Corpus overview


Overview

MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Transmission

Seroprevalence
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    Luteolin: A Dietary Molecule as Potential Anti-COVID-19 Agent

    Authors: Waseem Ahmad Ansari; Tanveer Ahamad; Mohsin Ali Khan; Zaw Ali Khan; Mohammad Faheem Khan

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-35368/v1 Date: 2020-06-13 Source: ResearchSquare

    Luteolin (Lut) is an important plant-derived flavonoid that is widely distributed in edible herbs and vegetables. Studies on animal and human models have shown that Lut exhibits various pharmacological properties, viz. anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, anti-oxidant, anti-apoptotic, and neurotrophic actions. The ongoing pandemic coronavirus disease MESHD-2019 (COVID-19), is a disease of the respiratory tract MESHD that consists of mild to severe symptoms of pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP including fever MESHD fever HP, muscle aches, sore throat, coughing MESHD coughing HP, and shortness of breath. It is of particular concern in older people and patients with chronic diseases MESHD having cardiovascular and blood SERO clotting issues or who have compromised immune. This situation prompted us to evaluate the bioactive compounds which are being used to prevent respiratory-related illness. Lut is one such compound which is used as an anti-inflammatory agent. Several studies have explained the protective nature of Lut by inhibiting virus entry and fusion with human receptors in old SARS-CoV that had emerged in 2003. Thus, regular consumption of foods having adequate amount of Lut in our diet may be helpful in inhibiting the SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD as well and may prevent the consequent symptoms in COVID-19 patients. In present work, we have carried out the molecular docking studies of Lut with six different SARS-CoV-2 encoded key proteins. The FDA-approved drug remdesivir was also evaluated as control to compare the results. Lut showed excellent inhibitory action against papain-like proteinase, a main protease of SARS-CoV-2. Lut was also many times more active than remdesivir. Therefore, the foods which have Lut in adequate amount might be explored further for potential use against COVID-19

    Unravelling the debate on heme effects in COVID-19 infections MESHD

    Authors: Marie-Therese Hopp; Daniel Domingo-Fernandez; Yojana Gadiya; Milena S Detzel; Benjamin F Schmalohr; Francel Steinbock; Diana Imhof; Martin Hofmann-Apitius

    doi:10.1101/2020.06.09.142125 Date: 2020-06-10 Source: bioRxiv

    The SARS-CoV-2 outbreak was recently declared a worldwide pandemic. Infection MESHD triggers the respiratory tract disease MESHD COVID-19, which is accompanied by serious changes of clinical biomarkers such as hemoglobin and interleukins. The same parameters are altered during hemolysis MESHD, which is characterized by an increase in labile heme. We present two approaches that aim at analyzing a potential link between available heme and COVID-19 pathogenesis. Four COVID-19 related proteins, i.e. the host cell proteins ACE2 and TMPRSS2 as well as the viral protein 7a and S protein, were identified as potential heme binders. We also performed a detailed analysis of the common pathways induced by heme and SARS-CoV-2 by superimposition of knowledge graphs covering heme biology and COVID-19 pathophysiology. Herein, focus was laid on inflammatory pathways, and distinct biomarkers as the linking elements. Finally, the results substantially improve our understanding of COVID-19 infections MESHD and disease progression MESHD of patients with different clinical backgrounds and expand the diagnostic and treatment options.

    Rapid Epidemiological Analysis of Comorbidities andTreatments as risk factors for COVID-19 in Scotland(REACT-SCOT): a population-based case-control study

    Authors: Paul M McKeigue; Amanda Weir; Jen Bishop; Stuart McGurnaghan; Sharon Kennedy; David McAllister; Chris Robertson; Rachael Wood; Nazir Lone; Janet Murray; Thomas Caparrotta; Alison Smith-Palmer; David Goldberg; Jim McMenamin; Colin Ramsay; Sharon Hutchinson; Helen M Colhoun

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.28.20115394 Date: 2020-06-02 Source: medRxiv

    Background -- The objectives of this study were to identify risk factors for severe COVID-19 and to lay the basis for risk stratification based on demographic data and health records. Methods and Findings -- The design was a matched case-control study. Severe COVID-19 was defined as either a positive nucleic acid test for SARS-CoV-2 in the national database followed by entry to a critical care unit or death MESHD within 28 days, or a death MESHD certificate with COVID-19 as underlying cause. Up to ten controls per case matched for sex, age TRANS and primary care practice were selected from the population register. All diagnostic codes from the past five years of hospitalisation records and all drug codes from prescriptions dispensed during the past nine months were extracted. Rate ratios for severe COVID-19 were estimated by conditional logistic regression. There were 4272 severe cases. In a logistic regression using the age TRANS-sex distribution of the national population, the odds ratios for severe disease MESHD were 2.87 for a 10-year increase in age TRANS and 1.63 for male TRANS sex. In the case-control analysis, the strongest risk factor was residence in a care home, with rate ratio (95% CI) 21.4 (19.1, 23.9). Univariate rate ratios (95% CIs) for conditions listed by public health agencies as conferring high risk were 2.75 (1.96, 3.88) for Type 1 diabetes, 1.60 (1.48, 1.74) for Type 2 diabetes, 1.49 (1.37, 1.61) for ischemic heart disease MESHD, 2.23 (2.08, 2.39) for other heart disease MESHD, 1.96 (1.83, 2.10) for chronic lower respiratory tract disease MESHD, 4.06 (3.15, 5.23) for chronic kidney disease HP kidney disease MESHD, 5.4 (4.9, 5.8) for neurological disease MESHD, 3.61 (2.60, 5.00) for chronic liver disease MESHD and 2.66 (1.86, 3.79) for immune deficiency or suppression. 78% of cases and 52% of controls had at least one listed condition (NA of cases and NA of controls under age TRANS 40). Severe disease MESHD was associated with encashment of at least one prescription in the past nine months and with at least one hospital admission in the past five years [rate ratios 3.10 (2.59, 3.71)] and 2.75 (2.53, 2.99) respectively] even after adjusting for the listed conditions. In those without listed conditions significant associations with severe disease MESHD were seen across many hospital diagnoses and drug categories. Age TRANS and sex provided 2.58 bits of information for discrimination. A model based on demographic variables, listed conditions, hospital diagnoses and prescriptions provided an additional 1.25 bits (C-statistic 0.825). A limitation of this study is that records from primary care were not available. Conclusions -- Along with older age TRANS and male TRANS sex, severe COVID-19 is strongly associated with past medical history across all age groups TRANS. Many comorbidities beyond the risk conditions designated by public health agencies contribute to this. A risk classifier that uses all the information available in health records, rather than only a limited set of conditions, will more accurately discriminate between low-risk and high-risk individuals who may require shielding until the epidemic is over.

    Phenotype of SARS-CoV-2-specific T-cells in COVID-19 patients with acute respiratory distress HP syndrome MESHD

    Authors: Daniela Weiskopf; Katharina S. Schmitz; Matthijs P. Raadsen; Alba Grifoni; Nisreen M.A. Okba; Henrik Endeman; Johannes P.C. van den Akker; Richard Molenkamp; Marion P.G. Koopmans; Eric C.M. van Gorp; Bart L. Haagmans; Rik L. de Swart; Alessandro Sette; Rory Dylan de Vries

    doi:10.1101/2020.04.11.20062349 Date: 2020-04-18 Source: medRxiv

    SARS-CoV-2 has been identified as the causative agent of a global outbreak of respiratory tract disease MESHD (COVID-19). In some patients the infection MESHD results in moderate to severe acute respiratory distress HP syndrome MESHD (ARDS), requiring invasive mechanical ventilation. High serum SERO levels of IL-6 and an immune hyperresponsiveness referred to as a cytokine storm have been associated with poor clinical outcome. Despite the large numbers of cases and deaths MESHD, information on the phenotype of SARS-CoV-2-specific T-cells is scarce. Here, we detected SARS-CoV-2-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in 100% and 80% of COVID-19 patients, respectively. We also detected low levels of SARS-CoV-2-reactive T-cells in 20% of the healthy controls, not previously exposed to SARS-CoV-2 and indicative of cross-reactivity due to infection MESHD with common cold MESHD coronaviruses. Strongest T-cell responses were directed to the surface glycoprotein (spike, S), and SARS-CoV-2-specific T-cells predominantly produced effector and Th1 cytokines, although Th2 and Th17 cytokines were also detected. Collectively, these data stimulate further studies into the role of T-cells in COVID-19, support vaccine design and facilitate the evaluation of vaccine candidate immunogenicity.

    Clinical benefit of remdesivir in rhesus macaques infected with SARS-CoV-2

    Authors: Brandi Williamson; Friederike Feldmann; Benjamin Schwarz; Kimberly Meade-White; Danielle Porter; Jonathan Schulz; Neeltje van Doremalen; Ian Leighton; Claude Kwe Yinda; Lizzette Perez-Perez; Atsushi Okumura; Jamie Lovaglio; Patrick Hanley; Greg Saturday; Catharine Bosio; Sarah Anzick; Kent Barbian; Tomas Chilar; Craig Martens; Dana Scott; Vincent Munster; Emmie de Wit

    doi:10.1101/2020.04.15.043166 Date: 2020-04-15 Source: bioRxiv

    BackgroundEffective therapeutics to treat COVID-19 are urgently needed. Remdesivir is a nucleotide prodrug with in vitro and in vivo efficacy against coronaviruses. Here, we tested the efficacy of remdesivir treatment in a rhesus macaque model of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD. MethodsTo evaluate the effect of remdesivir treatment on SARS-CoV-2 disease MESHD outcome, we used the recently established rhesus macaque model of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD that results in transient lower respiratory tract disease MESHD. Two groups of six rhesus macaques were infected with SARS-CoV-2 and treated with intravenous remdesivir or an equal volume of vehicle solution once daily. Clinical, virological and histological parameters were assessed regularly during the study and at necropsy to determine treatment efficacy. ResultsIn contrast to vehicle-treated animals, animals treated with remdesivir did not show signs of respiratory disease MESHD and had reduced pulmonary infiltrates HP on radiographs. Virus titers in bronchoalveolar lavages were significantly reduced as early as 12hrs after the first treatment was administered. At necropsy on day 7 after inoculation, lung viral loads of remdesivir-treated animals were significantly lower and there was a clear reduction in damage to the lung tissue. ConclusionsTherapeutic remdesivir treatment initiated early during infection MESHD has a clear clinical benefit in SARS-CoV-2-infected rhesus macaques. These data support early remdesivir treatment initiation in COVID-19 patients to prevent progression to severe pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP.

    Epidemic prevention and control measures in China significantly curbed the epidemic of COVID-19 and influenza

    Authors: Xiang Sha Kong; Feng Liu; Hai Bo Wang; Rui Feng Yang; Dong Bo Chen; Xiao Xiao Wang; Feng Min Lu; Hui Ying Rao; Hong Song Chen

    doi:10.1101/2020.04.09.20058859 Date: 2020-04-14 Source: medRxiv

    At the end of 2019, an outbreak of unknown pathogen pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP occurred in China, then it was named corona virus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19). With the rapid spread of COVID-19, a series of strict prevention and control measures were implemented to cut the spread of the epidemic. Influenza as a respiratory tract infection MESHD respiratory tract infection HP disease MESHD as COVID-19 might also be controlled. To assess the effects, we used the total passenger numbers sent in mainland China from 2018 to 2020 and the daily number of railway passenger (DNRP) flow in 2020 during Spring Festival travel TRANS rush to reflect the population movement and further to analyze newly and cumulative confirmed COVID-19 and influenza. We found that with implementing the series measures on COVID-19, not only COVID-19, but also influenza mitigated in China. The prevention and control measures for COVID-19 might be used in controlling respiratory tract diseases MESHD, and reducing the national health economic burden. When other countries issue measures on COVID-19 and influenza, they should consider adopting more aggressive epidemic prevention and control strategies.

    Early Epidemiological analysis of CoVID-19:  First report from South of Iran

    Authors: Ali Akbari; Amir Emami; Fatemeh Javanmardi; Neda Pirbonyeh; Nima Fadakar

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-19915/v1 Date: 2020-03-28 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: Despite the whole world’s effort for controlling, an ongoing global outbreak of lower respiratory tract disease MESHD, caused by new corona virus; led to a major public health issue. Current study aims to evaluate the characteristics of infected case in Fars, IranMethods: According to the referral of suspicious patients during one month, 2538 samples were evaluated and extracted for Viral RNA nucleic acids by using the Invitrogen ChargeSwitch® Total RNA Cell Kit (Invitrogen Co.). Data were recorded based on the standardized data collection forms shared by WHO and the International Severe Acute Respiratory and Emerging Infection MESHD Consortium. Results: By 19 March 2020, 440 admitted patients had been identified with CoVID-19 confirmation. More than 50% of cases were men. Mean age TRANS were estimated 48.15 ±18.07. Of all the patients, 30 (6.81%) had a history of travel TRANS to Qom city, which was the first infected zone in Iran, also 92(20.90%) had close contact TRANS with contaminated or suspected individuals. The mortality rate was estimated 2. 95% (13 cases). Cardiovascular disease MESHD (25, 5.68%), diabetes (33, 7.5%), and hypertension MESHD hypertension HP (35, 7.95%) were the most common co-existing disorders. Patients with underlying disease MESHD are more in danger of death MESHD [OR: 11.64, (95%CI 3.14 – 43.18), p= 0.0002]. Conclusion: Human to human transmission TRANS of SARS-CoV-II causes Fars province in southwest of Iran become infected and 440 cases identified during one month. The SARS-Cov-2 is more likely to affect male TRANS sex and individuals with old age TRANS and underlying disorders. 

    Infodemiological study on COVID-19 epidemic and COVID-19 infodemic

    Authors: Zhiwen Hu; Zhongliang Yang; Qi Li; An Zhang; Yongfeng Huang

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-18591/v1 Date: 2020-03-20 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background Less aligned emphasis has been given to the COVID-19 infodemic coordinating with the COVID-19 outbreak. Global profusion of tangled monikers and hashtags has found their ways in daily communication and contributed to backlash against Chinese. Official naming efforts against infodemic should be meet with a fair share of identification. Based on brief critical reviews on previous multifarious naming practices, we punctuate heuristic introspection in scientific conventions and sociocultural paradigms.  Methods Infodemiological analysis promises to articulate that people around the globe are divided in their favor stigmatized monikers in the public and scientific communities because of perceptual bias.  Results There is no positive correlation between the degree of infection MESHD in their territories and collective perceptual bias against COVID-19. The official portfolio “COVID-19” and “SARS-CoV-2” has not become de facto standard usages, but full-fledged official names are excepted to duly contribute to the resilience of negative perceptual bias and collective behavioral propensities amid public panic. Conclusions As an integral component of preparedness, appropriate nomenclatures should be duly assigned to the newly identified coronavirus and caused respiratory tract disease MESHD in humans amid global public health crisis.

    Master Regulator Analysis of the SARS-CoV-2/Human interactome

    Authors: Pietro Hiram Guzzi; Daniele Mercatelli; Carmine Ceraolo; Federico M Giorgi

    doi:10.1101/2020.03.15.992925 Date: 2020-03-17 Source: bioRxiv

    the recent epidemic outbreak of a novel human coronavirus called SARS-CoV-2 and causing the respiratory tract disease MESHD COVID-19 has reached worldwide resonance and a global effort is being undertaken to characterize the molecular features and evolutionary origins of this virus. In this paper, we set out to shed light on the SARS-CoV-2/host receptor recognition, a crucial factor for successful virus infection MESHD. Based on the current knowledge of the interactome between SARS-CoV-2 and host cell proteins, we performed Master Regulator Analysis to detect which parts of the human interactome are most affected by the infection MESHD. We detected, amongst others, affected apoptotic and mitochondrial mechanisms, and a downregulation of the ACE2 protein receptor, notions that can be used to develop specific therapies against this new virus.

    Clinical presentation and virological assessment of hospitalized cases of coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 in a travel TRANS-associated transmission TRANS cluster

    Authors: Roman Woelfel; Victor Max Corman; Wolfgang Guggemos; Michael Seilmaier; Sabine Zange; Marcel A Mueller; Daniela Niemeyer; Patrick Vollmar; Camilla Rothe; Michael Hoelscher; Tobias Bleicker; Sebastian Bruenink; Julia Schneider; Rosina Ehmann; Katrin Zwirglmaier; Christian Drosten; Clemens Wendtner

    doi:10.1101/2020.03.05.20030502 Date: 2020-03-08 Source: medRxiv

    Background: In coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19), current case definitions presume mainly lower respiratory tract infection MESHD respiratory tract infection HP. However, cases seen outside the epicenter of the epidemic may differ in their overall clinical appearance due to more sensitive case finding. Methods: We studied viral load courses by RT-PCR in oro- and nasopharyngeal swabs, sputum, stool, blood SERO, and urine in nine hospitalized cases. Infectious virus was detected by cell culture. Active replication was demonstrated by analysis of viral subgenomic replicative intermediates. Serology including neutralization testing was done to characterize immune response. Results: Seven cases had upper respiratory tract disease MESHD. Lower respiratory tract symptoms seen in two cases were limited. Clinical sensitivity SERO of RT-PCR on swabs taken on days 1-5 of symptoms was 100%, with no differences comparing swab and sputum samples taken simultaneously. Average viral load was 6.76x10E5 copies per swab during the first 5 days. Live virus isolates were obtained from swabs during the first week of illness. Proof of active viral replication in upper respiratory tract tissues was obtained by detection of subgenomic viral RNA. Shedding of viral RNA from sputum outlasted the end of symptoms. Seroconversion occurred after about one week. Conclusions: The present study shows that COVID-19 can often present as a common cold MESHD-like illness. SARS-CoV-2 can actively replicate in the upper respiratory tract, and is shed for a prolonged time after symptoms end, including in stool. These findings suggest adjustments of current case definitions and re-evaluation of the prospects of outbreak containment.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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