Corpus overview


MeSH Disease

Vomiting (59)

Diarrhea (40)

Nausea (35)

Infections (34)

Fever (31)

Human Phenotype

Diarrhea (40)

Fever (31)

Nausea and vomiting (30)

Vomiting (30)

Cough (29)


    displaying 1 - 10 records in total 59
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    Clinical and intestinal histopathological findings in SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 patients with hematochezia HP

    Authors: Margaret Cho; Weiguo Liu; Sophie Balzora; Yvelisse Suarez; Deepthi Hoskoppal; Neil D Theise; Wenqing Cao; Suparna A Sarkar

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.29.20164558 Date: 2020-08-07 Source: medRxiv

    Gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms of SARS-CoV2/COVID-19 in the form of anorexia MESHD anorexia HP, nausea MESHD nausea, vomiting HP, vomiting MESHD, abdominal pain MESHD abdominal pain HP and diarrhea MESHD diarrhea HP are usually preceeded by respiratory manifestations and are associated with a poor prognosis. Hematochezia HP is an uncommon clinical presentation of COVID-19 disease MESHD and we hypothesize that older patients with significant comorbidites ( obesity MESHD obesity HP and cardiovascular) and prolonged hospitalization are suspectible to ischemic injury to the bowel. We reviewed the clinical course, key laboratory data including acute phase reactants, drug/medication history in two elderly TRANS male TRANS patients admitted for COVID-19 respiratory failure HP. Both patients had a complicated clinical course and suffered from hematochezia HP and acute blood SERO loss anemia MESHD anemia HP requiring blood SERO transfusion around day 40 of their hospitalization. Colonoscopic impressions were correlated with the histopathological findings in the colonic biopies and changes compatible with ischemia MESHD to nonspecific acute inflammation MESHD, edema MESHD edema HP and increased eosinophils in the lamina propria were noted.Both patients were on anticoagulants, multiple antibiotics and antifungal agents due to respiratory infections MESHD at the time of lower GI bleeding. Hematochezia HP resolved spontaneously with supportive care. Both patients eventually recovered and were discharged. Elderly TRANS patients with significant comorbid conditions are uniquely at risk for ischemic injury to the bowel. Hypoxic conditions due to COVID-19 pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP and respiratory failure HP, compounded by preexisting cardiovascular complications, and/or cytokine storm orchestrated by the viral infection MESHD leading to alteration in coagulation profile and/or drug/medication injury can be difficult to distinguish in these critically ill patients. Presentation of hematochezia HP may further increase the mortality and morbidity of COVID-19 patients, and prompt consultation and management by gastroenterology is therefore warranted.

    Effects of COVID-19 on the Gut and the Liver - A Case Series of 711 Patients in New York City

    Authors: Sher Nazir Baig, MD; Fuad Abaleka, MD; Stephanie Herrera, MD; Mina Daniel, MD; Bisrat Nigusse, MD; Thu M Vu, MD; Tigist Gemechu, MD; George Abdelsayed, MD, FACG

    doi:10.21203/ Date: 2020-08-06 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background As the COVID-19 epidemic is wreaking havoc with a staggering number of infections MESHD and fatalities worldwide, digestive symptoms are increasingly coming to the limelight. However, the data on the extent of gut and liver involvement has been variable and somewhat conflicting.Methods We identified 711 adults TRANS who had tested positive for COVID-19 at Richmond University Medical Center in New York between March 13 and May 13, 2020. We analyzed their clinical and laboratory data from electronic medical records.Results The average age TRANS of the patients was 60.5 years; 55% were men. 27.1% reported a gastrointestinal (GI) symptom and 56.9% had at least one abnormal liver enzyme. The most common was diarrhea MESHD diarrhea HP with a frequency of 17.3% followed by nausea MESHD nausea HP 16.2% and vomiting MESHD vomiting HP/ anorexia MESHD anorexia HP 13.7%. Abdominal pain MESHD Abdominal pain HP 5.6%, dysgeusia MESHD 3.2%, and GI bleeding 2.2% was the least common. Symptoms were mostly mild and lasted 3-5 days. The liver function was deranged in more than half of the patients. AST alone was elevated in 16.6%, both AST/ALT 15.7%, alkaline phosphatase 23%, and bilirubin 10%. Potential confounders were rare but included preexisting liver disease MESHD and hepatotoxic medications. Prothrombin time (PT) was mildly elevated in 13.4%. The lipase was elevated in 2.4% without upper abdominal pain MESHD abdominal pain HP. In 75%-90% of cases, liver test abnormalities were mild (1.5-3 x normal). Overall, 86.6% of patients were admitted primarily with respiratory failure HP and 28.5% died of their illness.Conclusions 27% of COVID-19 patients experienced a digestive disturbance and >55% showed a predominantly mild degree of liver dysfunction and cholestasis MESHD cholestasis HP.

    Ontology-based annotation and analysis of COVID-19 phenotypes

    Authors: Yang Wang; Fengwei Zhang; Hong Yu; Xianwei Ye; Yongqun He

    id:2008.02241v1 Date: 2020-08-05 Source: arXiv

    The epidemic of COVID-19 has caused an unpredictable and devastated disaster to the public health in different territories around the world. Common phenotypes include fever MESHD fever HP, cough MESHD cough HP, shortness of breath, and chills MESHD chills HP. With more cases investigated, other clinical phenotypes are gradually recognized, for example, loss of smell, and loss of tastes. Compared with discharged or cured patients, severe or died patients often have one or more comorbidities, such as hypertension MESHD hypertension HP, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease MESHD. In this study, we systematically collected and analyzed COVID-19-related clinical phenotypes from 70 articles. The commonly occurring 17 phenotypes were classified into different groups based on the Human Phenotype Ontology (HPO). Based on the HP classification, we systematically analyze three nervous phenotypes (loss of smell, loss of taste, and headache MESHD headache HP) and four abdominal phenotypes ( nausea MESHD nausea, vomiting HP, vomiting MESHD, abdominal pain MESHD abdominal pain HP, and diarrhea MESHD diarrhea HP) identified in patients, and found that patients from Europe and USA turned to have higher nervous phenotypes and abdominal phenotypes than patients from Asia. A total of 23 comorbidities were found to commonly exist among COVID-19 patients. Patients with these comorbidities such as diabetes and kidney failure had worse outcomes compared with those without these comorbidities.

    COVID-19 Vaccine Candidates by Identification of B and T Cell Multi-Epitopes Against SARS-COV-2

    Authors: Suresh Kumar; Sarmilah Mathavan; Wee Jia Jin; Nur Azznira Bt Azman; Devindren Subramanaiam; Nur Afiqah Binti Zainalabidin; Dhivashini Lingadaran; Zainah Binti Abdul Sattar; Danniya Lakshmi Manickam; Priscilla Sheba Anbananthan; Johan Ahmad Taqiyuddin; Yuvapriya Thevarajan

    id:10.20944/preprints202008.0092.v1 Date: 2020-08-04 Source:

    Coronavirus disease MESHD (COVID-19) is a new discovered strain where WHO officially declares the disease MESHD as COVID-19 while the virus responsible for it called Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome MESHD Coronavirus 2 or SARS-CoV-2. The incubation period TRANS of this disease MESHD is between 14 days. Ordinary clinical symptoms that reported around the world include fever MESHD fever HP, cough MESHD cough HP, fatigue MESHD fatigue HP, diarrhoea and vomiting MESHD vomiting HP as well as asymptomatic TRANS for certain people. Infection MESHD is spread mainly through broad droplets. In early March 2020, WHO again has announced that COVID-19 is a pandemic with currently no specific treatment. The potential use of SARS-COV-2 proteome as a vaccine candidate by analysing through B-cell and T-cell antigenicity by using a immunoinformatics approach as a vaccine development early stage. In this study, we used consensus sequence for SARS-COV-2 proteome that was retrieved from NCBI database. VaxiJen 2.0 was mainly used to identify the antigenic property of SARS-COV-2 proteins. IEDB then used to analyse the B-cell epitope, the presence of T cell immunogenic epitope in SARS-COV-2 proteins was obtained by using compromise method of MHC class I and II tools that accessible respectively using ProPred-1 server and MHC II Binding Prediction in IEDB database. The best epitopes of B and T-cell epitopes were predicted with high antigencity and the information is disseminated through web-based database resource ( This study will be useful to find a new epitope-based candidate for SARS-COV-2. However, further study needs to be done for the next stages of vaccine development.

    Clinical features and disease MESHD severity in an Iranian population of COVID-19 patients

    Authors: Shima Nabavi; Zahra Javidarabshahi; Abolghasem Allahyari; Mohammad Ramezani; Mohsen Seddigh-Shamsi; Sahar Ravanshad; Mina AkbariRad; Farnoosh Ebrahimzadeh; Shohre Khatami; Maryam Emadzadeh; Neda Saeedian; Ahmadreza Zarifian; Maryam Miri; Fariba Rezaeetalab; Sepide Hejazi; Reza Basiri; Mahnaz Mozdourian

    doi:10.21203/ Date: 2020-07-31 Source: ResearchSquare

    Objectives: Coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) can present with a variety of symptoms. Severity of the disease MESHD may be associated with several factors. Here, we review clinical features of COVID-19 patients with different severities.Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed in Imam Reza hospital, Mashhad, Iran, during February-April 2020. COVID-19 patients with typical computed tomography (CT) patterns and/or positive reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) were included. The patients were classified into three groups of moderate, severe, and critical based on disease MESHD severity. Demographic, clinical, laboratory, and radiologic findings were collected and compared. P<0.05 was considered statistically significant.Results: Overall, 200 patients with mean age TRANS of 69.75±6.39 years, of whom 82 (41%) were female TRANS were studied. Disease MESHD was severe/critical in the majority of patients (167, 83.5%). Disease MESHD severity was significantly associated with age TRANS, malignant comorbidities, dyspnea MESHD dyspnea HP, nausea MESHD nausea/vomiting HP/ vomiting MESHD, confusion MESHD confusion HP, respiratory rate, pulse rate, O2 saturation, extent of CT involvement, serum SERO C-reactive protein (CRP), pH, pO2, and aspartate transaminase (P<0.05). Moreover, complications including shock MESHD shock HP, coagulopathy, acidosis MESHD acidosis HP, sepsis MESHD sepsis HP, acute respiratory distress HP syndrome MESHD (ARDS), intensive care unit (ICU) admission, and intubation were significantly higher in patients with higher severities. O2 saturation, nausea MESHD nausea/vomiting HP/ vomiting MESHD, and extent of lung CT involvement were independent predictors of severe/critical COVID-19 (OR=0.342, 45.93, and 25.48, respectively; P<0.05).Conclusions: Our results indicate O2 saturation, nausea MESHD nausea/vomiting HP/ vomiting MESHD, and extent of lung CT involvement as independent predictors of severe COVID-19 conditions. Serum SERO CRP levels and pO2 were also considerably higher patients with higher severity and can be used along with other factors as possible predictors of severe disease MESHD in COVID-19 patients.

    Clinical Characteristics of Pediatric Inflammatory Multisystem Syndrome MESHD Associated With COVID-19

    Authors: Leila Shahbaznejad; Mohammad Reza Navaifar; Ali Abbaskhanian; Fatemeh Hosseinzadeh; Mohammad Sadegh Rezai

    doi:10.21203/ Date: 2020-07-30 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: Although symptoms and signs MESHD of COVID-19 ( Coronavirus disease MESHD 2019) in children TRANS are milder than adults TRANS, there are reports of more severe cases which was defined as pediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome MESHD (PIMS). The purpose of this report is to describe possible association between COVID-19 and PIMS in children TRANS.  Methods: From 28 March to 24 June 2020, 10 febrile children TRANS were admitted with COVID-19 infection MESHD showing characteristics of PIMS in a tertiary hospital in the north of Iran. Demographic and clinical characteristics, laboratory and imaging findings and therapeutic modalities were recorded and analysed. Results: The mean age TRANS of patients was 5.37±3.9 years (13 months to 12 years). Six of them were boy. Kawasaki disease MESHD, myocarditis MESHD myocarditis HP, toxic shock MESHD shock HP syndrome MESHD, appendicitis MESHD, sepsis MESHD sepsis HP, urosepsis, prolonged febrile seizure MESHD febrile seizure HP, acute hemorrhagic edema MESHD edema HP of infancy, and COVID-19-related pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP were their first impression. All of them had increased C-reactive protein level and most of them had an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate HP, lymphopenia MESHD lymphopenia HP, anemia MESHD anemia HP, and hypoalbuminemia MESHD hypoalbuminemia HP. Some of them had thrombocytopenia MESHD thrombocytopenia HP. Six of them were serologically or polymerase chain reaction positive for COVID-19, and 4 of them were diagnosed as COVID-19 just by chest computed tomography scan. Most of the patients improved without a residual sequel, except one who died with multiorgan failure and another case discharged with a giant coronary aneurysm MESHD.Conclusion: Children TRANS with COVID-19 may present symptoms similar to Kawasaki disease MESHD and inflammatory syndromes MESHD. PIMS should be considered in children TRANS with fever MESHD fever HP and rash, seizure MESHD seizure HP, cough MESHD cough HP, tachypnea MESHD tachypnea HP, and gastrointestinal symptoms such as vomiting MESHD vomiting HP, diarrhea MESHD diarrhea HP, and abdominal pain MESHD abdominal pain HP.

    Clinical characteristics of neonates with coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19): a systematic review

    Authors: Yuan Hu; Jing Xiong; Yuan Shi

    doi:10.21203/ Date: 2020-07-29 Source: ResearchSquare

    This study aimed to summarize the existing literature on severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in newborns to clarify the clinical features and outcomes of neonates with COVID-19. A systematic search was performed in PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Wanfang Data, and VIP databases from January 1, 2019 to April 30, 2020. The references of relevant studies were also searched. A descriptive summary was organized by aspects of clinical presentations (symptoms, laboratory examinations, and imaging) and outcomes. We identified 14 studies reporting 18 newborns with COVID-19. The most common clinical manifestations were fever MESHD fever HP (62.5%), shortness of breath (50.0%), diarrhea MESHD diarrhea HP/ vomiting MESHD vomiting HP/feeding intolerance(43.8%), cough MESHD cough HP (37.5%), dyspnea MESHD dyspnea HP (25.0%), and nasal congestion/runny nose/ sneeze MESHD sneeze HP(25.0%). Atypical symptoms included jaundice MESHD jaundice HP and convulsion. Lymphocyte numbers decreased in 5 cases, and radiographic findings were likely to show pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP. All newborns recovered and discharged from the hospital, and there was no death MESHD.Conclusion: Clinical symptoms of neonatal SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD are atypical, most of them are mild. Up to now, the prognosis of newborns is good, and there is no death MESHD. Intrauterine vertical transmission TRANS is possible, but confirmed evidence is still lacking. The Long-term follow-up of potential influences of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD on neonates need further exploration.

    CCOFEE-GI Study: Colombian COVID19 First Experience in Gastroentrology. Characterization of digestive manifestations in patients diagnosed with COVID-19 at a highly complex institution in Bogota D.C., Colombia


    doi:10.1101/2020.07.24.20161604 Date: 2020-07-24 Source: medRxiv

    The current pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 has posed an important threat to the human health, healthcare systems, economy, and structure of societies. In Colombia, the first case was diagnosed on March 6, 2020 , with exponential progressive growth, and there were >200,000 confirmed cases TRANS as of July 20, 2020, in this cross-sectional, analytical, and observational study, we focused on the demographic, epidemiologic, and clinical characteristics of patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD at a highly complex institution in Latinamerica, with special emphasis on gastrointestinal symptoms. Methods: Demographic and clinical data were collected, results related to the outcomes such as hospitalization time, admission to ICU, need for orotracheal intubation, and death MESHD were also included. Statistical analyses were conducted using Stata software V.15. Results: We included 72 patients RT-PCR positive for SARS-CoV-2 (34 women and 38 men) with age TRANS 47.5 17.7 years; 17 (23.6%) presented at least one of the gastrointestinal symptoms ( nausea MESHD nausea/vomiting HP/ vomiting MESHD, abdominal pain MESHD abdominal pain HP, and/or diarrhea MESHD diarrhea HP). 13 (76.47%) presented with diarrhea MESHD diarrhea HP, 29.41% with nausea MESHD nausea/vomiting HP/ vomiting MESHD, and five (29.41%) with abdominal pain MESHD abdominal pain HP. Diarrhea MESHD Diarrhea HP in 18.06% of all those infected with SARS-CoV-2 at the time of consultation, which was the most common digestive symptom. No significant differences were observed in requirement for endotracheal intubation, hospitalization, ICU admission, and fatal outcome between the NGIS and GIS groups (p:0.671, 0.483, 1,000, and 1,000). Conclusion: In our study, patients with gastrointestinal symptoms had no significant differences in disease MESHD severity, admission to ICU or death MESHD compared to those who did not have such symptoms.

    Safety of Hydroxychloroquine among Outpatient Clinical Trial Participants for COVID-19

    Authors: SARAH, M M LOFGREN; Melanie R Nicol; Ananta S Bangdiwala; Katelyn A Pastick; Elizabeth C Okafor; Caleb P Skipper; Matthew F Pullen; Nicole W Engen; Mahsa Abassi; Darlisha A Williams; Alanna A Nascene; Margaret L Axelrod; Sylvian A Lother; Lauren J MacKenzie; Glen Drobot; Nicole Marten; Matthew P Cheng; Ryan Zarychanshi; Ilan S Schwartz; Michael Silverman; Zain Chagla; Lauren E Kelley; Emily G McDonald; Todd C Lee; Katherine Huppler Hullsiek; David R Boulware; Radha Rajasingham

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.16.20155531 Date: 2020-07-23 Source: medRxiv

    Introduction: Use of hydroxychloroquine in hospitalized patients with COVID-19, especially in combination with azithromycin, has raised safety concerns. Here, we report safety data from three outpatient randomized clinical trials. Methods: We conducted three randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials investigating hydroxychloroquine as pre-exposure prophylaxis, post-exposure prophylaxis and early treatment for COVID-19. We excluded individuals with contraindications to hydroxychloroquine. We collected side effects and serious adverse events. We report descriptive analyses of our findings. Results: We enrolled 2,795 participants. The median age TRANS of research participants was 40 (IQR 34-49) years, and 59% (1633/2767) reported no chronic medical conditions. Overall 2,324 (84%) participants reported side effect data, and 638 (27%) reported at least one medication side effect. Side effects were reported in 29% with daily, 36% with twice weekly, 31% with once weekly hydroxychloroquine compared to 19% with placebo. The most common side effects were upset stomach or nausea MESHD nausea HP (25% with daily, 18% with twice weekly, 16% with weekly, vs. 10% for placebo), followed by diarrhea MESHD diarrhea HP, vomiting MESHD vomiting HP, or abdominal pain MESHD abdominal pain HP (23% for daily, 16% twice weekly, 12% weekly, vs. 6% for placebo). Two individuals were hospitalized for atrial arrhythmias HP, one on placebo and one on twice weekly hydroxychloroquine. No sudden deaths MESHD occurred. Conclusion: Data from three outpatient COVID-19 trials demonstrated that gastrointestinal side effects were common but mild with the use of hydroxychloroquine, while serious side effects were rare. No deaths MESHD occurred related to hydroxychloroquine. Randomized clinical trials can safely investigate whether hydroxychloroquine is efficacious for COVID-19.

    Fecal Shedding of SARS-CoV-2 and Its Potential Role in Person-To-Person Transmission TRANS and the Environment-Based Spread of COVID-19

    Authors: Davey Jones; Marcos Quintela Baluja; David Graham; Alexander Corbishley; James McDonald; Shelagh Malham; Luke Hillary; Thomas Connor; William Gaze; Ines Moura; Mark Wilcox; Kata Farkas

    id:10.20944/preprints202007.0471.v1 Date: 2020-07-20 Source:

    The recent detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in feces has led to speculation that it can be transmitted via the fecal-oral/ocular route. This review aims to critically evaluate the incidence of gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms, the quantity and infectivity of SARS-CoV-2 in feces and urine, and whether these pose an infection MESHD infection risk TRANS infection risk TRANS risk in sanitary settings, sewage networks, wastewater treatment plants, and the wider environment (e.g. rivers, lakes and marine waters). Overall, severe GI dysfunction is only evident in a small number of COVID-19 cases, with 11 ± 2% exhibiting diarrhea MESHD diarrhea HP and 12 ± 3% exhibiting vomiting MESHD vomiting and nausea HP and nausea MESHD. In addition to these cases, SARS-CoV-2 RNA can be detected in feces from some asymptomatic TRANS, mildly- and pre-symptomatic individuals. Fecal shedding of the virus peaks in the symptomatic period and can persist for several weeks, but with declining abundances in the post-symptomatic phase. SARS-CoV-2 RNA is occasionally detected in urine, but reports in fecal samples are more frequent. The abundance of the virus genetic material in both urine (ca. 102-105 gc/ml) and feces (ca. 102-107 gc/ml) is much lower than in nasopharyngeal fluids (ca. 105-1011 gc/ml). There is strong evidence of multiplication of SARS-CoV-2 in the GI tract and infectious virus has occasionally been recovered from both urine and stool samples. The level and infectious capability of SARS-CoV-2 in vomit MESHD vomit HP remain unknown. In comparison to enteric viruses transmitted via the fecal-oral route (e.g. norovirus, adenovirus), the likelihood of SARS-CoV-2 being transmitted via feces or urine appears lower due to the lower relative amounts of virus present in feces/urine. The biggest risk of transmission TRANS will occur in clinical and care home settings where secondary handling of people and urine/fecal matter occurs. In addition, while SARS-CoV-2 RNA genetic material can be detected by in wastewater, this signal is greatly reduced by conventional treatment. Our analysis also suggests the likelihood of infection MESHD due to contact with sewage-contaminated water (e.g. swimming, surfing, angling) or food (e.g. salads, shellfish) is extremely low or negligible based on very low predicted abundances and limited environmental survival of SARS-CoV-2. These conclusions are corroborated by the fact that over eight million global cases of COVID-19 have occurred, but exposure to feces or wastewater has never been implicated as a transmission TRANS vector.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype

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