung Mi Lee; Ji Won Park; Ziqi Chen; Brian Lee; Anurag Verma; Xia Ning; Li Shen; Dokyoon Kim

    id:2008.05377v1 Date: 2020-08-12 Source: arXiv

    Currently, the number of patients with COVID-19 has significantly increased. Thus, there is an urgent need for developing treatments for COVID-19. Drug repurposing, which is the process of reusing already-approved drugs for new medical conditions, can be a good way to solve this problem quickly and broadly. Many clinical trials for COVID-19 patients using treatments for other diseases MESHD have already been in place or will be performed at clinical sites in the near future. Additionally, patients with comorbidities such as diabetes mellitus MESHD diabetes mellitus HP, obesity MESHD obesity HP, liver cirrhosis MESHD cirrhosis HP, kidney diseases MESHD, hypertension MESHD hypertension HP, and asthma MESHD asthma HP are at higher risk for severe illness from COVID-19. Thus, the relationship of comorbidity disease MESHD with COVID-19 may help to find repurposable drugs. To reduce trial and error in finding treatments for COVID-19, we propose building a network-based drug repurposing framework to prioritize repurposable drugs. First, we utilized knowledge of COVID-19 to construct a disease MESHD-gene-drug network (DGDr-Net) representing a COVID-19-centric interactome with components for diseases MESHD, genes, and drugs. DGDr-Net consisted of 592 diseases MESHD, 26,681 human genes and 2,173 drugs, and medical information for 18 common comorbidities. The DGDr-Net recommended candidate repurposable drugs for COVID-19 through network reinforcement driven scoring algorithms. The scoring algorithms determined the priority of recommendations by utilizing graph-based semi-supervised learning. From the predicted scores, we recommended 30 drugs, including dexamethasone, resveratrol, methotrexate, indomethacin, quercetin, etc., as repurposable drugs for COVID-19, and the results were verified with drugs that have been under clinical trials. The list of drugs via a data-driven computational approach could help reduce trial-and-error in finding treatment for COVID-19.

    Outcomes of COVID-19 related hospitalisation among people with HIV in the ISARIC WHO Clinical Characterisation Protocol UK Protocol: prospective observational study

    Authors: Anna Maria Geretti; Alexander Stockdale; Sophie Kelly; Muge Cevik; Simon Collins; Laura Waters; Giovanni Villa; Annemarie B Docherty; Ewen M Harrison; Lance Turtle; Peter JM Openshaw; Kenneth Baillie; Caroline Sabin; Malcolm Gracie Semple

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.07.20170449 Date: 2020-08-11 Source: medRxiv

    Background. There is conflicting evidence about how HIV infection MESHD influences COVID-19. We compared the presentation characteristics and outcomes of people with and without HIV hospitalised with COVID-19 at 207 centres across the United Kingdom. Methods. We analysed data from people with laboratory confirmed or highly likely COVID-19 enrolled into the ISARIC CCP-UK study. The primary endpoint was day-28 mortality after presentation. We used Kaplan-Meier methods and Cox regression to describe the association with HIV status after adjustment for sex, ethnicity, age TRANS, indeterminate/probable hospital acquisition of COVID-19 (definite hospital acquisition excluded), presentation date, and presence/absence of ten comorbidities. We additionally adjusted for disease MESHD severity at presentation as defined by hypoxia MESHD/oxygen therapy. Findings. Among 47,539 patients, 115 (0.24%) had confirmed HIV-positive status and 103/115 (89.6%) had a record of antiretroviral therapy. At presentation, relative to the HIV-negative group, HIV-positive people were younger (median 55 versus 74 years; p<0.001), had a higher prevalence SERO of obesity MESHD obesity HP and moderate/severe liver disease MESHD, higher lymphocyte counts and C-reactive protein, and more systemic symptoms. The cumulative incidence of day-28 mortality was 25.2% in the HIV-positive group versus 32.1% in the HIV-negative group (p=0.12); however, stratification for age TRANS revealed a higher mortality among HIV-positive people aged TRANS below 60 years. The effect of HIV-positive status was confirmed in adjusted analyses (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 1.49, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.99-2.25; p=0.06). Following additional adjustment for disease MESHD severity at presentation, mortality was higher in HIV-positive people (adjusted HR 1.63; 95% CI 1.07-2.48; p=0.02). In the HIV-positive group, mortality was more common among those who were slightly older and among people with obesity MESHD obesity HP and diabetes with complications MESHD. Interpretation. HIV-positive status may be associated with an increased risk of day-28 mortality following a COVID-19 related hospitalisation.

    Clinical and intestinal histopathological findings in SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 patients with hematochezia HP

    Authors: Margaret Cho; Weiguo Liu; Sophie Balzora; Yvelisse Suarez; Deepthi Hoskoppal; Neil D Theise; Wenqing Cao; Suparna A Sarkar

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.29.20164558 Date: 2020-08-07 Source: medRxiv

    Gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms of SARS-CoV2/COVID-19 in the form of anorexia MESHD anorexia HP, nausea MESHD nausea, vomiting HP, vomiting MESHD, abdominal pain MESHD abdominal pain HP and diarrhea MESHD diarrhea HP are usually preceeded by respiratory manifestations and are associated with a poor prognosis. Hematochezia HP is an uncommon clinical presentation of COVID-19 disease MESHD and we hypothesize that older patients with significant comorbidites ( obesity MESHD obesity HP and cardiovascular) and prolonged hospitalization are suspectible to ischemic injury to the bowel. We reviewed the clinical course, key laboratory data including acute phase reactants, drug/medication history in two elderly TRANS male TRANS patients admitted for COVID-19 respiratory failure HP. Both patients had a complicated clinical course and suffered from hematochezia HP and acute blood SERO loss anemia MESHD anemia HP requiring blood SERO transfusion around day 40 of their hospitalization. Colonoscopic impressions were correlated with the histopathological findings in the colonic biopies and changes compatible with ischemia MESHD to nonspecific acute inflammation MESHD, edema MESHD edema HP and increased eosinophils in the lamina propria were noted.Both patients were on anticoagulants, multiple antibiotics and antifungal agents due to respiratory infections MESHD at the time of lower GI bleeding. Hematochezia HP resolved spontaneously with supportive care. Both patients eventually recovered and were discharged. Elderly TRANS patients with significant comorbid conditions are uniquely at risk for ischemic injury to the bowel. Hypoxic conditions due to COVID-19 pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP and respiratory failure HP, compounded by preexisting cardiovascular complications, and/or cytokine storm orchestrated by the viral infection MESHD leading to alteration in coagulation profile and/or drug/medication injury can be difficult to distinguish in these critically ill patients. Presentation of hematochezia HP may further increase the mortality and morbidity of COVID-19 patients, and prompt consultation and management by gastroenterology is therefore warranted.

    Clinical course and severity outcome indicators among COVID 19 hospitalized patients in relation to comorbidities distribution Mexican cohort

    Authors: Genny Carrillo; Nina Mendez Dominguez; Kassandra D Santos Zaldivar; Andrea Rochel Perez; Mario Azuela Morales; Osman Cuevas Koh; Alberto Alvarez Baeza

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.31.20165480 Date: 2020-08-04 Source: medRxiv

    Introduction: COVID-19 affected worldwide, causing to date, around 500,000 deaths MESHD. In Mexico, by April 29, the general case fatality was 6.52%, with 11.1% confirmed case TRANS mortality and hospital recovery rate around 72%. Once hospitalized, the odds for recovery and hospital death MESHD rates depend mainly on the patients' comorbidities and age TRANS. In Mexico, triage guidelines use algorithms and risk estimation tools for severity assessment and decision-making. The study's objective is to analyze the underlying conditions of patients hospitalized for COVID-19 in Mexico concerning four severity outcomes. Materials and Methods: Retrospective cohort based on registries of all laboratory-confirmed patients with the COVID-19 infection MESHD that required hospitalization in Mexico. Independent variables were comorbidities and clinical manifestations. Dependent variables were four possible severity outcomes: (a) pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP, (b) mechanical ventilation (c) intensive care unit, and (d) death MESHD; all of them were coded as binary Results: We included 69,334 hospitalizations of laboratory-confirmed and hospitalized patients to June 30, 2020. Patients were 55.29 years, and 62.61% were male TRANS. Hospital mortality among patients aged TRANS<15 was 9.11%, 51.99% of those aged TRANS >65 died. Male TRANS gender TRANS and increasing age TRANS predicted every severity outcome. Diabetes and hypertension MESHD hypertension HP predicted every severity outcome significantly. Obesity MESHD Obesity HP did not predict mortality, but CKD, respiratory diseases MESHD, cardiopathies were significant predictors. Conclusion: Obesity MESHD Obesity HP increased the risk for pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP, mechanical ventilation, and intensive care admittance, but it was not a predictor of in-hospital death MESHD. Patients with respiratory diseases MESHD were less prone to develop pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP, to receive mechanical ventilation and intensive care unit assistance, but they were at higher risk of in-hospital death MESHD.

    Awake Prone Positioning Does Not Reduce the Risk of Intubation in COVID-19 Treated with High-Flow Nasal Oxygen Therapy. A Multicenter, Adjusted Cohort Study

    Authors: Carlos Ferrando; Ricard Mellado-Artigas; Alfredo Gea; Egoitz Arruti; César Aldecoa; Ramón Adalia; Fernando Ramasco; Pablo Monedero; Emilio Maseda; Gonzalo Tamayo; María L. Hernández-Sanz; Jordi Mercadal; Ascensión Martín-Grande; Robert M. Kacmarek; Jesús Villar; Fernando Suárez-Sipmann

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-53558/v1 Date: 2020-08-04 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: Awake prone positioning (awake-PP) in non-intubated coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) patients could avoid endotracheal intubation, reduce the use of critical care resources, and improve survival. We aimed to examine whether the combination of high-flow nasal oxygen therapy (HFNO) with awake-PP prevents the need for intubation when compared to HFNO alone.Methods: Prospective, multicentre, adjusted observational cohort study in consecutive COVID-19 patients with acute respiratory failure HP (ARF) receiving respiratory support with HFNO from 12 March to 9 June, 2020. Patients were classified as HFNO with or without awake-PP. Logistic models were fitted to predict treatment at baseline using the following variables: age TRANS, sex, obesity MESHD obesity HP, non-respiratory sequential organ failure assessment score, APACHE-II, C-reactive protein, days from symptoms onset TRANS to HFNO initiation, respiratory rate and peripheral oxyhemoglobin saturation. We compared data on demographics, vital signs, laboratory markers, need for invasive mechanical ventilation, days to intubation, ICU length of stay, and ICU mortality between HFNO patients with and without awake-PP.Results: A total of 1076 patients with COVID-19 ARF were admitted, of which 199 patients received HFNO and were analyzed. Fifty-five (27.6%) were pronated during HFNO; 60 (41%) and 22 (40%) patients from the HFNO and HFNO+awake-PP groups were intubated. The use of awake-PP as an adjunctive therapy to HFNO did not reduce the risk of intubation [RR 0.87 (95%CI: 0.53–1.43), p=0.60]. Patients treated with HFNO+awake-PP showed a trend for delay in intubation compared to HFNO alone [median 1 (interquartile range, IQR 1.0-2.5) vs 2 IQR 1.0-3.0] days, (p=0.055), but awake-PP did not affect 28-day mortality [RR 1.04 (95%CI: 0.40–2.72), p=0.92].Conclusion: In patients with COVID-19 ARF treated with HFNO, the use of awake-PP did not reduce the need for intubation or affect mortality.

    A New Model of SARS-CoV-2 Infection MESHD Based on (Hydroxy)Chloroquine Activity

    Authors: Robert J. Sheaff

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.02.232892 Date: 2020-08-02 Source: bioRxiv

    Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine (H)CQ are well known anti-malarial drugs, while their use against COVID-19 is more controversial. (H)CQ activity was examined in tissue culture cells to determine if their anti-viral benefits or adverse effects might be due to altering host cell pathways. Metabolic analysis revealed (H)CQ inhibit oxidative phosphorylation in mitochondria, likely by sequestering protons needed to drive ATP synthase. This activity could cause cardiotoxicity MESHD because heart muscle relies on beta oxidation of fatty acids. However, it might also explain their therapeutic benefit against COVID-19. A new model of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD postulates virus enters host cell mitochondria and uses its protons for genome release. Oxidative phosphorylation is eventually compromised, so glycolysis is upregulated to maintain ATP levels. (H)CQ could prevent viral infection MESHD and/or slow its replication by sequestering these protons. In support of this model other potential COVID-19 therapeutics also targeted mitochondria, as did tobacco smoke, which may underlie smokers protection. The mitochondria of young people are naturally more adaptable and resilient, providing a rationale for their resistance to disease MESHD progression. Conversely, obesity MESHD obesity HP and diabetes could exacerbate disease MESHD severity by providing extra glucose to infected cells dependent on glycolysis. The description of (H)CQ function presented here, together with its implications for understanding SARS-CO-V2 infection MESHD, makes testable predictions about disease progression MESHD and identifies new approaches for treating COVID-19.

    Sex-specificity of mortality risk factors among hospitalized COVID-19 patients in New York City: prospective cohort study

    Authors: Tomi Jun; Sharon Nirenberg; Patricia Kovatch; Kuan-lin Huang

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.29.20164640 Date: 2020-08-01 Source: medRxiv

    Objective: To identify sex-specific effects of risk factors for in-hospital mortality among COVID-19 patients admitted to a hospital system in New York City. Design: Prospective observational cohort study with in-hospital mortality as the primary outcome. Setting: Five acute care hospitals within a single academic medical system in New York City. Participants: 3,086 hospital inpatients with COVID-19 admitted on or before April 13, 2020 and followed through June 2, 2020. Follow-up till discharge or death MESHD was complete for 99.3% of the cohort. Results: The majority of the cohort was male TRANS (59.6%). Men were younger (median 64 vs. 70, p<0.001) and less likely to have comorbidities such as hypertension MESHD hypertension HP (32.5% vs. 39.9%, p<0.001), diabetes (22.6% vs. 26%, p=0.03), and obesity MESHD obesity HP (6.9% vs. 9.8%, p=0.004) compared to women. Women had lower median values of laboratory markers associated with inflammation MESHD compared to men: white blood SERO cells (5.95 vs. 6.8 K/uL, p<0.001), procalcitonin (0.14 vs 0.21 ng/mL, p<0.001), lactate dehydrogenase (375 vs. 428 U/L, p<0.001), C-reactive protein (87.7 vs. 123.2 mg/L, p<0.001). Unadjusted mortality was similar between men and women (28.8% vs. 28.5%, p=0.84), but more men required intensive care than women (25.2% vs. 19%, p<0.001). Male TRANS sex was an independent risk factor for mortality (OR 1.26, 95% 1.04-1.51) after adjustment for demographics, comorbidities, and baseline hypoxia MESHD. There were significant interactions between sex and coronary artery disease MESHD (p=0.038), obesity MESHD obesity HP (p=0.01), baseline hypoxia MESHD (p<0.001), ferritin (p=0.002), lactate dehydrogenase (p=0.003), and procalcitonin (p=0.03). Except for procalcitonin, which had the opposite association, each of these factors was associated with disproportionately higher mortality among women. Conclusions: Male TRANS sex was an independent predictor of mortality, consistent with prior studies. Notably, there were significant sex-specific interactions which indicated a disproportionate increase in mortality among women with coronary artery disease MESHD, obesity MESHD obesity HP, and hypoxia MESHD. These new findings highlight patient subgroups for further study and help explain the recognized sex differences in COVID-19 outcomes.

    METFORMIN USE IS ASSOCIATED WITH REDUCED MORTALITY IN A DIVERSE POPULATION WITH COVID-19 AND DIABETES

    Authors: Andrew Crouse; Tiffany Grimes; Peng Li; Matthew Might; Fernando Ovalle; Anath Shalev

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.29.20164020 Date: 2020-07-31 Source: medRxiv

    BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease MESHD-2019 (COVID-19) is a growing pandemic with an increasing death MESHD toll that has been linked to various comorbidities as well as racial disparity. However, the specific characteristics of these at-risk populations are still not known and approaches to lower mortality are lacking. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective electronic health record data analysis of 25,326 subjects tested for COVID-19 between 2/25/20 and 6/22/20 at the University of Alabama at Birmingham Hospital, a tertiary health care center in the racially diverse Southern U.S. The primary outcome was mortality in COVID-19-positive subjects and the association with subject characteristics and comorbidities was analyzed using simple and multiple linear logistic regression. RESULTS: The odds ratio of contracting COVID-19 was disproportionately high in Blacks/African-Americans (OR 2.6; 95%CI 2.19-3.10; p<0.0001) and in subjects with obesity MESHD obesity HP (OR 1.93; 95%CI 1.64-2.28; p<0.0001), hypertension MESHD hypertension HP (OR 2.46; 95%CI 2.07-2.93; p<0.0001), and diabetes (OR 2.11; 95%CI 1.78-2.48; p<0.0001). Diabetes was also associated with a dramatic increase in mortality (OR 3.62; 95%CI 2.11-6.2; p<0.0001) and emerged as an independent risk factor in this diverse population even after correcting for age TRANS, race, sex, obesity MESHD obesity HP and hypertension MESHD hypertension HP. Interestingly, we found that metformin treatment was independently associated with a significant reduction in mortality in subjects with diabetes and COVID-19 (OR 0.33; 95%CI 0.13-0.84; p=0.0210). CONCLUSION: Thus, these results suggest that while diabetes is an independent risk factor for COVID-19-related mortality, this risk is dramatically reduced in subjects taking metformin, raising the possibility that metformin may provide a protective approach in this high risk population.

    Obesity MESHD Obesity HP and Severity in Patients with COVID-19: A Scoping Review Protocol

    Authors: Marcela Larissa Costa; Carlos Adriano Santos Souza; Ana Caroline Cardoso Silva; Dayane Franciely Conceição Santos; Edilene Fernandes Nonato; Francismayne Batista Santana; Giselle dos Santos Dias; Jessyca Teles Barreto; Laís Santos Costa; Maria Carolina Barros Costa; Tamila das Neves Ferreira; Jeniffer Santos Santana; Raquel Simões Mendes Netto; Tereza Virgínia Silva Bezerra do Nascimento; Marco Antônio Prado Nunes; Márcia Ferreira Cândido de Souza

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-51197/v1 Date: 2020-07-30 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: Coronavirus disease MESHD (COVID-19), caused by the SARS-CoV-2 strain, was first identified in late 2019, in China. A greater number of countries were affected in 2020, with a consequent increase in the disease MESHD's epidemiological curve. The outcomes of patients affected by the virus can worsen, developing acute respiratory failure HP and other serious complications, especially when related to older individuals and people of all ages TRANS with obesity MESHD obesity HP and comorbidities. Some studies have shown that obese infected with COVID-19 had a high frequency risk of hospitalization in the Intensive Care Unit and the need to use Invasive Mechanical Ventilation, in addition to the association between a higher death MESHD rate. Thus, obese patients tend to have a more severe course of COVID-19. In this sense, this review aims to synthesize the evidence in the literature that associates COVID-19 and the severity of the prognosis in infected obese patients. Methods: This protocol will include all study articles that can be used as instruments to assess the severity of clinical outcomes in obese patients infected by 2019-nCoV. There will be no time limitation when searching for articles. Studies in any environment or country for inclusion will be considered.Discussion: There are still not enough studies to characterize the evidence and its strength in the prognosis of the disease MESHD. Therefore, given the need for early detection of the possible implications and treatment for patients with obesity MESHD obesity HP, the evidence will be useful for directing the conduct and optimization of therapies in these patients by the multiprofessional teams.Scoping review registration: Open Science Framework: https://osf.io/xrkec

    Risk Factors for COVID-19-associated hospitalization: COVID-19-Associated Hospitalization Surveillance Network and Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System

    Authors: Jean Y. Ko; Melissa L. Danielson; Machell Town; Gordana Derado; Kurt J. Greenland; Pam Daily Kirley; Nisha B. Alden; Kimberly Yousey-Hindes; Evan J. Anderson; Patricia A. Ryan; Sue Kim; Ruth Lynfield; Salina M. Torres; Grant R. Barney; Nancy M. Bennett; Melissa Sutton; H. Keipp Talbot; Mary Hill; Aron J. Hall; Alicia M. Fry; Shikha Garg; Lindsay Kim; - COVID-NET Investigation Group

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.27.20161810 Date: 2020-07-29 Source: medRxiv

    Background: Identification of risk factors for COVID-19-associated hospitalization is needed to guide prevention and clinical care. Objective: To examine if age TRANS, sex, race/ethnicity, and underlying medical conditions is independently associated with COVID-19-associated hospitalizations. Design: Cross-sectional. Setting: 70 counties within 12 states participating in the Coronavirus Disease MESHD 2019-Associated Hospitalization Surveillance Network (COVID-NET) and a population-based sample of non-hospitalized adults TRANS residing in the COVID-NET catchment area from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Participants: U.S. community-dwelling adults TRANS ([≥]18 years) with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19-associated hospitalizations, March 1- June 23, 2020. Measurements: Adjusted rate ratios (aRR) of hospitalization by age TRANS, sex, race/ethnicity and underlying medical conditions ( hypertension MESHD hypertension HP, coronary artery disease MESHD, history of stroke MESHD stroke HP, diabetes, obesity MESHD obesity HP [BMI [≥]30 kg/m2], severe obesity MESHD obesity HP [BMI[≥]40 kg/m2], chronic kidney disease HP kidney disease MESHD, asthma MESHD asthma HP, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease MESHD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease HP). Results: Our sample included 5,416 adults TRANS with COVID-19-associated hospitalizations. Adults TRANS with (versus without) severe obesity MESHD obesity HP (aRR:4.4; 95%CI: 3.4, 5.7), chronic kidney disease HP kidney disease MESHD (aRR:4.0; 95%CI: 3.0, 5.2), diabetes (aRR:3.2; 95%CI: 2.5, 4.1), obesity MESHD obesity HP (aRR:2.9; 95%CI: 2.3, 3.5), hypertension MESHD hypertension HP (aRR:2.8; 95%CI: 2.3, 3.4), and asthma MESHD asthma HP (aRR:1.4; 95%CI: 1.1, 1.7) had higher rates of hospitalization, after adjusting for age TRANS, sex, and race/ethnicity. In models adjusting for the presence of an individual underlying medical condition, higher hospitalization rates were observed for adults TRANS [≥]65 years, 45-64 years (versus 18-44 years), males TRANS (versus females TRANS), and non-Hispanic black and other race/ethnicities (versus non-Hispanic whites). Limitations: Interim analysis limited to hospitalizations with underlying medical condition data. Conclusion: Our findings elucidate groups with higher hospitalization risk that may benefit from targeted preventive and therapeutic interventions.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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