Corpus overview


Overview

MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Transmission

Seroprevalence
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    Impact of hematologic malignancy MESHD and type of cancer MESHD therapy on COVID-19 severity and mortality: lessons from a large population-based registry study

    Authors: Julio García-Suárez*; Javier de la Cruz*; Ángel Cedillo; Pilar Llamas; Rafael Duarte; Víctor Jiménez-Yuste; José Ángel Hernández-Rivas; Rodrigo Gil-Manso; Mi Kwon; Pedro Sánchez-Godoy; Pilar Martínez-Barranco; Blanca Colás-Lahuerta; Pilar Herrera; Laurentino Benito-Parra; Adrián Alegre; Alberto Velasco; Arturo Matilla; María Concepción Aláez-Usón; Rafael Martos-Martínez; Carmen Martínez-Chamorro; Keina Susana-Quiroz; Juan Francisco Del Campo; Adolfo de la Fuente; Regina Herráez; Adriana Pascual; Elvira Gómez; Jaime Pérez-Oteyza; Elena Ruiz; Arancha Alonso; José González-Medina; Lucía Núñez Martín-Buitrago; Miguel Canales; Isabel González-Gascón; María Carmen Vicente-Ayuso; Susana Valenciano; María García Roa; Pablo Estival Monteliu; Javier López-Jiménez; Cristián Escolano Escobar; Javier Ortiz-Martín; José Luis Diez-Martin†; Joaquín Martínez-López†

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-69133/v1 Date: 2020-08-31 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background Patients with cancer MESHD have been shown to have a higher risk of clinical severity and mortality compared to non-cancer MESHD patients with COVID-19. Patients with hematologic malignancies MESHD typically are known to have higher levels of immunosuppression and may develop more severe respiratory viral infections MESHD than patients with solid tumours MESHD. Data on COVID-19 in patients with hematologic malignancies MESHD are limited. Here we characterise disease severity and mortality, and evaluate potential prognostic factors for mortality.Methods In this population-based registry study, we collected de-identified data on clinical characteristics, treatment and outcomes in adult TRANS patients with hematologic malignancies MESHD and confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection MESHD within the Madrid region of Spain. Our case series included all patients admitted to 22 regional health service hospitals and 5 private healthcare centres between February 28 and May 25, 2020. The primary study outcome was all-cause mortality. We assessed the association between mortality and potential prognostic factors using Cox regression analyses adjusted for age TRANS, sex, comorbidities, hematologic malignancy MESHD and recent active cancer MESHD therapy.Results Of 833 patients reported, 697 were included in the analyses. Median age TRANS was 72 years (IQR 60–79), 413 (60%) patients were male TRANS, and 479 (69%) and 218 (31%) had lymphoid MESHD and myeloid malignancies, respectively. Clinical severity of COVID-19 was severe/critical in 429 (62%) patients. At data cutoff, 230 (33%) patients had died. Age TRANS ≥60 years (hazard ratios 3·17–10·1 vs <50 years), >2 comorbidities (1·41 vs ≤2), acute myeloid leukemia HP acute myeloid leukemia MESHD (2·22 vs non-Hodgkin lymphoma HP lymphoma MESHD) and active antineoplastic treatment with monoclonal antibodies SERO (2·02) or conventional chemotherapy (1·50 vs no active therapy) were associated with increased mortality. Conversely, Ph-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms MESHD neoplasms HP (0·33) and active treatment with hypomethylating agents (0·47) were associated with lower mortality. Overall, 574 (82%) patients received antiviral therapy. Mortality with severe/critical COVID-19 was higher with no therapy vs any antiviral combination therapy (2.20).Conclusions In this series of patients with hematologic malignancies MESHD and COVID-19, mortality was associated with higher age TRANS, more comorbidities, type of hematological malignancy MESHD and type of antineoplastic therapy. Further studies and long-term follow-up are required to validate these criteria for risk-stratification.

    Unsupervised machine learning reveals key immune cell subsets in COVID-19, rhinovirus infection MESHD, and cancer MESHD therapy

    Authors: Sierra M. Barone; Alberta G.A. Paul; Lyndsey M. Muehling; Joanne A. Lannigan; William W. Kwok; Ronald B. Turner; Judith A. Woodfolk; Jonathan M. Irish

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.31.190454 Date: 2020-08-01 Source: bioRxiv

    For an emerging disease MESHD like COVID-19, systems immunology tools may quickly identify and quantitatively characterize cells associated with disease progression or clinical response. With repeated sampling, immune monitoring creates a real-time portrait of the cells reacting to a novel virus before disease specific knowledge and tools are established. However, single cell analysis tools can struggle to reveal rare cells that are under 0.1% of the population. Here, the machine learning workflow Tracking Responders Expanding (T-REX) was created to identify changes in both very rare and common cells in diverse human immune monitoring settings. T-REX identified cells that were highly similar in phenotype and localized to hotspots of significant change during rhinovirus and SARS-CoV-2 infections MESHD. MHC tetramers were not used during unsupervised analysis and instead left out to serve as a test of whether T-REX identifies biologically significant cells. In the rhinovirus challenge study, T-REX identified virus-specific CD4+ T cells based on these cells being a distinct phenotype that expanded by [≥]95% following infection. T-REX successfully identified hotspots with virus-specific T cells using pairs of samples comparing Day 7 of infection MESHD to samples taken either after clearing the infection (Day 28) or samples taken prior to infection (Day 0). Mapping pairwise comparisons in samples according to both the direction and degree of change provided a framework to compare systems level immune changes during infectious disease MESHD or therapy response. This revealed that the magnitude and direction of systemic immune change in some COVID-19 patients was comparable to that of blast crisis acute myeloid leukemia HP acute myeloid leukemia MESHD patients undergoing induction chemotherapy and characterized the identity of the immune cells that changed the most. Other COVID-19 patients instead matched an immune trajectory like that of individuals with rhinovirus infection or melanoma MESHD melanoma HP patients receiving checkpoint inhibitor therapy. T-REX analysis of paired blood SERO samples provides an approach to rapidly identify and characterize mechanistically significant cells and to place emerging diseases MESHD into a systems immunology context.

    Evaluation of COVID 19 infection MESHD in 279 cancer MESHD patients treated during a 90-day period in 2020 pandemic

    Authors: Mozaffar Aznab

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.26.20102889 Date: 2020-06-01 Source: medRxiv

    Background: The aim of this study was investigation of COVID-19 disease and its outcome in cancer MESHD patients who needed treatment, in a 90-day period. Methods: Cancer MESHD patient who required treatment, were evaluated for potential COVID-19 infection MESHD in a 90-day period, starting from beginning of this epidemic in Iran, January, to April 19, 2020. For treatment of solid tumor MESHD patients, if they did not have symptoms related to COVID-19, just chest X-ray was requested. If they showed COVID-19 related symptoms, High Resolution CT scan of lungs was requested. For hematology cancer MESHD patients, PCR test for COVID-19 infection MESHD was requested as well. Protection measures were considered for personnel of oncology wards. Results: In this study, 279 patients were followed up in this 90-day period. No COVID-19 infection MESHD was observed in 92 cases of breast cancer MESHD, 72 cases of colon cancer HP colon cancer MESHD, 14 cases of gastric cancer MESHD and 12 cases of pancreaticobiliary cancer MESHD .However, in 11 cases of lung cancer MESHD, 5 cases brain tumors MESHD and 12 cases ovarian cancer MESHD; 3 case of COVID-19 were observed. In the hematology cancers MESHD group, which included 14 cases of Hodgkin Lymphoma HP Hodgkin Lymphoma MESHD, 23 cases of lymphoproliferative disorder HP lymphoproliferative disorder MESHD, 12 cases of acute leukemia HP acute leukemia MESHD and 12 cases of multiple myeloma HP multiple myeloma MESHD; three of COVID-19 were observed. Conclusion: Patients with cancer MESHD who need treatment can be treated by taking some measures. These measures include observing individual and collective protection principles in patients and health-care personnel, increasing patients awareness particularly about self-care behavior, performing a COVID-19 test, and taking a chest X ray, before the treatment starts

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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