Corpus overview


Overview

MeSH Disease

Rubella (7)

Measles (5)

Infections (5)

Mumps (3)

Death (3)


Human Phenotype

Hepatitis (2)

Meningitis (2)

Fever (1)


Transmission

Seroprevalence
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    Possible Cross-Reactivity Between SARS-CoV-2 Proteins, CRM197 and Proteins in Pneumococcal Vaccines May Protect Against Symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 Disease MESHD and Death MESHD

    Authors: Robert Root-Bernstein

    id:10.20944/preprints202007.0141.v2 Date: 2020-08-04 Source: Preprints.org

    Various studies indicate that vaccination, especially with pneumococcal vaccines, protects against symptomatic cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD and death MESHD. This paper explores the possibility that pneumococcal vaccines in particular, but perhaps other vaccines as well, contain antigens that might be cross-reactive with SARS-CoV-2 antigens. Comparison of the glycosylation structures of SARS-CoV-2 with the polysaccharide structures of pneumococcal vaccines yielded no obvious similarities. However, while pneumococcal vaccines are primarily composed of capsular polysaccharides, some are conjugated to CRM197, a modified diphtheria MESHD toxin, and all contain about three percent protein contaminants, including the pneumococcal surface proteins PsaA, PspA and probably PspC. All of these proteins have very high degrees of similarity, using very stringent criteria, with several SARS-CoV-2 proteins including the spike protein, membrane protein and replicase 1a. CRM197 is also present in Hib and meningitis MESHD meningitis HP vaccines. Equivalent similarities were found at statistically significantly lower rates, or were completely absent, among the proteins in diphtheria MESHD, tetanus MESHD, pertussis, measles MESHD, mumps MESHD, rubella MESHD, and poliovirus vaccines. Notably, PspA and PspC are highly antigenic and new pneumococcal vaccines based on them are currently in human clinical trials so that their effectiveness against SARS-CoV-2 disease MESHD is easily testable.

    Similarity between mutation spectra in hypermutated genomes of rubella MESHD virus and in SARS-CoV-2 genomes accumulated during the COVID-19 pandemic

    Authors: Dmitry A. Gordenin; Leszek J. Klimczak; Thomas A. Randall; Natalie Saini; Jian-Liang Li

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.03.234005 Date: 2020-08-03 Source: bioRxiv

    Genomes of tens of thousands of SARS-CoV2 isolates have been sequenced across the world and the total number of changes (predominantly single base substitutions) in these isolates exceeds ten thousand. We compared the mutational spectrum in the new SARS-CoV-2 mutation dataset with the previously published mutation spectrum in hypermutated genomes of rubella MESHD - another positive single stranded (ss) RNA virus. Each of the rubella MESHD isolates arose by accumulation of hundreds of mutations during propagation in a single subject, while SARS-CoV-2 mutation spectrum represents a collection events in multiple virus isolates from individuals across the world. We found a clear similarity between the spectra of single base substitutions in rubella MESHD and in SARS-CoV-2, with C to U as well as A to G and U to C being the most prominent in plus strand genomic RNA of each virus. Of those, U to C changes universally showed preference for loops versus stems in predicted RNA secondary structure. Similarly, to what was previously reported for rubella MESHD, C to U changes showed enrichment in the uCn motif, which suggested a subclass of APOBEC cytidine deaminase being a source of these substitutions. We also found enrichment of several other trinucleotide-centered mutation motifs only in SARS-CoV-2 - likely indicative of a mutation process characteristic to this virus. Altogether, the results of this analysis suggest that the mutation mechanisms that lead to hypermutation of the rubella MESHD vaccine virus in a rare pathological condition may also operate in the background of the SARS-CoV-2 viruses currently propagating in the human population.

    Exploratory analysis of immunization records highlights decreased SARS-CoV-2 rates in individuals with recent non-COVID-19 vaccinations

    Authors: Colin Pawlowski; Arjun Puranik; Hari Bandi; AJ Venkatakrishnan; Vineet Agarwal; Richard Kennedy; John C O'Horo; Gregory J Gores; Amy W Williams; John Halamka; Andrew D Badley; Venky Soundararajan

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.27.20161976 Date: 2020-07-28 Source: medRxiv

    Multiple clinical studies are ongoing to assess whether existing vaccines may afford protection against SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD through trained immunity. In this exploratory study, we analyze immunization records from 137,037 individuals who received SARS-CoV-2 PCR tests. We find that polio, Hemophilus influenzae type-B (HIB), measles MESHD- mumps MESHD- rubella MESHD (MMR), varicella, pneumococcal conjugate (PCV13), geriatric flu, and hepatitis MESHD hepatitis MESHD hepatitis HP A / hepatitis B MESHD hepatitis HP (HepA-HepB) vaccines administered in the past 1, 2, and 5 years are associated with decreased SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD rates, even after adjusting for geographic SARS-CoV-2 incidence and testing rates, demographics, comorbidities, and number of other vaccinations. Furthermore, age TRANS, race/ethnicity, and blood SERO group stratified analyses reveal significantly lower SARS-CoV-2 rate among black individuals who have taken the PCV13 vaccine, with relative risk of 0.45 at the 5 year time horizon (n: 653, 95% CI: (0.32, 0.64), p-value: 6.9e-05). These findings suggest that additional pre-clinical and clinical studies are warranted to assess the protective effects of existing non-COVID-19 vaccines and explore underlying immunologic mechanisms. We note that the findings in this study are preliminary and are subject to change as more data becomes available and as further analysis is conducted.

    A High-throughput Anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG Testing Platform for COVID-19

    Authors: Jinwei Du; Eric Chu; Dayu Zhang; Chuanyi M Lu; Aiguo Zhang; Michael Y. Sha

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.23.20160804 Date: 2020-07-27 Source: medRxiv

    Background: Serology tests for detecting the antibodies SERO to severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) can identify previous infection MESHD and help to confirm the presence of current infection MESHD. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the performances SERO of a newly developed high throughput immunoassay SERO for anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibody SERO detection. Results: Clinical agreement studies were performed in 77 COVID-19 patient serum samples SERO and 226 negative donor serum SERO/ plasma SERO samples. Positive percent agreement (PPA) was 42.86% (95% CI: 9.90% to 81.59%), 55.56% (95% CI: 21.20% to 86.30%), and 96.72% (95% CI: 88.65% to 99.60%) for samples collected on 0-7 days, 8-14 days, and [≥]15 days from symptom onset TRANS, respectively. Negative Percent Agreement (NPA) was 98.23% (95% CI: 95.53% to 99.52%). No cross-reactivity was observed to patient samples positive for IgG antibodies SERO against the following pathogens: HIV, HAV, HBV, RSV, CMV, EBV, Rubella MESHD, Influenza A, and Influenza B. Hemoglobin (200 mg/dL), bilirubin (2 mg/dL) and EDTA (10 mM) showed no significant interfering effect on this assay. Conclusion: An anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibody SERO assay with high sensitivity SERO and specificity has been developed. With the high throughput, this assay will speed up the anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG testing.

    Significantly Improved COVID-19 Outcomes in Countries with Higher BCG Vaccination Coverage: A Multivariable Analysis

    Authors: Danielle Klinger; Ido Blass; Nadav Rappoport; Michal Linial

    id:10.20944/preprints202006.0073.v1 Date: 2020-06-07 Source: Preprints.org

    COVID-19 pandemic that started in China has spread within 3 months to the entire globe. We tested the hypothesis that the vaccination against tuberculosis MESHD by BCG correlates with a better outcome for COVID-19 patients. Our analysis covers 55 countries complying with predetermined thresholds on the population size and number of deaths MESHD per million (DPM). We found a strong negative correlation between the years of BCG administration and the DPM along with the progress of the pandemic, corroborated by permutation tests. The results from multivariable regression tests with 23 economic, demographic, health-related, and pandemic restriction quantitative properties, substantiate the dominant contribution of BCG years to the COVID-19 outcomes. The analysis of countries according to an age-group TRANS partition reveals that the strongest correlation is attributed to the coverage in BCG vaccination of the young population (0-24 years). Furthermore, a strong correlation and statistical significance are associated with the degree of BCG coverage for the most recent 15 years, but no association was observed in these years for other broadly used vaccination protocols for measles MESHD and rubella MESHD. We propose that BCG immunization coverage, especially among the most recently vaccinated contributes to attenuation of the spread and severity of the COVID-19 pandemic.

    Benefit-risk analysis of health benefits of routine childhood immunisation against the excess risk of SARS-CoV-2 infections MESHD during the Covid-19 pandemic in Africa

    Authors: Kaja Abbas; Simon R Procter; Kevin van Zandvoort; Andrew Clark; Sebastian Funk; - LSHTM CMMID Covid-19 Working Group; Tewodaj Mengistu; Dan Hogan; Emily Dansereau; Mark Jit; Stefan Flasche

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.19.20106278 Date: 2020-05-26 Source: medRxiv

    Background: National immunisation programmes globally are at risk of suspension due to the severe health system constraints and physical distancing measures in place to mitigate the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. Our aim is to compare the health benefits of sustaining routine childhood immunisation in Africa against the risk of acquiring SARS-CoV-2 infections MESHD through visiting routine vaccination service delivery points. Methods: We used two scenarios to approximate the child TRANS deaths MESHD that may be caused by immunisation coverage reductions during COVID-19 outbreaks. First, we used previously reported country-specific child TRANS mortality impact estimates of childhood immunisation for diphtheria MESHD, tetanus MESHD, pertussis, hepatitis B MESHD hepatitis HP, Haemophilus influenzae type b, pneumococcal, rotavirus, measles MESHD, meningitis MESHD meningitis HP A, rubella MESHD, and yellow fever MESHD fever HP (DTP3, HepB3, Hib3, PCV3, RotaC, MCV1, MCV2, MenA, RCV, YFV) to approximate the future deaths MESHD averted before completing five years of age TRANS by routine childhood vaccination during a 6-month COVID-19 risk period without catch-up campaigns. Second, we analysed an alternative scenario that approximates the health benefits of sustaining routine childhood immunisation to only the child TRANS deaths MESHD averted from measles MESHD outbreaks during the COVID-19 risk period. The excess number of infections MESHD due to additional SARS-CoV-2 exposure during immunisation visits assumes that contact reducing interventions flatten the outbreak curve during the COVID-19 risk period, that 60% of the population will have been infected by the end of that period, that children TRANS can be infected by either vaccinators or during transport and that upon child TRANS infection MESHD the whole household would be infected. Country specific household age TRANS structure estimates and age TRANS dependent infection MESHD fatality rates are then applied to calculate the number of deaths MESHD attributable to the vaccination clinic visits. We present benefit-risk ratios for routine childhood immunisation alongside 95% uncertainty range estimates from probabilistic sensitivity SERO analysis. Findings: For every one excess COVID-19 death MESHD attributable to SARS-CoV-2 infections MESHD acquired during routine vaccination clinic visits, there could be 84 (14-267) deaths MESHD in children TRANS prevented by sustaining routine childhood immunisation in Africa. The benefit-risk ratio for the vaccinated children TRANS, siblings, parents TRANS or adult TRANS care-givers, and older adults TRANS in the households of vaccinated children TRANS are 85,000 (4,900 - 546,000), 75,000 (4,400 - 483,000), 769 (148 - 2,700), and 96 (14 - 307) respectively. In the alternative scenario that approximates the health benefits to only the child TRANS deaths MESHD averted from measles MESHD outbreaks, the benefit-risk ratio to the households of vaccinated children TRANS is 3 (0 - 10) under these highly conservative assumptions and if the risk to only the vaccinated children TRANS is considered, the benefit-risk ratio is 3,000 (182 - 21,000). Interpretation: Our analysis suggests that the health benefits of deaths MESHD prevented by sustaining routine childhood immunisation in Africa far outweighs the excess risk of COVID-19 deaths MESHD associated with vaccination clinic visits, especially for the vaccinated children TRANS. However, there are other factors that must be considered for strategic decision making to sustain routine childhood immunisation in African countries during the COVID-19 pandemic. These include logistical constraints of vaccine supply chain problems caused by the COVID-19 pandemic, reallocation of immunisation providers to other prioritised health services, healthcare staff shortages caused by SARS-CoV-2 infections MESHD among the staff, decreased demand for vaccination arising from community reluctance to visit vaccination clinics for fear of contracting SARS-CoV-2 infections MESHD, and infection MESHD infection risk TRANS infection risk TRANS risk to healthcare staff providing immunisation services as well as to their households and onward SARS-CoV-2 transmission TRANS into the wider community.

    Homologous protein domains in SARS-CoV-2 and measles MESHD, mumps MESHD and rubella MESHD viruses: preliminary evidence that MMR vaccine might provide protection against COVID-19

    Authors: Robin Franklin; Adam Young; Bjoern Neumann; Rocio Fernandez; Alexis Joannides; Amir Reyahi; Yorgo Modis

    doi:10.1101/2020.04.10.20053207 Date: 2020-04-10 Source: medRxiv

    The COVID-19 disease MESHD is one of worst pandemics to sweep the globe in recent times. It is noteworthy that the disease MESHD has its greatest impact on the elderly TRANS. Herein, we investigated the potential of childhood vaccination, specifically against measles MESHD, mumps MESHD and rubella MESHD (MMR), to identify if this could potentially confer acquired protection over SARS-CoV-2. We identified sequence homology between the fusion proteins of SARS-CoV-2 and measles MESHD and mumps MESHD viruses. Moreover, we also identified a 29% amino acid sequence homology between the Macro (ADP-ribose-1-phosphatase) domains of SARS-CoV-2 and rubella MESHD virus. The rubella MESHD Macro domain has surface-exposed conserved residues and is present in the attenuated rubella MESHD virus in MMR. Hence, we hypothesize that MMR could protect against poor outcome in COVID-19 infection MESHD. As an initial test of this hypothesis, we identified that 1) age groups TRANS that most likely lack of MMR vaccine-induced immunity had the poorest outcome in COVID-19, and 2) COVID-19 disease MESHD burden correlates with rubella MESHD antibody SERO titres, potentially induced by SARS-CoV2 homologous sequences. We therefore propose that vaccination of at risk age groups TRANS with an MMR vaccination merits further consideration as a time-appropriate and safe intervention.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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