Corpus overview


Overview

MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Transmission

Seroprevalence
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    Hospital Admission Rates, Length of Stay and In-hospital Mortality for Common Acute Care Conditions in COVID-19 vs. Pre-COVID-19 Era

    Authors: Adeel A Butt; Anand B Kartha; Naseer A Masoodi; Aftab M Azad; Nidal A Asaad; Mohamad U Alhomsi; Huda A Saleh; Roberto Bertollini; Abdul-Badi Abou-Samra

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.04.20167890 Date: 2020-08-04 Source: medRxiv

    Background Impact of COVID-19 upon acute care admission rates and patterns are unknown. We sought to determine the change in rates and types of admissions to tertiary and specialty care hospitals in the COVID-19 era compared with pre-COVID-19 era. Methods Acute care admissions to the largest tertiary care referral hospital, designated national referral centers for cardiac, cancer and maternity hospital in the State of Qatar during March 2020 (COVID-19 era) and January 2020 and March 2019 (pre-COVID-19 era) were compared. We calculated total admissions, and admissions for eight specific acute care conditions, in-hospital mortality rate and length of stay at each hospital. Results A total of 18,889 hospital admissions were recorded. A sharp decline ranging from 9%-75% was observed in overall admissions. A decline in both elective and non-elective surgeries was observed. A decline of 9%-58% was observed in admissions for acute appendicitis MESHD, acute coronary syndrome MESHD, stroke MESHD stroke HP, bone fractures MESHD bone fractures HP, cancer and live births, while an increase in admissions due to respiratory tract infections MESHD respiratory tract infections HP was observed. Overall length of stay was shorter in the COVID-19 period possibly suggesting lesser overall disease MESHD severity, with no significant change in in-hospital mortality. Unadjusted mortality rate for Qatar showed marginal increase in the COVID-19 period. Conclusions We observed a sharp decline in acute care hospital admissions, with a significant decline in admissions due to seven out of eight acute care conditions. This decline was associated with a shorter length of stay, but not associated with a change in in-hospital mortality rate.

    Respiratory viral infections MESHD by Non-influenza viruses are associated with more adverse clinical outcome in patients with underlying liver disease MESHD: a single centre laboratory based study.

    Authors: Ekta Gupta; Abhishek Padhi; Kavita Agarwal; Krithiga Ramachandran; Reshu Aggarwal; Samba Siva Rao Pasupuleti; Debajyoti Bhattacharyya; Rakhi Maiwall; Shiv Kumar Sarin

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.01.20166330 Date: 2020-08-04 Source: medRxiv

    Background Respiratory viral infections MESHD are an important cause of acute respiratory tract infections MESHD respiratory tract infections HP. They are caused by both Influenza and non influenza viruses. Respiratory viral infections MESHD are known to be associated with severe clinical outcome especially in the critically ill. A constant surveillance is needed for early etiological identification which can help in timely and appropriate management and will further help in prevention of indiscriminate use of antibiotics in patients with viral etiology. Methods In this retrospective study, clinical records of all adult TRANS liver disease MESHD patients with clinically confirmed ARI, whose request for respiratory viral testing were received in the virology laboratory during September 2016 - March 2019 were reviewed. Respiratory viruses were identified by real time PCR on FilmArray 2.0 instrument (BioFire Diagnostics, Utah, USA) using Respiratory panel as per the manufacturer's instructions. Results Of the 603 patients of liver disease MESHD with clinically confirmed influenza like illness, over all incidence of respiratory viral infection MESHD was 24.3% (n= 147). Infections MESHD by non-influenza viruses (87, 59.1%) were more than influenza group of viruses. Mortality was higher in non influenza group (43, 49.4%) as compared to influenza (24, 40%) [p=0.015] being maximum in Rhinovirus, 22 (32.8%). Two peaks were observed in both influenza and non influenza groups, first in the months of January and February and the other one in August and October. Conclusion With the emergence of SARS- CoV-2 it has now become imperative for a constant surveillance of the non influenza viruses for early etiological identification of the respiratory viral infection MESHD for proper and timely management in the critically ill.

    COVID-19 and Guillain-Barre Syndrome MESHD - a Case report

    Authors: Amira Sidig; Khabab Abbasher; Mutaz F. Digna; Mohamed Elsayed; Hussien Abbasher; Mohammed Abbasher; Abbasher Hussien

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-48327/v1 Date: 2020-07-24 Source: ResearchSquare

    Coronaviruses are a family of related viruses that cause diseases MESHD in mammals and avians. Guillain-Barre syndrome MESHD is a rare disorder in which the body's immune system attacks peripheral nerves.The case:A 65 years old Sudanese male TRANS with no diabetes mellitus MESHD diabetes mellitus HP or hypertension MESHD hypertension HP present to the clinic; On examination, he has upper and lower limb weakness ( quadriplegia MESHD). The condition was preceded by upper respiratory tract infection MESHD respiratory tract infection HP. Chest X-ray showed features of pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP Chest CT scan showed multiple bilateral ground-glass opacities and consolidation typical of COVID-19 pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP. Brain MRI was normal. The COVID-19 nasal swab test was positive. Nerve conduction study showed evidence of polyradiculopathies MESHD with dominant demyelination supporting the diagnosis of Guillain-Barre syndrome MESHD. The patients died after seven days; because of progressive respiratory failure HP.

    The new silicone N99 half-piece respirator, VJR-NMU N99: A novel and effective tool to prevent COVID-19

    Authors: Thananda Trakarnvanich; Anan Manomaipiboon; Sujaree Pupipatpab; Pongsathorn Chomdee Chomdee; Pathiporn Boonyapatkul

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.23.217372 Date: 2020-07-23 Source: bioRxiv

    Filter facepiece respirators (FFRs) are critical for preventing the transmission TRANS of respiratory tract infection MESHD respiratory tract infection HP disease MESHD, especially the dreadful coronavirus 2 (SARs-CoV-2). The N95 mask is a prototype, high-efficiency protective device that can effectively protect against airborne pathogens of less than 0.3 m. The N95 mask is tightly fitting and has high filtration capacity. The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has led to a greater requirement for FFR. This rising demand greatly exceeds current production capabilities and stockpiles, resulting in shortages. To address this, our team has invented a new type of half-piece respirator made from silicone and assembled with HEPA or elastostatic filter. A variety of methods have been used to evaluate this new device, including a qualitative fit test with the Bitrex(R) test kit and filtration test. The preliminary results showed that the new N99 respirators pass the fit test. The filtration tests also confirmed the superiority of N99 over traditional N95 masks, with a mean performance SERO of protection greater than 95%. For the filters, we used two types: SafeStar, which is a kind of HEPA filter; and CareStar, which is considered an elastostatic filler. CareStar was developed to filter virus and bacteria in the operating room, with a limit duration of use up to 24 h, while the safe star was designed for 72 h use and has the quality equivalent to a HEPA filter. Our study demonstrated superior filtration efficacy of both filters, more than 98% even after 24 h of use. CareStar has significantly more filtration efficacy than a safe star (p < 0.001). In conclusion, the development of our new N99 half-piece respirator should ultimately be applicable to healthcare workers with at least non-inferiority to the previously used N 95 respirators.. Currently, the adequate supply of such equipment is not feasible. The advent of the new protective device will help protect healthcare workers and replenish the shortage of N95 respirators during the COVID-19 pandemic.

    Upper respiratory tract infections MESHD respiratory tract infections HP and the immune system response. A review.

    Authors: ANTONIO CICCHELLA

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-46588/v1 Date: 2020-07-21 Source: ResearchSquare

    Purpose: the spreading of the COVID-19 epidemic raised a question on why very well trained, healthy, and young athletes have been infected. In this review, the emerging topic in the field of sport immunology has been studied with the aim to provide advice on how strengthening the immune system (IS) and how to help the recover after heavy effort and prevent upper respiratory tract infection MESHD respiratory tract infection HP (URTI) in athletes. Methods: a literature search was performed on available public scientific databases. Results: URTI, a common illness among heavy trained athletes, happens in the time frame of temporary depression of the IS following heavy training or competition. T cells has been identified as the main factor in the immune response to counteract the cascade mediators of inflammation MESHD. Life habits, environmental and psycho-social factors such as sleep loss and life stressors are the major causes of IS depression, and it emerge that there is an optimal training load exposure which reinforce the IS, while too low or too much training being detrimental. Conclusions: immunodepression in heavy trained athletes can be counteracted with a proper distribution of training loads, nutritional interventions, correction of lifestyle habits such as sleep hygiene, thermotherapy, and recovery techniques. Psycho-social interventions also seem to have a positive effect on reducing the post exercise inflammation MESHD and in boosting the IS response. Novel bioinformatic approaches can help to understand the IS response in athletes and the management of critical situations.

    The Incidence of SARS-COV-2 Manifestations in the Central Nervous System: A Rapid Review and Meta-Analysis

    Authors: Verena Mayr; Glechner Anna; Gerald Gartlehner; Irma Klerings; Peter Lackner

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-44795/v1 Date: 2020-07-17 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: Coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by SARS-CoV-2 and presents itself mainly as a respiratory tract infection MESHD respiratory tract infection HP. However, reports of associated central nervous system (CNS) manifestations are increasing.Methods: We conducted this rapid review to determine the frequency of CNS manifestations of COVID-19 (CNS symptoms, acute cerebrovascular disease MESHD, and infectious/inflammatory CNS diseases MESHD) and to summarize the current evidence for direct invasion of the CNS by SARS-CoV-2. An information specialist searched Ovid MEDLINE, the CDC: COVID-19 Research Articles Downloadable and WHO COVID-19 Databases, CENTRAL, and Epistemonikos.org on May 13, 2020. Two reviewers screened abstracts and potentially relevant full-text publications independently. The data extraction, assessment of risk of bias,and certainty of evidence using GRADE was done by one reviewer and double-checked by another. If possible and reasonable, a meta-analysis was carried out.Results: We identified 13 relevant studies (four cohort studies, nine case studies) with a total of 866 COVID-19 patients.In a Chinese cohort, dizziness MESHD (16.8%; 36 of 214) and headache MESHD headache HP (13.1%; 28 of 214) were the most common CNS symptoms reported. A meta-analysis of four cohort studies including 851 COVID-19 patients showed an incidence of 3.3% (95% CI: 2.2–4.9) for ischemic stroke HP stroke MESHD (follow-up: one to five weeks). In 13 of 15 encephalitis MESHD encephalitis HP case studies, PCR testing of the cerebrospinal fluid did not detect any virus components.Conclusion: CNS manifestations occur frequently in patients with COVID-19. It is important to integrate neurologists into the multiprofessional COVID-19 treatment team to detect neurological complications early and to treat them correctly. 

    Procalcitonin and COVID-19: A Reliable Clinical Tool

    Authors: Jessica Bass; Anshika Singh; Robin Williams; David H. Lindner

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-43706/v1 Date: 2020-07-15 Source: ResearchSquare

    BACKGROUND: A procalcitonin (PCT) level is commonly ordered to distinguish between bacterial and viral etiologies of lower respiratory tract infections MESHD respiratory tract infections HP as it is typically negative in the absence of inflammatory conditions and bacterial infections MESHD. With COVID-19 causing an influx of patients presenting with respiratory symptoms, clinicians are in need of useful tools to guide management of these patients. Given the inflammation MESHD that is caused by COVID-19, it is currently unknown whether PCT continues to be a reliable or useful test in suspected and confirmed cases TRANS of COVID-19 pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether PCT remains a clinically useful test in patients who present with lower respiratory tract symptoms in the era of COVID-19. DESIGN: Single-center retrospective cohort studyPARTICIPANTS: 243 adults TRANS with lower respiratory tract symptoms who presented to the hospital through the emergency MESHD department between April 11, 2020 and May 18, 2020 who received both a COVID-19 test as well as a PCT level. MAIN MEASURES: COVID-19 positivity/negative, PCT level KEY RESULTS: It was found that patients with COVID-19 consistently had negative procalcitonin levels (<0.25ng/mL). Based on the odds ratio, a patient with a positive PCT level was 3.4 times more likely to test negative for COVID than a patient with a PCT level <0.25ng/mL.  (1)=13.895, p<0.001.  CONCLUSIONS: There is a highly significant association between a negative procalcitonin and positive COVID-19 infection MESHD, thus supporting the continued use of PCT in the COVID-19 era.

    Reduced Susceptibility of Coronavirus SARS Development After Earthing Due to Increased pH Values in the Respiratory Tract

    Authors: Paweł Sokal; Karol Sokal; Gaetan Chevalier; Sara Kieronska; Julia Sokal

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-41899/v1 Date: 2020-07-13 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: Low pH is an important factor facilitating entry of enveloped viruses including coronaviruses and further fusion with the host epithelial cell membrane. pH in the pulmonary environment can be maintained by supplying a negative electric charge. The main objective was to check if earthing (direct or indirect connection to Earth) changes the pH of the respiratory tract.Methods: Nine participants were evaluated and pH measurements were taken on the mucous membrane of the throat before and after 15 minutes of earthing.Results: Mean pH before earthing was 5.83±0.43 and after earthing was 6.33± 0.43 (p=0.000323). Conclusions: Earthing is able to supply a negative charge resulting in alkalization of the pulmonary environment. The increased pH value in the respiratory tract reduces the pH-dependent entry of coronaviruses into epithelial cells. Earthing can have an impact on the course of respiratory tract infection MESHD respiratory tract infection HP both viral and bacterial decreasing the susceptibility of the development of fatal forms of SARS ( Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome MESHD).

    Vitamin D deficiency MESHD as a predictor of poor prognosis in patients with acute respiratory failure HP due to COVID-19 

    Authors: Giovanna Elisiana Carpagnano; Valentina Di Lecce; Vitaliano Nicola Quaranta; Annapaola Zito; Enrico Buonamico; Elena Capozza; Alessandro Palumbo; Giuseppe Di Gioia; Vincenzo Nicola Valerio; Onofrio Resta

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-41173/v1 Date: 2020-07-11 Source: ResearchSquare

    Purpose: Hypovitaminosis D is a highly spread condition correlated with increased risk of respiratory tract infections MESHD respiratory tract infections HP. Nowadays, the world is in the grip of the Coronavirus disease MESHD 19 (COVID 19) pandemic. In these patients, cytokine storm is associated with disease MESHD severity. In consideration of the role of vitamin D in the immune system, aim of this study was to analyse vitamin D levels in patients with acute respiratory failure HP due to COVID-19 and to assess any correlations with disease MESHD severity and prognosis. Methods: In this retrospective, observational study, we analysed demographic, clinical and laboratory data of 42 patients with acute respiratory failure HP due to COVID-19, treated in Respiratory Intermediate Care Unit (RICU) of the Policlinic of Bari from March, 11 to April 30, 2020. Results: Eighty one percent of patients had hypovitaminosis D. Based on vitamin D levels, the population was stratified into four groups: no hypovitaminosis D, insufficiency, moderate deficiency, and severe deficiency. No differences regarding demographic and clinical characteristics were found. A survival analysis highlighted that, after 10 days of hospitalization, severe vitamin D deficiency MESHD patients had a 50% mortality probability, while those with vitamin D ≥10 had a 5% mortality risk (p=0.019). Conclusions: High prevalence SERO of hypovitaminosis D was found in COVID-19 patients with acute respiratory failure HP, treated in a RICU. Patients with severe vitamin D deficiency MESHD had a significantly higher mortality risk. Severe vitamin D deficiency MESHD may be a marker of poor prognosis in these patients, suggesting that adjunctive treatment might improve disease MESHD outcomes.

    Disease MESHD severity-specific neutrophil signatures in blood SERO transcriptomes stratify COVID-19 patients

    Authors: Anna C. Aschenbrenner; Maria Mouktaroudi; Benjamin Kraemer; Nikolaos Antonakos; Marie Oestreich; Konstantina Gkizeli; Melanie Nuesch-Germano; Maria Saridaki; Lorenzo Bonaguro; Nico Reusch; Kevin Bassler; Sarantia Doulou; Rainer Knoll; Tal Pecht; Theodore S. Kapellos; Nikoletta Rovina; Charlotte Kroeger; Miriam Herbert; Lisa Holsten; Arik Horne; Ioanna D. Gemuend; Shobhit Agrawal; Kilian Dahm; Martina van Uelft; Anna Drews; Lena Lenkeit; Niklas Bruse; Jelle Gerretsen; Jannik Gierlich; Matthias Becker; Kristian Haendler; Michael Kraut; Heidi Theis; Simachew Mengiste; Elena De Domenico; Jonas Schulte-Schrepping; Lea Seep; Jan Raabe; Christoph Hoffmeister; Michael ToVinh; Verena Keitel; Gereon J. Rieke; Valentina Talevi; Ahmad N. Aziz; Peter Pickkers; Frank van de Veerdonk; Mihai G. Netea; Joachim L. Schultze; Matthijs Kox; Monique M.B. Breteler; Jacob Nattermann; Antonia Koutsoukou; Evangelos J. Giamarellos-Bourboulis; Thomas Ulas

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.07.20148395 Date: 2020-07-08 Source: medRxiv

    The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic is currently leading to increasing numbers of COVID-19 patients all over the world. Clinical presentations range from asymptomatic TRANS, mild respiratory tract infection MESHD respiratory tract infection HP, to severe cases with acute respiratory distress HP syndrome MESHD, respiratory failure HP, and death MESHD. Reports on a dysregulated immune system in the severe cases calls for a better characterization and understanding of the changes in the immune system. Here, we profiled whole blood SERO transcriptomes of 39 COVID-19 patients and 10 control donors enabling a data-driven stratification based on molecular phenotype. Neutrophil activation-associated signatures were prominently enriched in severe patient groups, which was corroborated in whole blood SERO transcriptomes from an independent second cohort of 30 as well as in granulocyte samples from a third cohort of 11 COVID-19 patients. Comparison of COVID-19 blood SERO transcriptomes with those of a collection of over 2,600 samples derived from 11 different viral infections MESHD, inflammatory diseases MESHD and independent control samples revealed highly specific transcriptome signatures for COVID-19. Further, stratified transcriptomes predicted patient subgroup-specific drug candidates targeting the dysregulated systemic immune response of the host.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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