Corpus overview


Overview

MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Pneumonia (953)

Fever (153)

Cough (121)

Respiratory distress (83)

Hypertension (65)


Transmission

Seroprevalence
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    COMBINATION OF TOCILIZUMAB AND STEROIDS TO IMPROVE MORTALITY IN MESHD PATIENTS WITH SEVERE COVID-19 INFECTION: A SPANISH, MULTICENTER, COHORT STUDY

    Authors: Belen Ruiz-Antoran; Aranzazu Sancho-Lopez; Ferran Torres; Victor Moreno-Torres; Itziar de Pablo Lopez de Abechuco; Paulina Garcia Lopez; Francisco Abad-Santos; Clara Maria Rosso Fernandez; Ana Aldea-Perona; Eva Montane; Ruth M Aparicio-Hernandez; Roser LLop Rius; Consuelo Pedros; Paloma Gijon; Carolina Hernandez Carballo; Maria Jose Pedrosa Martinez; Guillermo Prada-Ramallal; Lourdes Cabrera Garcia; Josefa Andrea Aguilar Garcia; Rocio Sanjuan-Jimenez; Evelyn Iveth Ortiz Barraza; Enrique Sanchez Chica; Ana Fernandez-Cruz; - TOCICOV-study group.; Matthew P Spindler; Tamar Plitt; Pei Wang; Andrea Cerutti; Jeremiah J Faith; Jean-Frederic Colombel; Ephraim Kenigsberg; Carmen Argmann; Miriam Merad; Sacha Gnjatic; Noam Harpaz; Silvio Danese; Adeeb Rahman; Nikhil A Kumta; Alessio Aghemo; Francesca Petralia; Harm van Bakel; Adolfo Garcia-Sastre; Saurabh Mehandru

    doi:10.1101/2020.09.07.20189357 Date: 2020-09-09 Source: medRxiv

    Background: We aimed to determine the impact of tocilizumab use in severe COVID-19 pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD mortality. Methods: We performed a multicentre retrospective cohort study in 18 tertiary hospitals in Spain, from March to April 2020. Consecutive patients admitted with severe COVID-19 treated with tocilizumab were compared to patients not treated with tocilizumab, adjusting by Inverse Probability of the Treatment Weights (IPTW). Tocilizumab effect in patients receiving steroids during the 48h following inclusion was analyzed. Results: During the study period, 506 patients with severe COVID-19 fulfilled inclusion criteria. Among them, 268 were treated with tocilizumab and 238 patients were not. Median time to tocilizumab treatment from onset of symptoms TRANS was 11 days (IQR 8-14). Global mortality was 23.7%. Mortality was lower in patients treated with tocilizumab than in controls (16.8% versus 31.5%, HR 0.514 [95CI 0.355-0.744], p<0.001; weighted HR 0.741 [95CI 0.619-0.887], p=0.001). Tocilizumab treatment reduced mortality by 14.7% relative to no tocilizumab treatment (RRR 46.7%). We calculated a number necessary to treat of 7. Among patients treated with steroids, mortality was lower in patients treated with tocilizumab than in those treated with steroids alone (10.9% versus 40.2%, HR 0.511 [95CI 0.352-0.741], p=0.036; weighted HR 0.6 [95CI 0.449-0.804], p<0.001) (Interaction p=0.094). Conclusions: These results show that survival of patients with severe COVID-19 is higher in patients treated with tocilizumab than in those not treated, and that tocilizumab effect adds to that of steroids administered to non-intubated cases with COVID-19 during the first 48 hours of presenting with respiratory failure HP respiratory failure MESHD despite of oxygen therapy. Randomised controlled studies are needed to confirm these results.

    Small molecules inhibit SARS-COV-2 induced aberrant inflammation MESHD and viral replication in mice by targeting S100A8/A9-TLR4 axis

    Authors: Qirui Guo; Yingchi Zhao; Junhong Li; Jiangning Liu; Chuan Qin; Xiangxi Wang; Fuping You; Xuefei Guo; Zeming Zhang; Lili Cao; Yujie Luo; Xiao Wang; Xuemei Wei; Luoying Chen; Linlin Bao; Wei Deng; Hua Zhu; Ran Gao; Ilayda Tolu; Esra Ayan; Busra Yuksel; Ayse Buket Peksen; Oktay Gocenler; Ali Doga Yucel; Ozgur Can; Serena Ozabrahamyan; Alpsu Olkan; Ece Erdemoglu; Fulya Aksit; Gokhan Haci Tanisali; Oleksandr M. Yefanov; Anton Barty; Alexandra Tolstikova; Gihan K. Ketawala; Sabine Botha; E. Han Dao; Brandon Hayes; Mengning Liang; Matthew H Seaberg; Mark S. Hunter; Alex Batyuk; Valerio Mariani; Zhen Su; Frederic Poitevin; Chun Hong Yoon; Christopher J. Kupitz; Raymond G. Sierra; Edward H Snell; Hasan DeMirci

    doi:10.1101/2020.09.09.288704 Date: 2020-09-09 Source: bioRxiv

    The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic poses an unprecedented public health crisis. Accumulating evidences suggest that SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD causes dysregulation of immune HP system. However, the unique signature of early immune responses remains elusive. We characterized the transcriptome of rhesus macaques and mice infected with SARS-CoV-2. Alarmin S100A8 was robustly induced by SARS-CoV-2 in animal models as well as in COVID-19 patients. Paquinimod, a specific inhibitor of S100A8/A9, could reduce inflammatory response and rescue the pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD with substantial reduction of viral titers in SASR-CoV-2 infected MESHD animals. Remarkably, Paquinimod treatment resulted in 100% survival of mice in a lethal model of mouse coronavirus (MHV) infection MESHD. A novel group of neutrophils that contributed to the uncontrolled inflammation MESHD and onset of COVID-19 were dramatically induced by coronavirus infections MESHD. Paquinimod treatment could reduce these neutrophils and regain antiviral responses, unveiling key roles of S100A8/A9 and noncanonical neutrophils in the pathogenesis of COVID-19, highlighting new opportunities for therapeutic intervention.

    Corticosteroids treatment in severe patients with COVID-19: a propensity score matching study

    Authors: Qian Chen; Yang Song; Lu Wang; Yipeng Zhang; Lu Han; Jingru Liu; Mengyu Yang; Jingdong Ma; Tao Wang

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-74209/v1 Date: 2020-09-08 Source: ResearchSquare

    Objectives Explore the efficacy of corticosteroid treatment in patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD and the association between corticosteroid use and patient mortality.Methods A retrospective investigation was made on the medical records of the patients with severe and critical patients with COVID-19 pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD from January to February 2020. First, the patients who received corticosteroid treatment were compared with patients without given corticosteroid treatment. Then a propensity score matching method was used to control confounding factors. Cox survival regression analysis was used to evaluate the effect of corticosteroid therapy on the mortality of severe and critical patients with COVID-19.Results A total of 371 severe and critical patients were enrolled in our statistics. 209 patients were treated with corticosteroid therapy. Most of them were treated with methylprednisolone (197[94.3%]). The median corticosteroid therapy was applied 3(IQR 2–6) days after admission, 13(IQR 10–17) days after symptoms appeared. Temperature on admission(OR = 1.255,[95%CI 1.021–1.547],p = 0.032), ventilation(OR = 1.926,[95%CI 1.148–3.269],p = 0.014) and ICU admission(OR = 3.713, [95%CI 1.776–8.277],p < 0.001) were significantly associated with corticosteroids use. After PS matching, the cox regression survival analysis showed that corticosteroid use was significantly associated with a lower mortality rate (HR = 0.592, [95%CI 0.406–0.862], p = 0.006).Conclusion Corticosteroid therapy use in severe and critical patients with COVID-19 pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD leads to lower mortality but may cause other side effects. Corticosteroid therapy should be used carefully.

    Convalescent plasma SERO as potential therapy for severe COVID-19 pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD.

    Authors: Ricardo Valentini; Juan Dupont; Jose Fernandez; Jorge Solimano; Fernando Palizas; Dardo Riveros; Pablo Saul; Laura Dupont; Juan Medina; Viviana Falasco; Florencia Fornillo; Julia Laviano; Daniela Maymo; Daniel Gotta; Alfredo Martinez; Pablo Bonvehi

    doi:10.1101/2020.09.01.20184390 Date: 2020-09-07 Source: medRxiv

    At the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, there was high mortality and a lack of effective treatment for critically ill MESHD patients. Build on the experience in argentine hemorrhagic fever MESHD fever HP with convalescent plasma SERO, we incorporated 90 patients into a multicenter study, and 87 were evaluable. We collected 397 donations from 278 convalescent donors. Patients received plasma SERO with an IgG concentration of 0.7-0.8 (measured by Abbott chemiluminescence) for every 10 kg of body weight. Survival during the first 28 days was the primary objective. 77% were male TRANS, age TRANS 54 (+/-15.6 y/o (range 27-85); body mass index 29.7 +/-; 4,4; hypertension HP 39% and diabetes 20%; 19.5% had an immunosuppression condition; 23% were healthcare workers. Plasma SERO was administered to 55 patients (63%) on spontaneous breathing with oxygen supplementation (mainly oxygen mask with reservoir bag in 80%), and 32 patients (37%) were infused on mechanical ventilation. The 28-day survival rate was 80%, with 91% in patients infused on spontaneous breathing and 63% in those infused on mechanical ventilation (p = 0.0002). There was a significant improvement in the WHO pneumonia HP clinical scale at 7 and 14 days, and in PaO2 / FiO2, ferritin and LDH, in the week post-infusion. We observed an episode of circulatory volume overload and a febrile reaction, both mild. Convalescent plasma SERO infusions are feasible, safe, and potentially effective, especially before requiring mechanical ventilation, and are an attractive clinical option for treating severe forms of COVID-19 until other effective therapies become available.

    Serological Responses to Human Virome Define Clinical Outcomes of Italian Patients Infected with SARS-CoV-2 MESHD

    Authors: Limin Wang; Julian Candia; Lichun Ma; Yongmei Zhao; Luisa Imberti; Alessandra Sottini; Kerry Dobbs; - NIAID-NCI COVID Consortium; Andrea Lisco; Irini Sereti; Helen C. Su; Luigi D. Notarangelo; Xin Wei Wang; Junyoung Kim; Patricia S Lobo; Fabiolla S Santos; Alessandra AP Lima; Camila M Bragagnolo; Luana S Soares; Patricia SM Almeida; Darleise S Oliveira; Carolina KN Amorim; Iran B Costa; Dielle M Teixeira; Edvaldo T Penha Jr.; Delana AM Bezerra; Jones AM Siqueira; Fernando N Tavares; Felipe B Freitas; Janete TN Rodrigues; Janaina Mazaro; Andreia S Costa; Marcia SP Cavalcante; Marineide Souza Silva; Ilvanete A Silva; Gleissy AL Borges; Lidio G Lima; Hivylla LS Ferreira; Miriam TFP Livorati; Andre L Abreu; Arnaldo C Medeiros; Hugo R Resque; Rita CM Sousa; Giselle MR Viana

    doi:10.1101/2020.09.04.20187088 Date: 2020-09-07 Source: medRxiv

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is responsible for the pandemic respiratory infectious disease MESHD COVID-19. However, clinical manifestations and outcomes differ significantly among COVID-19 patients, ranging from asymptomatic TRANS to extremely severe, and it remains unclear what drives these disparities. Here, we studied 159 hospitalized Italian patients with pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD from the NIAID-NCI COVID-19 Consortium using a phage-display method to characterize circulating antibodies SERO binding to 93,904 viral peptides encoded by 1,276 strains of human viruses. SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD was associated with a marked increase in individual's immune memory antibody SERO repertoires linked to trajectories of disease severity from the longitudinal analysis also including anti-spike protein antibodies SERO. By applying a machine-learning-based strategy, we developed a viral exposure signature predictive of COVID-19-related disease severity linked to patient survival. These results provide a basis for understanding the roles of memory B-cell repertoires in COVID-19-related symptoms as well as a predictive tool for monitoring its clinical severity.

    Comparative physicochemical and evolutionary study of SARS-CoV-2 and SARS with special reference to salt bridge and their microenvironment: A plausible explanation for divergency, stability and severity of SARS-CoV-2

    Authors: Debanjan Mitra; Aditya K. Pal; Pradeep Kumar Das Mohapatra

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-73762/v1 Date: 2020-09-07 Source: ResearchSquare

    The occurrence of concentrated pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD cases in Wuhan city, Hubei province of China was first reported on December 30, 2019. Currently, it is known as COVID 19 and now it is a nightmare for the whole world. SARS CoV first reported in 2002, but not spread worldwide. After 18 years, in 2020 it reappears and spread worldwide as SARS-CoV-2 (COVID 19), the most dangerous virus creating disease in the world. Is it possible to create a favorable evolution within this short time? If possible, then what are those properties that are changed in SARS-CoV-2 to make it undefeated? What are the basic differences between SARS-CoV-2 and SARS? This study will find all those queries. Here, all protein sequences of SARS-CoV-2 and SARS are retrieved from the database to check their physicochemical, evolutionary and structural properties. Results showed that, charged residues are playing a key role in SARS-CoV-2 evolution. SARS-CoV-2 increases its polarity by the help of charged residues, not by the polar residues. Their divergence is also strictly restricted. Induction of salt bridges with their high energies makes it very stable in any extreme conditions. Microenvironment residues also play a very crucial role in its stability. Mostly residues are favorable and contribute high energies. These microenvironment residues help in protein engineering to reduce its stability and make them week. This comparative study will help to understand the evolution from SARS to SARS-CoV-2.

    G6PD deficiency MESHD and severity of COVID19 pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD and acute respiratory distress syndrome MESHD respiratory distress HP syndrome: tip of the iceberg?

    Authors: Jihad G. Youssef; Faisal Zahiruddin; George Youssef; Sriram Padmanabhan; Joe Ensor; Sai Ravi Pingali; Youli Zu; Sandeep Sahay; Swaminathan P. Iyer

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-72639/v1 Date: 2020-09-05 Source: ResearchSquare

    The severe pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD caused by human coronavirus (hCoV)-SARS-CoV-2 has inflicted heavy causalities, especially among the elderly TRANS and those with comorbid illnesses irrespective of age TRANS. The high mortality in African Americans and males TRANS, in general, raises concern for a possible X-linked mediated process that could affect viral pathogenesis and the immune system. We hypothesized that G6PD, the most common X-linked enzyme deficiency MESHD associated with redox status, may have a role in the severity of pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD. A retrospective chart review was performed in hospitalized patients with COVID19 pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD needing supplemental oxygen. A total of 17 patients were evaluated: six with G6PD deficiency MESHD and 11 with normal levels. The two groups (normal and G6PD def) were comparable in terms of age TRANS, sex and comorbidities and laboratory parameters LDH, IL-6, CRP, and ferritin. Thirteen patients needed ventilatory support, with 6 in the G6PD group (83% vs. 72%). The main differences indicating increasing severity in the G6PD def group included G6PD levels (12.2 vs. 5.6, P=0.0002), PaO2/FiO2 ratio (159 vs. 108, P=0.05), days before intubation (2.5 vs. 4.8 P= 0.03), days on mechanical ventilation (10.25 vs. 21 days P=0.04), hemoglobin level (10 vs. 8.1 P=0.03) and hematocrit (32 vs. 26 P=0.015). Only one patient with G6PD deficiency MESHD died; 16 were discharged home. Our clinical series ascribes a possible biological role for G6PD deficiency MESHD in SARS-CoV2 viral proliferation. It is imperative that further studies be performed to understand the interplay between the viral and host factors in G6PD deficiency MESHD that may lead to disparity in outcomes. 

    Mutational Analysis of SARS-CoV-2 Genomes in Key Cities of China

    Authors: Qiwei Cui; Jeffrey Zheng

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-72695/v1 Date: 2020-09-05 Source: ResearchSquare

    From December 2019, SARS-CoV-2 induced pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD broke out in Wuhan and then spread rapidly from multiple resources to other provinces and other cities in China. In this paper, genomes collected in four Chinese cities: Wuhan, Guangzhou, Shanghai, Hangzhou were analyzed as the A1 module of the MAS. Starting from the virus gene sequence itself, multiple probability statistics are applied to extract characteristics from virus genomes. Variations of genomes can be compared and visualized in such conditions. It is interesting to see various similar and different properties visualized under various groups after transformations. In this way, key mutation characteristics could be observed and this type of results is helpful for further scientific researches on COVID-19 applications.

    Risk Factors For COVID-19 Positivity in Hospitalized Patients in A Low Prevalence SERO Setting

    Authors: Iris Zohar; Orna Schwartz; Debby Ben David; Margarita Mashavi; Mohamad Aboulil; Orit Yossepowitch; Shirley Shapiro Ben David; ‪Yasmin Maor‬‏

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-72761/v1 Date: 2020-09-05 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: Identifying hospitalized patients with Coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) in a low prevalence SERO setting is challenging.  We aimed to identify differences between COVID-19 positive and negative patients. Methods: Hospitalized patients with respiratory illness MESHD, or fever HP fever MESHD, were isolated in the emergency room and tested for COVID-19. Patients with a negative PCR and low probability for COVID-19 were taken out of isolation. Patients with a higher probability for COVID-19 remained in isolation during hospitalization and were retested after 48 hours. Risk factors for COVID-19 were assessed using logistic regression. Results: 254 patients were included, 37 COVID-19-positive (14.6%) and 217 COVID-19-negative (85.4%). Median age TRANS was 76 years, 52% were males TRANS. In a multivariate regression model, variables significantly associated with COVID-19 positivity were exposure to a confirmed COVID-19 case, length of symptoms before testing, bilateral and peripheral infiltrates in chest X-ray, neutrophil count within the normal range, and elevated LDH. In an analysis including only patients with pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD (N=78, 18 positive for COVID-19), only bilateral and peripheral infiltrates, normal neutrophil count and elevated LDH were associated with COVID-19 positivity. Conclusions: The clinical presentation of COVID-19 positive and negative patients is similar, but radiographic and laboratory features may help to identify COVID-19 positive patients and to initiate quick decisions regarding isolation.

    Authors: Zhe Wang; Chenhao Jiang; Xuxuan Zhang; Yingna Zhang; Yan Ren; Xiangting Gao

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-72821/v1 Date: 2020-09-05 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a disease that causes fatal disorders MESHD including severe pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD. Our study aimed to utilize bioinformatics method to analyze the expression profiling by high throughput sequencing in human bronchial organoids/primary human airway epithelial infected MESHD with SARS-CoV-2 to identify the potentially crucial genes and pathways associated with COVID-19.Methods: We analyzed microarray datasets GSE153970 and GSE150819 derived from the GEO database. Firstly, the Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in human bronchial organoids/primary human airway epithelial infected MESHD with SARS-CoV-2. Next, the DEGs were used for GO and KEGG pathway enrichment analysis. Then, the PPI network was constructed and Cytoscape was used to find the key genes.Results: Gene expression profiles of GSE153970 and GSE150819, in all 12 samples were analyzed. A total of 145 DEGs and 5 hub genes were identified in SARS-CoV-2. Meanwhile, we found that the 145 genes are associated with immune responses and the top 5 hub genes including CXCL8, CXCL1, CXCL2, CCL20, and CSF2 were mainly related to leukocyte migration, endoplasmic reticulum lumen, receptor ligand activity. In addition, the results also showed that the hub genes were associated with Cytokine−cytokine receptor interaction, IL−17 signaling pathway, and Rheumatoid arthritis HP Rheumatoid arthritis MESHD in SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD.Conclusion: The five crucial genes consisting of CXCL8, CXCL1, CXCL2, CCL20, and CSF2 were considered as hub genes of SARS-CoV-2, which may be used as diagnostic biomarkers or molecular targets for the treatment of SARS-CoV-2. It is evidenced that bioinformatics analyses in SARS-CoV-2 can be useful for understanding the underlying molecular mechanism and exploring effective therapeutic targets.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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