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SARS-CoV-2 proteins

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    Effect of COVID-19 MESHD on Childhood Mycoplasma Pneumoniae Infection MESHD in Chengdu, China

    Authors: Yijie Huang; Ying Zhang; Tao Ai; Luo Jun; Hanmin Liu

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-244802/v1 Date: 2021-02-16 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background. Following the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic MESHD, a change in the incidence and transmission of respiratory pathogens was observed. Here, we retrospectively analyzed the impact of COVID-19 MESHD on the epidemiologic characteristics of Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection MESHD among children in Chengdu, one of the largest cities of western China.Method. M. pneumoniae infection MESHD was diagnosed in 33,345 pediatric patients with respiratory symptoms at the Chengdu Women’s & Children’s Central Hospital between January 2017 and September 2020, based on a titer of ³1:160 measured by the passive agglutination assay. Differences in infection rates were examined by sex, age, and temporal distribution.Results. Two epidemic outbreaks occurred between October–December 2017 and April–December 2019, and two infection peaks were detected in the second and fourth quarters of 2017, 2018, and 2019. Due to the public health response to COVID-19 MESHD, the number of positive M. pneumoniae cases significantly decreased in the second quarter of 2020. The rate of M. pneumoniae infection MESHD among children aged 3–6 years was higher than that in other age groups.Conclusion. Preschool children are more susceptible to M. pneumoniae infection MESHD and close contact appears to be the predominant factor favoring pathogen transmission. The public health response to COVID-19 MESHD can effectively control the transmission of M. pneumoniae.

    Pulmonary bacterial infections MESHD in patients hospitalized for COVID-19 MESHD: a retrospective observational study

    Authors: Maya HUSAIN; Simon Valayer; Nora Poey; Emilie Rondinaud; Camille d’Humières; Benoit Visseaux; Sylvie Lariven; François-Xavier Lescure; Laurène Deconinck

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-156678/v1 Date: 2021-01-27 Source: ResearchSquare

    Backround During the COVID-19 pandemic MESHD, antibiotics use was very common. However, bacterial co/secondary infections with coronaviruses remain largely unknown, especially outside of intensive care. The aim of this study was to investigate the pulmonary bacterial infections MESHD characteristics associated with COVID-19 MESHD in hospitalized patients.Methods A retrospective monocentric observational study was conducted in Bichat hospital in France, between February 26 and April 22, 2020. All patients hospitalized in standard wards with COVID-19 MESHD (positive nasopharyngeal PCR and/or typical aspect on CT scan) and diagnosed with a pulmonary bacterial infection MESHD (positive bacteriological samples) were included. Bacteriological and clinical data were collected from the microbiology laboratories and the patient's medical records.Results Twenty-three bacteriological samples from 22 patients were positive out of 2075 screened samples (1.1%) from 784 patients (2.8%). Bacterial infection MESHD occurred with a median of ten days after COVID-19 MESHD onset. Diagnosis of pulmonary bacterial infection MESHD was suspected on the increase of oxygen requirements (20/22), productive cough MESHD or modification of sputum (17/22), or fever MESHD (10/22). Positive samples included 13 sputum cultures, one Film Array® on sputum, one bronchoalveolar lavage, six blood cultures and two pneumococcal antigenuria MESHD. The most frequent bacteria were Pseudomonas aeruginosa (6/23), Staphylococcus aureus (5/23), Streptococcus pneumoniae (4/23), Enterococcus faecalis (3/23) and Klebsiella MESHD aerogenes (3/23). No Legionella antigenuria MESHD was positive. Four out of 496 nasopharyngeal PCR (0.8%) were positive for intracellular bacteria (two Bordetella pertussis MESHD and two Mycoplasma pneumonia MESHD).Conclusions Pulmonary bacterial secondary infections MESHD and co-infections MESHD with SARS-CoV-2 are uncommon. Antibiotic use should remain limited in the management of COVID-19 MESHD.

    The study of Mycoplasma pneumonia infection MESHD among children with  respiratory tract infection MESHD in hospital in Chengdu from 2014 to 2020

    Authors: lei zhang; Meimei Lai; Tao Ai; Huilling Liao; Yijie Huang; Ying Zhang; Yanru Liu; Li Wang; Jie Hu

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-144312/v1 Date: 2021-01-10 Source: ResearchSquare

    Aim: The hospitalized children with Mycoplasma pneumonia  (M. pneumonia) infection MESHD caused by respiratory tract infection MESHD in Chengdu were studied and analysis of the epidemiological characteristics was carried out to provide a theoretical basis for clinical diagnosis and treatment.Method: 22882 hospitalized children with respiratory tract infections between January 2014 and December 2020 were collected M. pneumonia MESHD IgM antibody was detected by indirect immunofluorescence method and passive agglutination method. Demographic characteristics, clinical diagnose and laboratory data of these children were analyzed.retrospectively.. Result : The 4213 specimens with M. pneumonia MESHD were tested positive, the total positive rate was18.41%(18.30% in male and 22.72% in female). Higher positive rates were found in female children,Look from the statistical analysis results, the consistency between the two sets of data is low(x2=198.078、P<0.01). The results of different age patients with contrast different M. pneumonia infection MESHD degree were statistically significant(F=162.7532、P<0.01),there was higher M. pneumonia MESHD positive rate in Preschoolers and school-age children ,33.98% and 32.98%, respectively.The incidence rate of M. pneumonia MESHD in 2017 and 2019 was significantly higher than average (F=538.95, P<0.01)The difference of incidence rate of M. pneumonia MESHD was not significant in different months in 2014, 2015 and 2020 (P>0.05). But the probability of M . pneumonia infection MESHD patients was much higher from April to May and September to October in2016,2017,2018 and 2019(P<0.05). There was no correlation about M. pneumonia infection MESHD with temperature and humidity( P>0.05),there was negative correlation with PM2.5(R=0.09362, P<0.01)and PM10.(R=0.1185, P<0.01).There was no difference about constituent ratio of case of M. pneumonia infection MESHD between 2014 and 2019 (F=32.34,P>0.05).The  Common respiratory diseases of M. pneumonia infection MESHD, bronchopneumonia MESHD accounts for the highest proportion,followed the exacerbation of asthma MESHD and severe pneumonia MESHD.There was significantly difference about constituent ratio of case of M. pneumonia infection MESHD between in 2020 and in other years (F=159.35,P<0.01) .The Common respiratory diseases of M. pneumonia infection MESHD, bronchopneumonia MESHD accounts for the highest proportion,followed the acute bronchitis MESHD and exacerbation of asthma MESHD.Conclusion:The distribution and epidemiological trend of M. pneumonia MESHD in patients with respiratory tract infection showed the risk of inflammation MESHD was connected with the gender, age, year and month, no relationship with temperature and humidity in Chengdu,.Higher M. pneumonia MESHD positive rate was shown in the children with bronchial pneumonia MESHD and exacerbation of asthma.The prevention measures which controlled the COVID-19 MESHD disease had effectively controlled the infection rate of M. pneumonia MESHD.

    Coinfection with Respiratory Pathogens in COVID-19 MESHD in Korea

    Authors: Kyung Ho Roh; Yu Kyung Kim; Shin-Woo Kim; Eun-Rim Kang; Yong-Jin Yang; Sun-Kyung Jung; Sun-Hwa Lee; Nackmoon Sung

    doi:10.1101/2020.12.18.20248449 Date: 2020-12-19 Source: medRxiv

    Detection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 MESHD (SARS-CoV-2) in upper and lower respiratory specimens and coinfection with other respiratory pathogens in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 MESHD ( COVID-19 MESHD) were investigated. From the study subjects (N = 258) retrospectively enrolled when confirmed as SARS-CoV-2 positive, nasopharyngeal ( NPS MESHD), oropharyngeal swabs (OPS), and sputum specimens were restored for retesting SARS-CoV-2 and detecting respiratory pathogens. Majority of the study subjects (95.7%, N = 247) were confirmed as SARS-CoV-2 positive using NPS/OPS specimens, suggesting that the upper respiratory specimen is most valuable in detecting SARS-CoV-2. Coinfection rates in COVID-19 MESHD patients (N = 258) with respiratory pathogens were 9.7% (N = 25); 8.5% (N = 22) respiratory viruses and 1.2% (N = 3) Mycoplasma pneumoniae MESHD, an atypical bacterium. Of the respiratory virus coinfection cases (N = 22), 20 (90.9%) were co-infected MESHD with a single respiratory virus and 2 (0.8%) (metapneumovirus/adenovirus and rhinovirus/bocavirus 1/2/3/4) with two viruses. Respiratory viruses in single viral coinfection cases with SARS-CoV-2 were as follows: non-SARS-CoV-2 coronaviruses (229E, NL63, and OC43, N = 5, 1.9%), rhinovirus (N = 4, 1.6%), metapneumovirus (N = 3, 1.2%), influenza A (N = 3, 1.2%), respiratory syncytial virus A and B (N = 3, 1.2%), and adenovirus (N = 2, 0.8%). No mixed coinfections with respiratory viruses and M. pneumoniae were found. In conclusion, the diagnostic value of utilizing NPS MESHD/OPS specimen is excellent, and, as the first report in Korea, coinfection with respiratory pathogens were detected at a rate of 9.7% in patients with COVID-19 MESHD.

    Development and Clinical Evaluation of a Rapid Antibody Lateral Flow Assay for the Diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 Infection MESHD

    Authors: Kesheng Li; Chongxiang Tong; Xiaoqin Ha; Chaoning Zeng; Xia Chen; Feifei Xu; Jinhong Yang; Huifen Du; Yuxin Chen; Jing Cai; Zengwei Yang; Zhongyi Jiang; Dandan Chai; Xueliang Zhang; Xun Li; Junfeng Li; Liqiong Yao

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-94508/v1 Date: 2020-10-18 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: The novel coronavirus disease 2019 MESHD ( COVID-19 MESHD) is an infectious disease MESHD caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 MESHD (SARS-CoV-2), which has quickly spread worldwide since its outbreak in December 2019. One of the primary measures for controlling the spread of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD is an accurate assay for its diagnosis. SARS-CoV-2 real-time PCR kits suffer from some limitations, including false-negative results in the clinic. Therefore, there is an urgent need for the development of a rapid antibody test kit for COVID-19 MESHD diagnosis.Methods: The nuclear capsid protein (N PROTEIN) and spike protein PROTEIN 1 (S1) fragments of SARS-CoV-2 were expressed in Escherichia coli, and rapid antibody-based tests for the diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD were developed and compared. To evaluate their clinical applications, the serum from COVID-19 MESHD patients, suspected COVID-19 MESHD patients, recovering COVID-19 MESHD patients, patients with general fever MESHD or pulmonary infection MESHD, doctors and nurses who worked at the fever clinic, and health professionals was analyzed by the rapid antibody test kits. The serum from patients infected with Mycoplasma pneumoniae MESHD and patients with respiratory tract infection MESHD was further analyzed to test its cross-reactivity with other respiratory pathogens.Results: A 47 kDa N protein PROTEIN and 67 kDa S1 fragment of SARS-CoV-2 were successfully expressed, purified, and renatured. The rapid antibody test with recombinant N protein PROTEIN showed higher sensitivity and specificity than the rapid IgM antibody test with recombinant S1 protein PROTEIN. Clinical evaluation showed that the rapid antibody test kit with recombinant N protein PROTEIN had 88.56% sensitivity and 97.42% specificity for COVID-19 MESHD patients, 53.48% positive rate for suspected COVID-19 MESHD patients, 57.14% positive rate for recovering COVID-19 MESHD patients, and 3.20%-3.27% cross-reactivity with other respiratory pathogens. The sensitivity of the kit did not significantly differ in COVID-19 MESHD patients with different disease courses (p < 0.01).Conclusion: The rapid antibody test kit with recombinant N protein PROTEIN has high specificity and sensitivity, and can be used for the diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD combined with RT-PCR.

    Trend of respiratory pathogens during the COVID-19 MESHD epidemic: comparison between 2020 and the last 5 years

    Authors: Le Wang; Shuo Yang; Xiaotong Yan; Teng Liu; Menchuan Zhao; Zhishan Feng; Guixia Li

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-41423/v1 Date: 2020-07-13 Source: ResearchSquare

    In China, the first SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD was diagnosed in Wuhan on December 8. Spreads in other regions have occurred since the end of January, happens to be the start of Lunar New Year holiday. In this study, we analyzed the prevalence of common respiratory pathogens in children with respiratory infections MESHD during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic and compared them with the time trends from 2016 to 2019. Overall, results obtained indicate that the time trend of other respiratory infections MESHD were significantly different from previous years, especially the pattern of influenza and Mycoplasma pneumonia MESHD. Therefore, in the current scenario of COVID-19 MESHD COVID-19 MESHD pandemic, other common pathogens testing should not be excluded. The natural home isolation period in new year holiday may weaken the transmission of common respiratory viruses.

    Co-infection of SARS-CoV-2 with Chlamydia or Mycoplasma pneumoniae: a case series and review of the literature

    Authors: Alessandra Oliva; Guido Siccardi; Ambra Migliarini; Francesca Cancelli; Martina Carnevalini; Maria D'Andria; Ilenia Attilia; Vittoria Carmela Danese; Veronica cecchetti; Roberto Romiti; Giancarlo Ceccarelli; Claudio M Mastroianni; Paolo Palange; M. Venditti

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-37532/v3 Date: 2020-06-22 Source: ResearchSquare

    The novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 has spread all over the world causing a global pandemic and representing a great medical challenge. Nowadays, there is limited knowledge on the rate of co-infections MESHD with other respiratory pathogens, with viral co-infection MESHD being the most representative agents. Co-infection MESHD with Mycoplasma pneumoniae MESHD has been described both in adults and pediatrics whereas only 2 cases of Chlamydia pneumoniae MESHD have been reported in a large US study so far. In the present report, we describe a series of 7 patients where co-infection MESHD with C. pneumoniae (n=5) or M. pneumoniae (n=2) and SARS-CoV-2 was detected in a large teaching hospital in Rome. An extensive review of the updated literature regarding the co-infection MESHD between SARS-CoV-2 and these atypical pathogens is also performed.

    Differential diagnosis for suspected cases of coronavirus disease 2019 MESHD: a retrospective study

    Authors: Qiong Chi; Xinjian Dai; Xiangao Jiang; Lefei Zhu; Junyan Du; Yuxi Chen; Jiyang Zheng; Jianping Huang

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-27776/v2 Date: 2020-05-08 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: Since December 2019, the coronavirus disease 2019 MESHD ( COVID-19 MESHD) has infected more than 12,310322,000 people and killed over 556,000 people worldwide. However, Differential diagnosis remains difficult for suspected cases of COVID-19 MESHD and need to be improved to reduce misdiagnosis.Methods: Sixty-eight cases of suspected COVID-19 MESHD treated in Wenzhou Central Hospital from January 21 to February 20, 2020 were divided into confirmed and COVID-19 MESHD-negative groups based on the results of real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) nucleic acid testing of the novel coronavirus in throat swab specimens to compare the clinical symptoms and laboratory and imaging results between the groups.Results: Among suspected patients, 17 were confirmed to COVID-19 MESHD-positive group and 51 were distinguished to COVID-19 MESHD-negative group. Patients with reduced white blood cell (WBC) count were more common in the COVID-19 MESHD-positive group than in the COVID-19 MESHD-negative group (29.4% vs 3.9%, P = 0.003). Subsequently, correlation analysis indicated that there was a significant inverse correlation existed between WBC count and temperature in the COVID-19 MESHD-positive patients (r=-0.587, P=0.003), instead of the COVID-19 MESHD-negative group. But reduced lymphocyte count was no different between the two groups (47.1% vs 25.5%, P= 0.096). More common chest imaging characteristics of the confirmed COVID-19 MESHD cases by high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) included ground-glass opacities (GGOs), multiple patchy shadows, and consolidation with bilateral involvement than COVID-19 MESHD-negative group (82.4% vs 31.4%, P=0.0002; 41.2% vs 17.6% vs P=0.048; 76.5% vs 43.1%, P=0.017; respectively). The rate of clustered infection was higher in COVID-19 MESHD-positive group than COVID-19 MESHD-negative group (64.7% vs 7.8%, P=0.001). Through multiplex PCR nucleic acid testing, 2 cases of influenza A, 3 cases of influenza B, 2 cases of adenovirus, 2 cases of Chlamydia pneumonia MESHD, and 7 cases of Mycoplasma pneumoniae MESHD were diagnosed in the COVID-19 MESHD-negative group.Conclusions: WBC count inversely correlated with the severity of fever MESHD, GGOs, multiple patchy shadows, and consolidation in chest HRCT and clustered infection MESHD are common but not specific features in the confirmed COVID-19 MESHD group.Reduced WBC count inversely correlating with the severity of fever MESHD, GGOs, multiple patchy shadows, and consolidation in chest HRCT and clustered infection MESHD are features in the confirmed COVID-19 MESHD group but not unique. Multiplex PCR nucleic acid testing helped differential diagnosis for suspected COVID-19 MESHD casesexclude pathogenic diagnosis in COVID-19 MESHD patients.

    Serum Mycoplasma Pneumoniae IgG in COVID-19 MESHD: A Protective Factor

    Authors: Bobin Mi; Lang Chen; Adriana C. Panayi; Yuan Xiong; Guohui Liu

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-27778/v1 Date: 2020-05-08 Source: ResearchSquare

    A correlation between prior exposure to Mycoplasma pneumoniae MESHD (IgG positive) and better clinical response to COVID-19 MESHD was elusive. In the present study, a retrospective review of 133 COVID-19 MESHD infected MESHD patients treated at Wuhan Union Hospital from Feb 1 to Mar 20 was carried out. Our data showed that COVID-19 MESHD infected MESHD patients with mycoplasma lgG positivity had a higher lymphocyte count and percentage (p = 0.026, p = 0.017), monocyte count and percentage (p = 0.028, p = 0.006) and eosinophil count and percentage (p = 0.039, p = 0.007), and a lower neutrophil count and percentage (p = 0.044, p = 0.006) than COVID-19 MESHD infected MESHD patients without mycoplasma lgG. Furthermore, requirement and use of a nasal catheter or oxygen mask was significantly lower in COVID-19 MESHD infected MESHD patients with mycoplasma lgG positivity (p = 0.029). Our findings indicate that mycoplasma IgG positivity is a potential protective factor for COVID-19 MESHD.

    Epidemiological and clinical features of 291 cases with coronavirus disease 2019 MESHD in areas adjacent to Hubei, China: a double-center observational study

    Authors: Xu Chen; Fang Zheng; Yanhua Qing; Shuizi Ding; Danhui Yang; Cheng Lei; Zhilan Yin; Xianglin Zhou; Dixuan Jiang; Qi Zuo; Jun He; Jianlei Lv; Ping Chen; Yan Chen; Hong Peng; Honghui Li; Yuanlin Xie; Jiyang Liu; Zhiguo Zhou; Hong Luo

    doi:10.1101/2020.03.03.20030353 Date: 2020-03-06 Source: medRxiv

    Abstract Background: The clinical outcomes of COVID-19 MESHD patients in Hubei and other areas are different. We aim to investigate the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of patient with COVID-19 MESHD in Hunan which is adjacent to Hubei. Methods: In this double-center, observational study, we recruited all consecutive patients with laboratory confirmed COVID-19 MESHD from January 23 to February 14, 2020 in two designated hospitals in Hunan province, China. Epidemiological and clinical data from patients' electronic medical records were collected and compared between mild, moderate and severe/critical group in detail. Clinical outcomes were followed up to February 20, 2020. Findings: 291 patients with COVID-19 MESHD were categorized into mild group (10.0%), moderate group (72.8%) and severe/critical group (17.2%). The median age of all patients was 46 years (49.8% were male). 86.6% patients had an indirect exposure history. The proportion of patients that had been to Wuhan in severe/critical group (48.0% vs 17.2%, p=0.006) and moderate group (43.4% vs 17.2%, p=0.007) were higher than mild group. Fever MESHD (68.7%), cough (60.5%), and fatigue MESHD (31.6%) were common symptoms especially for severe and critical patients. Typical lung imaging finding were bilateral and unilateral ground glass opacity MESHD or consolidation. Leukopenia MESHD, lymphopenia and eosinopenia MESHD occurred in 36.1%, 22.7% and 50.2% patients respectively. Increased fibrinogen was detected in 45 of 58 (77.6%) patients with available results. 29 of 44 (65.9%) or 22 of 40 (55.0%) patients were positive in Mycoplasma pneumonia MESHD or Chlamydia pneumonia MESHD antibody test respectively. Compared with mild or moderate group, severe/critical group had a relative higher level of neutrophil, Neutrophil-to-Lymphocyte Ratio, h-CRP, ESR, CK, CK-MB, LDH, D-dimer, and a lower level of lymphocyte, eosinophils, platelet, HDL and sodium (all p<0.01). Most patients received antiviral therapy and Chinese Medicine therapy. As of February 20, 2020, 159 (54.6%) patients were discharged and 2 (0.7%) patients died during hospitalization. The median length of hospital stay in discharged patients was 12 days (IQR: 10-15). Interpretation: The epidemiological and clinical characteristics of COVID-19 MESHD patients in Hunan is different from patients in Wuhan. The proportion of patients that had been to Wuhan in severe/critical group and moderate group were higher than mild group. Laboratory and imaging examination can assist in the diagnosis and classification of COVID-19 MESHD patients.

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MeSH Disease
HGNC Genes
SARS-CoV-2 Proteins


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