Corpus overview


MeSH Disease

Tuberculosis (55)

Disease (24)

Infections (23)

Death (16)

Pneumonia (9)

Human Phenotype


    displaying 1 - 10 records in total 56
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    Effectiveness of booster BCG vaccination in preventing Covid-19 infection MESHD

    Authors: Iradj Amirlak; Rifat Haddad; John Denis Hardy; Naief Suleiman Khaled; Michael Hsiang Chung; Bardia Amirlak

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.10.20172288 Date: 2020-08-11 Source: medRxiv

    Introduction : The evidence that BCG (bacille Calmette-Guerin) vaccine may increase the ability of the immune system to fight off pathogens other than tuberculosis MESHD has been studied in the past. This nonspecific immunity gained our interest, especially after initial reports of less cases in countries with universal BCG vaccination. In hopes of possible protective immunity, all staff of the Emirates International Hospital (United Arab Emirates) were offered a booster BCG vaccine in early March 2020. All the hospital staff were then tested for Covid-19 infection MESHD by the end of June 2020. Methodology : We divided the subjects into two groups: booster vaccinated, versus unvaccinated. The rate of Covid-19 infection MESHD was compared between the groups. Criteria included all staff who were offered the vaccine. Results: 71 subjects received the booster vaccination. This group had zero cases of positive COVID 19 infection MESHD. 209 subjects did not receive the vaccination, with 18 positive PCR confirmed COVID 19 cases The infection MESHD rate in the unvaccinated group was 8.6% versus zero in the booster vaccinated group. (Fishers exact test p-value=0.004). Conclusion : Our findings demonstrated the potential effectiveness of the booster BCG vaccine, specifically the booster in preventing Covid-19 infections MESHD in an elevated-risk healthcare population.

    Quantum Machine Learning for Drug Discovery

    Authors: Kushal Batra; Kimberley M. Zorn; Daniel H. Foil; Eni Minerali; Victor O. Gawriljuk; Thomas R. Lane; sean ekins

    doi:10.26434/chemrxiv.12781232.v1 Date: 2020-08-10 Source: ChemRxiv

    The growing public and private datasets focused on small molecules screened against biological targets or whole organisms 1 provides a wealth of drug discovery relevant data. Increasingly this is used to create machine learning models which can be used for enabling target-based design 2-4, predict on- or off-target effects and create scoring functions 5,6. This is matched by the availability of machine learning algorithms such as Support Vector Machines (SVM) and Deep Neural Networks (DNN) that are computationally expensive to perform on very large datasets and thousands of molecular descriptors. Quantum computer (QC) algorithms have been proposed to offer an approach to accelerate quantum machine learning over classical computer (CC) algorithms, however with significant limitations. In the case of cheminformatics, one of the challenges to overcome is the need for compression of large numbers of molecular descriptors for use on QC. Here we show how to achieve compression with datasets using hundreds of molecules (SARS-CoV-2) to hundreds of thousands (whole cell screening datasets for plague MESHD and M. tuberculosis MESHD) with SVM and data re-uploading classifier (a DNN equivalent algorithm) on a QC benchmarked against CC and hybrid approaches. This illustrates a quantum advantage for drug discovery to build upon in future.

    Exposure to Mycobacteria influences disease progression MESHD in COVID-19 patients 

    Authors: Ajay Gupta; Sumit Sural; Ayush Gupta; Shashank Rousa; B.C.Koner; Anju Bhalotra; Rohit Chawla

    doi:10.21203/ Date: 2020-08-08 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: COVID-19−related deaths MESHD are significantly higher in countries with higher quality of life. A strong negative correlation is reported between the BCG index and COVID- 19 mortality. The present study explored if a high Th1immunity due to frequent exposure to strong Th1 antigens like Mycobacteria or Salmonella could be the cause for lesser COVID-19−related deaths MESHD in Indian population. Methods: This prospective comparative study was conducted with 3 groups of twenty patients each of mildly symptomatic (A), severely ill (S) Covid patients and healthy volunteers with a Covid Negative report (H).Results: All severely ill patients showed increased leucocyte counts, lymphopenia MESHD lymphopenia HP and raised D-dimer. A gross reversible unresponsiveness of T cells was seen among all patients in S group with absolutely no response even to the mitogen stimulus. Quantiferon TB test value and distribution of test positivity was significantly lower in group S. Three out of 6 survived patients in S group had positive Quantiferon TB test while 2 patients turned positive on repeat test and the sixth patient showed high TH titre on widal test.Conclusion: Altered Th1 immunity associated with frequent community exposure of tuberculosis MESHD and typhoid antigen in Indian population might be responsible for its relatively lesser prevalence SERO and mortality following Covid-19.  

    Assessing Potential Inhibitors for SARS-CoV-2 Main Protease from Available Drugs using Free Energy Perturbation Simulations

    Authors: Son Tung Ngo; Hung Minh Nguyen; Le Thi Thuy Huong; Pham Minh Quan; Vi Khanh Truong; Nguyen Thanh Tung; Van Vu

    doi:10.26434/chemrxiv.12771068.v1 Date: 2020-08-07 Source: ChemRxiv

    A virtual screening approach using docking and free energy pertubation was successfully validated with previously characterized inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2 main protease (Mpro). This approach and then used to estimate the binding affinity to Mpro of more than 6300 compounds in the ZINC15 database. Delamanid, an anti- tuberculosis MESHD agent, has a predicted nanomolar binding affinity for SARS-CoV-2 Mpro and is thus a promissing drug candiate for COVID-19. In addition, several compounds including three antibiotics exhibits femtomolar affinity for SARS-CoV-2 Mpro. The residues around positions 24, 45, 143, 165, and 190 were found to be involved in the binding of the strongest inhibitors.

    IFN signaling and neutrophil degranulation transcriptional signatures are induced during SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD

    Authors: Bruce A. Rosa; Mushtaq Ahmed; Dhiraj K. Singh; Jose Alberto Choreno-Parra; Journey Cole; Luis Armando Jimenez-Alvarez; Tatiana Sofia Rodriguez-Reyna; Bindu Singh; Olga Golzalez; Ricardo Carrion; Larry S. Schlesinger; John Martin; Joaquin Zuniga; Makedonka Mitreva; Shabaana A Khader; Deepak Kaushal

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.06.239798 Date: 2020-08-06 Source: bioRxiv

    The novel virus SARS-CoV-2 has infected more than 14 million people worldwide resulting in the Coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19). Limited information on the underlying immune mechanisms that drive disease MESHD or protection during COVID-19 severely hamper development of therapeutics and vaccines. Thus, the establishment of relevant animal models that mimic the pathobiology of the disease MESHD is urgent. Rhesus macaques infected with SARS-CoV-2 exhibit disease MESHD pathobiology similar to human COVID-19, thus serving as a relevant animal model. In the current study, we have characterized the transcriptional signatures induced in the lungs of juvenile and old rhesus macaques following SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD. We show that genes associated with Interferon (IFN) signaling, neutrophil degranulation and innate immune pathways are significantly induced in macaque infected lungs, while pathways associated with collagen formation are downregulated. In COVID-19, increasing age TRANS is a significant risk factor for poor prognosis and increased mortality. We demonstrate that Type I IFN and Notch signaling pathways are significantly upregulated in lungs of juvenile infected macaques when compared with old infected macaques. These results are corroborated with increased peripheral neutrophil counts and neutrophil lymphocyte ratio in older individuals with COVID-19 disease MESHD. In contrast, pathways involving VEGF are downregulated in lungs of old infected macaques. Using samples from humans with SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD and COVID-19, we validate a subset of our findings. Finally, neutrophil degranulation, innate immune system and IFN gamma signaling pathways are upregulated in both tuberculosis MESHD and COVID-19, two pulmonary diseases MESHD where neutrophils are associated with increased severity. Together, our transcriptomic studies have delineated disease MESHD pathways to improve our understanding of the immunopathogenesis of COVID-19 to facilitate the design of new therapeutics for COVID-19.

    Concurrent cavitary pulmonary tuberculosisand COVID-19 pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP with in vitro immune cell anergy:a case report.

    Authors: Maria Musso; Francesco Di Gennaro; Gina Gualano; Silvia Mosti; Carlotta Cerva; Saeid Najafi Fard; Raffaella Libertone; Virginia Di Bari; Massimo Cristofaro; Roberto Tonnarini; Delia Goletti; Fabrizio Palmieri

    doi:10.21203/ Date: 2020-08-05 Source: ResearchSquare

    Tuberculosis MESHD (TB) is top infectious disease MESHD killer caused by a single organismresponsible for 1.5 million deaths MESHD in 2018. Both COVID 19 and the pandemic responseare risking to affect control measures for TB and continuity of essential services forpeople affected by this infection MESHD in western countries and even more in developingcountries. Knowledges about concomitant pulmonary TB and COVID-19 are extremelylimited. The double burden of these two diseases MESHD can have devastating effects. Herewe describe from both the clinical and the immunological point of view a case of apatient with in vitro immune cell anergy affected by bilateral cavitary pulmonary TB andsubsequent COVID-19-associated pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP with a worst outcome. COVID-19 can bea precipitating factor in TB respiratory failure HP and, during ongoing SARS COV 2 pandemic, clinicians must be aware of this possible coinfection MESHD in differential diagnosisof patients with active TB and new or worsening chest imaging

    Why (and how) COVID-19 could move us closer to the "health information for all" goal

    Authors: Marco Capocasa; Giovanni Destro Bisol; Paolo Anagnostou

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.23.20160481 Date: 2020-07-27 Source: medRxiv

    In this manuscript, we present an analysis of open access (OA) rates of papers concerning COVID-19 and other important human diseases MESHD, whose results helped develop an evidence-based scalable strategy aimed at increasing the full and timely access to medical literature. We show that COVID-19 papers are much more openly available (OA rate of 89.5%) than those concerning the four most recent viral outbreaks (Avian influenza, Middle East Respiratory Syndrome, Severe Acute MESHD Respiratory Syndrome MESHD, Swine influenza; OA rates (from 26.2% to 51.3%) and the ten non COVID-19 disease MESHD categories responsible for the highest number of deaths MESHD worldwide (OA rates from 44.0% for Maternal and neonatal disorders to 58.9% for Respiratory infections MESHD and tuberculosis MESHD). This evidence confronts us with an inevitable question: how can we bridge the gap between OA rates for COVID-19 and other high-impact human diseases MESHD? Based on empirical data and projections, we show that it is possible to increase substantially immediate OA to publicly-funded research and complement more demanding initiatives for access to medical literature in developing countries working on the sharing of post-prints at individual, group and multi stakeholder partnership level. However, to make our plan effective in bringing us closer to the health information for all goal a more widespread culture of cooperation is fundamental. We argue that the lesson taught by COVID-19 is a unique opportunity to raise awareness among researchers and stakeholders about the importance of open science for human health and to demonstrate that a real change is now possible.

    Previous and active tuberculosis MESHD in COVID-19 patients increases risk of death MESHD and prolongs recovery

    Authors: Karla Therese L. Sy; Nel Jason Ladiao Haw; Jhanna Uy

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.22.20154575 Date: 2020-07-26 Source: medRxiv

    Background: There is a growing literature on the association of SARS-CoV-2 and other chronic conditions, such as noncommunicable diseases MESHD. However, little is known about the impact of coinfection MESHD with tuberculosis MESHD. We aimed to compare the risk of death MESHD and recovery, as well as time-to- death MESHD and time-to-recovery TRANS, in COVID-19 patients with and without TB. Methods: We created a 4:1 propensity score matched sample of COVID-19 patients without and with tuberculosis MESHD, using COVID-19 surveillance data in the Philippines. We conducted a longitudinal cohort analysis of matched COVID-19 patients as of May 17, 2020, following them until June 15, 2020. The primary analysis estimated the risk ratios of death MESHD and recovery in patients with and without tuberculosis MESHD. Kaplan-Meier curves described time-to- death MESHD and time-to-recovery TRANS stratified by tuberculosis MESHD status, and differences in survival were assessed using the Wilcoxon test. Results: The risk of death MESHD in COVID-19 patients with tuberculosis MESHD was 2.17 times higher than in those without (95% CI: 1.40-3.37). The risk of recovery in COVID-19 patients with tuberculosis MESHD was 25% lower than in those without (RR=0.75, 95% CI 0.63-0.91). Similarly, time-to- death MESHD was significantly shorter (p=0.0031) and time-to-recovery TRANS significantly longer in patients with tuberculosis MESHD (p=0.0046). Conclusions: Our findings show that coinfection MESHD with tuberculosis MESHD increased morbidity and mortality in COVID-19 patients. Our findings highlight the need to prioritize routine and testing services for tuberculosis MESHD, although health systems are disrupted by the heavy burden of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic.

    Tuberculous Pericarditis MESHD Pericarditis HP with tamponade in COVID-19: A case report

    Authors: SHIUN WOEI WONG; Jessica Ng Ke Xuan; Chia Yew Woon

    doi:10.21203/ Date: 2020-07-17 Source: ResearchSquare

    IntroductionTuberculous pericarditis MESHD pericarditis HP is a rare manifestation of tuberculosis MESHD infection MESHD. COVID-19 pandemic poses a challenge in detecting uncommon disease MESHD. Pericardial effusion MESHD Pericardial effusion HP with tamponade has been described with COVID-19 but the association with tuberculosis MESHD is not yet known. Case presentationA 47-year-old man was admitted with symptoms of COVID-19 infection MESHD. Rapid progression of cardiomegaly MESHD cardiomegaly HP on radiograph with clinical deterioration MESHD were suggestive of pericardial tamponade. Urgent pericardiocentesis revealed hemoserous fluid, elevated adenosine deaminase and positive TB PCR. He was started on steroid, anti-tuberculous therapy and Remdesivir with marked improvement of symptoms. Repeat echocardiogram and CT Thorax showed resolution of pericardial fluid and patient was discharged well. ConclusionsThis case highlights the difficulty in detecting a concomitant rare but important disease MESHD. The development of massive pericardial tamponade acutely is not pathognomonic for COVID-19, and a careful diagnostic process involving multi-modality imaging, occurred to arrive at a diagnosis of tuberculosis MESHD.

    Continuity of services for patients with tuberculosis MESHD in China in the COVID-19 era

    Authors: Xin Shen; Wei Sha; Chongguang Yang; Qichao Pan; Ted Cohen; Shiming Chen; Qingshan Cai; Xiaohong Kan; Peilan Zong; Zhong Zeng; Shouyong Tan; Ruixia Liang; Liqiong Bai; Jia'An Xia; Shucai Wu; Peng Sun; Guihui Wu; Cui Cai; Xiaolin Wang; Kaixing Ai; Jianjun Liu; Zheng'an Yuan

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.16.20150292 Date: 2020-07-17 Source: medRxiv

    It is crucial to maintain continuity of essential services for people affected by tuberculosis MESHD (TB). Efforts to deliver these essential services in many global settings have been complicated by the emergence and global spread of SARS-CoV-2 and the pandemic of COVID-19. Understanding how the COVID-19 pandemic has impacted the availability of TB diagnostic and treatment services is critical for identifying policies that can mitigate disruptions of these essential services. China has a dual burden of TB and COVID-19. We conducted a survey and collected data from 13 provinces in China to evaluate the early impact of COVID-19 on TB services and to document interventions that were adopted to maintain the continuity services for TB patients during the pandemic. We use these data to identify additional opportunities that will improve the ability of TB programs to maintain essential services during this crisis. While health systems and underlying epidemiology differ between countries, we believe that sharing China's experience can inform the design of locally tailored strategies to maintain essential TB services during the COVID-19 pandemic.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype

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