Corpus overview


Overview

MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Transmission

Seroprevalence
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    Meta-Analysis: COVID-19 Disease MESHD Severity Correlates with Smoking Status

    Authors: Edouard Lansiaux; Pierre-Philippe Pébaÿ; Jean-Laurent Picard; Joachim Son-Forget

    id:10.20944/preprints202004.0445.v2 Date: 2020-07-27 Source: Preprints.org

    The novel COVID-19 disease MESHD is a contagious acute respiratory infectious disease MESHD whose causative agent has been demonstrated to be a new virus of the coronavirus family, SARS- CoV-2. Multiple studies have already reported that risk factors for severe disease MESHD include older age TRANS and the presence of at least one of several underlying health conditions. However, a recent physiopathological report and the French COVID-19 scientific council have postulated a protective effect of tobacco smoking. Thanks to a meta-analysis, we have been able to demonstrate the statistical significance in this regard of twelve series from China, France and in the US, reporting three different smoking status (current smoker,former smoker, with a smoking history) as well as disease MESHD severity (with respectively odds-ratio of 1.78 [1.08-3.10], 4.60 [3.13-7.17], 2.74 [0.63-5.89]). Subsequently and using a Bayesian approach we have established that past, and present smoking is associated with more severe COVID-19 outcomes. Finally, we refute claims linking general population smoking status (N=O(10^8) or O(10^9)) to much smaller disease MESHD course series (N=O(10^4)). The latter point in particular is presented to stimulate academic discussion, and must be further investigated by well-designed studies.

    Coronavirus Disease MESHD (COVID-19): Reviews, Applications, and Current Status

    Authors: Tanweer Alam

    id:10.20944/preprints202007.0641.v1 Date: 2020-07-26 Source: Preprints.org

    Currently, the COVID‐19 has directly affected the millions of humans lives. The symptoms of the disease MESHD involving fever MESHD fever HP, malaise, chest infection MESHD, and breathing difficulties, were identified, and its existence is continuously becoming restructured. The World Health Organization (WHO) had mentioned the wide diagnostics test besides COVID-19 that would also assist medical facilities to recognize infectious diseases as well MESHD as currently focusing efficiently on preventing and afterward defeating this viral disease MESHD. The infection MESHD is usually transmitted among human beings in direct contact, greatest through the liquid bubbles generated through cough MESHD cough HP, sneeze MESHD sneeze HP, or speaking. This paper reviews the COVID 19 pandemic, its history, current updates, contact tracing TRANS applications, and use of emerging technologies like the Internet of Things (IoT) and Blockchain for stopping the spreading and provide service online to the patient from a distance.

    The Computational Patient has Diabetes and a COVID

    Authors: Pietro Barbiero; Pietro Lió

    id:2006.06435v3 Date: 2020-06-09 Source: arXiv

    Medicine is moving from a curative discipline to a preventative discipline relying on personalised and precise treatment plans. The complex and multi level pathophysiological patterns of most diseases MESHD require a systemic medicine approach and are challenging current medical therapies. On the other hand, computational medicine is a vibrant interdisciplinary field that could help move from an organ-centered approach to a process-oriented approach. The ideal computational patient would require an international interdisciplinary effort, of larger scientific and technological interdisciplinarity than the Human Genome Project. When deployed, such a patient would have a profound impact on how healthcare is delivered to patients. Here we present a computational patient model that integrates, refines and extends recent mechanistic or phenomenological models of cardiovascular, RAS and diabetic processes. Our aim is twofold: analyse the modularity and composability of the model-building blocks of the computational patient and to study the dynamical properties of well-being and disease MESHD states in a broader functional context. We present results from a number of experiments among which we characterise the dynamic impact of COVID-19 and type-2 diabetes (T2D) on cardiovascular and inflammation MESHD conditions. We tested these experiments under different exercise, meal and drug regimens. We report results showing the striking importance of transient dynamical responses to acute state conditions and we provide guidelines for system design principles for the inter-relationship between modules and components in systemic medicine. Finally this initial computational Patient can be used as a toolbox for further modifications and extensions.

    Deep Learning Approach for COVID-19 Diagnosis Using X-Ray Images

    Authors: Muntasir Al-Asfoor

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-31278/v1 Date: 2020-05-25 Source: ResearchSquare

    During the times of pandemics, faster diagnosis plays a key role in the response efforts to contain the disease as well MESHD as reducing its spread. Computer-aided detection would save time and increase the quality of diagnosis in comparison with manual human diagnosis. Artificial Intelligence (AI) through deep learning is considered as a reliable method to design such systems. In this research paper, an AI based diagnosis approach has been suggested to tackle the COVID-19 pandemic. The proposed system employs a deep learning algorithm on chest x-ray images to detect the infected subjects. An enhanced Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) architecture has been designed with 22 layers which is then trained over a chest x-ray dataset. More after, a classification component has been introduced to classify the x-ray images into two categories (Covid-19 and not Covid-19) of infection MESHD. The system has been evaluated through a series of observations and experimentation. The experimental results have shown a promising performance SERO in terms of accuracy. The system has diagnosed Covid-19 with accuracy of 95.7% and normal subjects with accuracy of 93.1 while it showed 96.7 accuracy on Pneumonia MESHD Pneumonia HP.

    Can Climatic Factors Explain The Differences In Covid-19 Incidence And Severity Across The Spanish Regions?: An Ecological Study

    Authors: Pedro Muñoz-Cacho; Jose Luis Hernandez; Marcos Lopez-Hoyos; Víctor M. Martínez-Taboada

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-29377/v1 Date: 2020-05-15 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: Environmental factors play a central role in seasonal epidemics. SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD in Spain has shown a heterogeneous geographical pattern This study aimed to assess the influence of several climatic factors on the infectivity of SARS-CoV-2 and the COVID-19 severity among the Spanish Autonomous Communities (AA.CC.).Methods: Data on coronavirus infectivity and severity of COVID-19 disease, as well MESHD as the climatic variables were obtained from official sources (Ministry of Health and Spanish Meteorological Agency, respectively). To assess the possible influence of climate on the development of the disease MESHD, data on ultraviolet ration (UVR) were collected during the months before the start of the pandemic. To analyze its influence on the infectivity of SARS-CoV-2, data on UVR, temperature, and humidity were obtained from the months with the highest contagiousness to the pandemic peak.Results: From October 2019 to January 2020, mean UVR was significantly related not only to SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD (cumulative incidence -previous 14 days- x105 habitants, rho=-0.0,666; p=0.009), but also with COVID-19 severity, assessed as hospital admissions (rho=-0.626; p=0.017) and ICU admissions (rho=-0.565; p=0.035). Besides, temperature (February: rho=-0.832; p<0.001 and March: rho=-0.904; p<0.001), was the main climatic factor responsible for the infectivity of the coronavirus and directly contributed to a different spread of SARS-CoV-2 across the Spanish regions. Conclusions: Climatic factors may partially explain the differences in COVID-19 incidence and severity across the different Spanish regions. The knowledge of these factors could help to develop preventive and public health actions against upcoming outbreaks of the disease MESHD.

    Deposition distribution of the new coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) in the human airways upon exposure to cough MESHD cough HP-generated aerosol

    Authors: Balázs G. Madas; Péter Füri; Árpád Farkas; Attila Nagy; Aladár Czitrovszky; Imre Balásházy; Gusztáv G. Schay; Alpár Horváth

    id:2005.05882v1 Date: 2020-05-12 Source: arXiv

    The new coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) has been emerged as a rapidly spreading pandemic. The disease MESHD is thought to spread mainly from person-to-person through respiratory droplets produced when an infected person coughs MESHD coughs HP, sneezes MESHD sneezes HP, or talks. The pathogen of COVID-19 is the severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). It infects the cells binding to the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 receptor (ACE2) which is expressed by cells throughout the airways as targets for cellular entry. Although the majority of persons infected with SARS-CoV-2 experience symptoms of mild upper respiratory tract infection MESHD respiratory tract infection HP, in some people infections MESHD of the peripheral airways result in severe, potentially fatal pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP. However, the induction of COVID-19 pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP requires that SARS-CoV-2 reaches the peripheral airways. While huge efforts have been made to understand the spread of the disease TRANS disease as well MESHD as the pathogenesis following cellular entry, much less attention is paid how SARS-CoV-2 from the environment reach the receptors of the target cells. The aim of the present study is to characterize the deposition distribution of SARS-CoV-2 in the airways upon exposure to cough MESHD cough HP-generated aerosol. For this purpose, the Stochastic Lung Deposition Model has been applied. Aerosol size distribution and breathing parameters were taken from the literature supposing normal breathing through the nose. We found that the probability of direct infection MESHD of the peripheral airways due to inhalation of aerosol generated by a bystander cough MESHD cough HP is very low. As the number of pathogens deposited in the extrathoracic airways is ~10 times higher than in the peripheral airways, we concluded that in most cases COVID-19 pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP must be preceded by SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD of the upper airways. Our results suggest that without the enhancement of viral load in the upper airways, COVID-19 would be much less dangerous...

    Myths and Facts: Chloroquine May Be A Potential Supportive/Therapeutic Drug in COVID-19 Treatment

    Authors: Muhammad Kashif; Muhammad Aamir; Sadia Minhas; Romeeza Tahir; Shah Jahan; Nadeem Afzal

    id:10.20944/preprints202004.0341.v1 Date: 2020-04-19 Source: Preprints.org

    Quinine and its less toxic derivatives have served humanity for decades as potent antimalarial drugs. Emergence of drug resistance has narrowed the usage of these drugs in malaria MESHD prevention and treatment. Fortunately, these drugs have roles in the treatment of other diseases as well MESHD including rheumatic disorders and viral infections MESHD. Quinine derivatives have proven antiviral effects, especially against human immunodeficiency HP virus (HIV), Zika virus (ZiKV), herpes simplex MESHD virus (HSV), Ebola virus and dengue MESHD virus (DENV). The prophylactic and therapeutic role of Chloroquine/hydroxychroquine has become a topic of interest after the recent outbreak of novel Corona virus-19 (nCoV-19). This virus is also named severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) and WHO has officially named this disease MESHD as Corona virus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19). This lethal virus has affected almost 186 countries of the world till to date just in a period of four months of its outbreak. No approved antiviral drug is existed for the treatment of COVID-19. Therefore, this review is focused on potential prophylactic and therapeutic role of chloroquine/hydroxychlroquine for COVID-19.

    The Use of Mobile Phones for the Prevention and Control of Arboviral Diseases MESHD: A Scoping Review

    Authors: Maria Angelica Carrillo; Axel Kroeger; Rocio Cardenas Sanchez; Sonia Diaz Monsalve; Silvia Runge Ranzinger

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-23817/v1 Date: 2020-04-18 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: The rapid expansion of dengue MESHD, Zika and chikungunya with large scale outbreaks are an increasing public health concern in many countries. Additionally, the recent coronavirus pandemic urged the need to get connected for fast information transfer and exchange. As response, health programmes have -among other interventions- incorporated digital tools such as mobile phones for supporting the control and prevention of infectious diseases MESHD. However, little is known about the benefits of mobile phone technology in terms of input, process and outcome dimensions. The purpose of this scoping review is to analyse the evidence of the use of mobile phones as an intervention tool regarding the performance SERO, acceptance, usability, feasibility, cost and effectiveness in dengue MESHD, Zika and chikungunya control programmes. Methods: We conducted a scoping review of studies and reports by systematically searching: i) electronic databases (PubMed, PLOS ONE, PLOS Neglected Tropical Disease MESHD, LILACS, WHOLIS, ScienceDirect and Google scholar), ii) grey literature, using Google web and iii) documents in the list of references of the selected papers. Selected studies were categorized using a pre-determined data extraction form. Finally, a narrative summary of the evidence related to general characteristics of available mobile health tools and outcomes was produced. Results: The systematic literature search identified 1289 records, 32 of which met the inclusion criteria. From the reference lists of included articles 4 records were identified coming to a total of 36 studies. The content analysis identified five mobile phone categories: mobile applications (n = 18), short message services (n=7), camera phone (n = 6), mobile phone tracking data (n = 4), and simple mobile communication (n = 1). These devices were used for surveillance, prevention and management. In general, mobile phone-based studies reported good performance SERO, acceptance by users, usability in downloads as well as feasibility of mobile phone under real life conditions and effectiveness in terms of contributing to a reduction of vectors and disease MESHD. It can be concluded that there are great opportunities for using mobile phones in the fight against arboviral diseases as well MESHD as other epidemic diseases MESHD . Further studies particularly on acceptance, cost and effectiveness at scale are recommended.

    How the world's collective attention is being paid to a pandemic: COVID-19 related 1-gram time series for 24 languages on Twitter

    Authors: T. Alshaabi; J. R. Minot; M. V. Arnold; J. L. Adams; D. R. Dewhurst; A. J. Reagan; R. Muhamad; C. M. Danforth; P. S. Dodds

    id:2003.12614v1 Date: 2020-03-27 Source: arXiv

    In confronting the global spread of the coronavirus disease MESHD COVID-19 pandemic we must have coordinated medical, operational, and political responses. In all efforts, data is crucial. Fundamentally, and in the possible absence of a vaccine for 12 to 18 months, we need universal, well-documented testing for both the presence of the disease as well MESHD as confirmed recovery through serological tests SERO for antibodies SERO, and we need to track major socioeconomic indices. But we also need auxiliary data of all kinds, including data related to how populations are talking about the unfolding pandemic through news and stories. To in part help on the social media side, we curate a set of 1000 day-scale time series of 1-grams across 24 languages on Twitter that are most `important' for March 2020 with respect to March 2019. We determine importance through our allotaxonometric instrument, rank-turbulence divergence. We make some basic observations about some of the time series, including a comparison to numbers of confirmed deaths MESHD due to COVID-19 over time. We broadly observe across all languages a peak for the language-specific word for `virus' in January followed by a decline through February and a recent surge through March. The world's collective attention dropped away while the virus spread out from China. We host the time series on Gitlab, updating them on a daily basis while relevant. Our main intent is for other researchers to use these time series to enhance whatever analyses that may be of use during the pandemic as well as for retrospective investigations.

    Predicting COVID-19 distribution in Mexico through a discrete and time-dependent Markov chain and an SIR-like model

    Authors: Alfonso Vivanco-Lira

    id:2003.06758v1 Date: 2020-03-15 Source: arXiv

    COVID-19 is an emergent viral infection MESHD which rose in December 2019 in a city in the Chinese province of Hubei, Wuhan; the viral aetiology of this infection MESHD is now known as COVID-19 virus, which belongs to the Betacoronavirus genus. This virus produces the syndrome MESHD of acute respiratory stress that h as been witnessed in other coronaviruses, such as that MERS-CoV in Middle East countries or SARS-CoV which was seen in 2002 and 2003 in China. This virus mediates its entry through its spike (S) proteins interacting with ACE2 receptors in lung epithelial cells, and may promote an inflammatory response by means of inflammasome NLRP3 activation and unfolded protein response (these are possibly consequence of the envelope E protein of COVID-19 virus). Efforts have been made worldwide to prevent further spread of the disease TRANS disease MESHD, but in March 2020 the WHO declared it a pandemic emergency MESHD and Mexico started to report its first cases. In this paper we attempt to summarize the biological features of the virus and the possible pathophysiological mechanisms of its disease, as well MESHD as a stochastic model characterizing the probability distribution of cases in Mexico by states and the estimated number of cases in Mexico through a differential equation model (modified SIR model), thus will we be able to characterize the disease MESHD and its course in Mexico in order to display more preparedness and promote more logical actions by both the policy makers as well as the general population.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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