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Overview

MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

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Transmission

Seroprevalence
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    Antibody Testing SERO Documents the Silent Spread of SARS-CoV-2in New York Prior to the First Reported Case

    Authors: Kathrine Meyers; Lihong Liu; Wen-Hsuan Lin; Yang Luo; Michael Yin; Yumeng Wu; Sandeep Wontakal; Alex Rai; Francesca La Carpia; Sebastian Fernando; Mitra Dowlatshahi; Elad Elkayam; Ankur Garg; Leemor Joshua-Tor; John Wolk; Barbara Alpert; Marie-Laure Romney; Brianna Costabile; Edoardo Gelardi; Francesca Vallese; Oliver Clarke; Filippo Mancia; Anne-Catrin Uhlemann; Magdalena Sobieszczyk; Alan Perelson; Yaoxing Huang; Eldad Hod; David Ho

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-39880/v1 Date: 2020-07-02 Source: ResearchSquare

    We developed and validated serologic assays to determine SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence SERO in select patient populations in greater New York City area early during the epidemic. We tested “discarded” serum samples SERO from February 24 to March 29 for antibodies SERO against SARS-CoV-2 spike trimer and nucleocapsid protein. Using known durations for antibody SERO development, incubation period TRANS, serial interval TRANS, and reproductive ratio for this pandemic, we determined that introduction of SARS-CoV-2 into New York likely occurred between January 23 and February 4, 2020. SARS-CoV-2 spread silently for 4–5 weeks before the first community acquired infection MESHD was reported. A novel coronavirus emerged in December 2019 in Wuhan, China1,2 and devasted Hubei Province in early 2020 before spreading to every province within China and nearly every country in the world3. This pathogen, now termed severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has caused a global pandemic, with ~ 10 million cases and over 500,000 deaths MESHD reported through June 30, 20203. The first case of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD in the United States was identified on January 19, 2020 in a man who returned to the State of Washington from Wuhan4. In the ensuing months, the U.S. has become a hotspot of the pandemic, presently accounting for almost one third of the total caseload and over one fourth of the deaths3. The first confirmed case TRANS in New York was reported on March 1 in a traveler recently returned from Iran. The first community-acquired SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD was diagnosed on March 3 in a 50-year-old male TRANS who lived in New Rochelle and worked in New York City (https://www1.nyc.gov/site/doh/covid/covid-19-data-archive.page.) In the ensuing 18 weeks, New York City has suffered a peak daily infection MESHD number of ~ 4,500 (Fig. 1a) and a cumulative caseload of ~ 400,000 to date. The time period when SARS-CoV-2 gained entry into this epicenter of the pandemic remains unclear.

    COVID-19 in healthcare workers in three hospitals in the South of the Netherlands, March 2020

    Authors: Reina S Sikkema; Suzan Pas; David F. Nieuwenhuijse; Aine O'Toole; Jaco Verweij; Anne van der Linden; Irina Chestakova; Claudia Schapendonk; Mark R Pronk; Pascal Lexmond; Theo Bestebroer; Ronald J Overmars; Stefan van Nieuwkoop; Wouter van den Bijllaardt; Robbert G. Bentvelsen; Miranda M.L. van Rijen; Anton G.M. Buiting; Anne J.G. van Oudheusden; Bram M. Diederen; Anneke M.C. Bergmans; Annemiek van der Eijk; Richard Molenkamp; Andrew Rambaut; Aura Timen; Jan A.J.W. Kluytmans; Bas B. Oude Munnink; Marjolein Kluytmans; Marion P.G. Koopmans

    doi:10.1101/2020.04.26.20079418 Date: 2020-05-01 Source: medRxiv

    Background: Ten days after the first reported case of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD in the Netherlands, 3.9% of healthcare workers (HCWs) in nine hospitals located in the South of the Netherlands tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 RNA. The extent of nosocomial transmission TRANS that contributed to the HCW infections MESHD was unknown. Methods: We combined epidemiological data, collected by means of structured interviews of HCWs, with whole genome sequencing (WGS) of SARS-CoV-2 in clinical samples from HCWs and patients in three of nine hospitals that participated in the HCW screening, to perform an in-depth analysis of sources and modes of transmission TRANS of SARS -CoV-2 in HCWs and patients. Results: A total of 1,796 out of 12,022 HCWs (15%) of the three participating hospitals were screened, based on clinical symptoms, of whom 96 (5%) tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. We obtained complete genome sequences of 50 HCWs and 18 patients. Most sequences grouped in 3 clusters, with 2 clusters displaying local circulation within the region. The observed patterns are most consistent with multiple introductions into the hospitals through community acquired infections MESHD, and local amplification in the community. Conclusions: Although direct transmission TRANS in the hospitals cannot be ruled out, the data does not support widespread nosocomial transmission TRANS as source of infection MESHD in patients or healthcare workers.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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