Corpus overview


MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Pneumonia (525)

Fever (316)

Cough (251)

Hypertension (174)

Respiratory distress (134)


age categories (949)

Transmission (709)

gender (476)

fomite (383)

asymptotic cases (217)

    displaying 1 - 10 records in total 3895
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    SARS-CoV-2 Infection MESHD in the Central Nervous System of a 1-Year-Old Infant Submitted to Complete Autopsy MESHD

    Authors: Ismael Carlos Gomes; Karina Karmirian; Julia Oliveira; Carolina Pedrosa; Fernando Colonna Rosman; Leila Chimelli; Stevens Rehen

    id:202009.0297/v3 Date: 2020-10-22 Source:

    Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was initially characterized as a respiratory illness MESHD. Neurological manifestations were reported mostly in severely affected patients. Routes for brain infection MESHD and the presence of virus particles in situ have not been well described, raising controversy about how the virus causes neurological symptoms. Here, we report the autopsy findings of a 1-year old infant with COVID-19. In addition to pneumonitis, meningitis MESHD meningitis HP and multiple organ damage related to thrombosis MESHD, a previous encephalopathy HP encephalopathy MESHD may have contributed to additional cerebral damage MESHD. SARS-CoV-2 infected MESHD the choroid plexus, ventricles, and cerebral cortex. This is the first evidence of SARS-CoV-2 detection in an infant post-mortem brain.

    A placebo-controlled double blind trial of hydroxychloroquine in mild-to-moderate COVID-19

    Authors: Vincent Dubee; Pierre-Marie Roy; Bruno Vielle; Elsa Parot-Schinkel; Odile Blanchet; Astrid Darsonval; Caroline Lefeuvre; Chadi Abbara; Sophie Boucher; Edouard Devaud; Olivier Robineau; Patrick Rispal; Thomas Guimard; Emma D'Anglejan; Sylvain Diamantis; Marc-Antoine Custaud; Isabelle Pellier; Alain Mercat

    doi:10.1101/2020.10.19.20214940 Date: 2020-10-21 Source: medRxiv

    Background The efficacy of hydroxychloroquine in coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) remains controversial. Methods We conducted a multicentre randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial evaluating hydroxychloroquine in COVID-19 patients with at least one of the following risk factors for worsening: age TRANS 75 years or more, age TRANS between 60 and 74 years, and presence of at least one comorbidity, or need for supplemental oxygen (3 L/min or more). Eligible patients were randomized in a 1:1 ratio to receive either 800 mg hydroxychloroquine on Day 0 followed by 400 mg per day for 8 days or a placebo. The primary endpoint was a composite of death MESHD or tracheal intubation within 14 days following randomization. Secondary endpoints included mortality and clinical evolution at Day 14 and 28, viral shedding at Day 5 and 10. Results The trial was stopped after 250 patients were included due to a slowdown of the pandemic in France. The intention-to-treat population comprised 123 and 124 patients in the placebo and hydroxychloroquine groups, respectively. The median age TRANS was 77 years and 151 patients required oxygen therapy. The primary endpoint occurred in nine patients in the hydroxychloroquine group and eight patients in the placebo group (relative risk 1.12; 95% confidence interval 0.45-2.80; P=0.82). No difference was observed between the two groups in any of the secondary endpoints. Conclusion In this trial involving mainly older patients with mild-to-moderate COVID-19, patients treated with hydroxychloroquine did not experience better clinical or virological outcomes than those receiving the placebo.

    Extending the range of COVID-19 risk factors ina Bayesian network model for personalised riskassessment

    Authors: Georgina Prodhan; Quentin Griette; pierre magal; Florina Borca; Anastasia Koutalopoulou; Ying Teo; James Batchelor; Trevor Smith; Andrew Duncombe; Stacey House; Robi Mitra; Jeffrey D Milbrandt; William J Buchser; Emma D'Anglejan; Sylvain Diamantis; Marc-Antoine Custaud; Isabelle Pellier; Alain Mercat

    doi:10.1101/2020.10.20.20215814 Date: 2020-10-21 Source: medRxiv

    A need is emerging for individuals to gauge their own risks of coronavirus infection MESHD as it becomes apparent that contact tracing TRANS to contain the spread of the virus is not working in many societies. This paper presents an extension of an existing Bayesian network model for an application in which people can add their own personal risk factors to calculate their probability of exposure to the virus and likely severity if they do catch the illness. The data need not be shared with any central authority. In this way, people can become more aware of their individual risks and adjust their behaviour accordingly, as many countries prepare for a second wave of infections MESHD or a prolonged pandemic. This has the advantage not only of preserving privacy but also of containing the virus more effectively by allowing users to act without the time lag of waiting to be informed that a contact has been tested and confirmed COVID-19 positive. Through a nuanced assessment of individual risk, it could also release many people from isolation who are judged highly vulnerable using cruder measures, helping to boost economic activity and decrease social isolation without unduly increasing transmission risk TRANS. Although much has been written and reported about single risk factors, little has been done to bring these factors together in a user-friendly way to give an overall risk rating. The causal probabilistic model presented here shows the power of Bayesian networks to represent the interplay of multiple, dependent variables and to predict outcomes. The network, designed for use in the UK, is built using detailed data from government and health authorities and the latest research, and is capable of dynamic updates as new information becomes available. The focus of the paper is on the extended set of risk factors.

    Structural and metabolic brain abnormalities MESHD in COVID-19 patients with sudden loss of smell

    Authors: Maxime Niesen; Nicola Trotta; Antoine Noel; Tim Coolen; Georges Fayad; Gil Leurkin-Sterk; Isabelle Delpierre; Sophie Henrard; Niloufar Sadeghi; Jean-Christophe Goffard; Serge Goldman; Xavier De Tiège; Javier Colomina; David Navarro

    doi:10.1101/2020.10.18.20214221 Date: 2020-10-20 Source: medRxiv

    Objectives: Sudden loss of smell is a very common symptom of coronavirus disease MESHD 19 (COVID-19). This study characterizes the structural and metabolic cerebral correlates of dysosmia MESHD in patients with COVID-19. Methods: Structural brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography with [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG-PET) were prospectively acquired simultaneously on a hybrid PET-MR in twelve patients (2 males TRANS, 10 females TRANS, mean age TRANS: 42.6 years, age TRANS range: 23-60 years) with sudden dysosmia MESHD and positive detection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 MESHD (SARS-CoV-2) on nasopharyngeal swab specimens. FDG-PET data were analysed using a voxel-based approach and compared with that of a group of healthy subjects. Results: Bilateral blocking of the olfactory cleft was observed in six patients, while subtle olfactory bulb asymmetry was found in three patients. No MRI signal abnormality downstream of the olfactory tract was observed. Heterogeneous (decrease or increase) glucose metabolism abnormalities MESHD were observed in core olfactory and high-order neocortical areas. A modulation of regional cerebral glucose metabolism MESHD by the severity and the duration of COVID-19-related dysosmia MESHD was disclosed using correlation analyses. Conclusions: This PET-MR study shows that sudden loss of smell in COVID-19 is not related to central involvement due to SARS-CoV-2 neuroinvasiveness MESHD. Loss of smell is associated with heterogeneous cerebral metabolic changes in core olfactory and high-order cortical areas likely related to combined processes of deafferentation and active functional reorganisation secondary to the lack of olfactory stimulation.

    Characteristics and evolution of COVID-19 cases in Brazil: mathematical modeling and simulation

    Authors: Carlos Augusto Cardoso Passos Sr.; Estefano Aparecido Vieira Sr.; Jose Andre Lourenco Sr.; Jefferson Oliveira do Nacimento Sr.; Gabriela Abelenda-Alonso; Alba Escalera; Fatima Amanat; Kaijun Jiang; Florian Krammer; Jordi Carratala; Adolfo Garcia-Sastre; Elizabeth A Komives; Omar S. Akbari

    doi:10.1101/2020.10.14.20212829 Date: 2020-10-20 Source: medRxiv

    The pandemic caused by the coronavirus of severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the etiological agent of the 2019 coronavirus disease MESHD (COVID-19), represents a threat of great magnitude not faced in this century. As a result, each government has proposed emergency public health measures that are critical to delay the transmission TRANS and spread of the virus and mitigate its impacts. In Brazil, the outbreak triggered many cases of people infected MESHD with COVID-19. Considering there are no drugs or vaccines proven to be effective to treat the disease, analyzing the data of infection cases and their mathematical interpretation are essential for supporting and guiding governmental measures to suppress and mitigate the impact of COVID-19. This means that estimates with mathematical models to assess the development potential of sustained human-human transmission TRANS are needed. Since the disease has its own biological characteristics, the models need to be adapted to the variability of the regions characteristics and the decision-making by both the government and the population, in order to be able to deal with real situations. Thus, in the present paper, we analyzed the official data of COVID-19 in Brazil and used the Johnson-Mehl-Avrami-Kolmogorov (JMAK) equation to predict the evolution of the disease. The model indicates that a nucleation rate is of fourth order, which indicates that Brazilians are crowding with no respect to measures of social distance and disease prevention. In our opinion, the political authorities were unable to control the spread of the disease TRANS in Brazil, given that social mobility was interrupted by the federal and state governments.

    Characteristics of COVID-19 Clinical Trials in India Based on the Registration Data on CTRI (Clinical Trials Registry- India): a cross-sectional analysis

    Authors: Sathiyarajeswaran Parameswaran; Shree Devi MS; Kanakavalli K; Vinod NP; Kin Chan; Joel D Pearson; Daniel Trcka; Suzanna L Prosser; Jaeyoun Kim; Miriam Barrios-Rodiles; Mark Jen; Siyuan Song; Jess Shen; Christine Bruce; Bryn Hazlett; Susan Poutanen; Lilliana Attisano; Rod Bremner; Benjamin Blencowe; Tony Mazzulli; Hong Han; Laurence Pelletier; Jeffrey L Wrana

    doi:10.1101/2020.10.14.20212761 Date: 2020-10-20 Source: medRxiv

    Objectives: The 2019 pandemic of coronavirus disease MESHD (COVID-19) has prompted several efforts to find safe and effective drugs, but little is understood as to where early efforts were centered. Several clinical trials, both Allopathy and AYUSH medicines have been registered in the Clinical Trial Registry of India (CTRI). We aimed to characterize and extract relevant data registered under CTRI for COVID -19. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional analysis was performed of clinical trials for the treatment of COVID-19 that were registered in the Clinical Trial Registry of India (CTRI) from 1st March 2020 to 22nd June 2020. Relevant trial records were downloaded, deduplicated, and independently analyzed by three reviewers. Main outcomes: Trial intervention, design, sponsorship, phase of the trial, and indicated outcomes. Results: 233 COVID-19 clinical trials, was registered from India in CTRI. Out of these, 146 were Interventional trials, 84 Observational trials, and three Post-marketing surveillance. Questionnaire and survey-based intervention occupy a significant portion. Randomized control trials are large in number 37.8% than non-randomized. 20% of the trials were recruiting patients, and the Research institution (34%) sponsored more than half of the trials. Global trials are minimal, occupying 3% of total trials and Indian trials were 97%. In most of the trials, the interventional agent is either multiple drug combinations or compound drug formulations compared to single drug administration. Among the trials, 46 Allopathic interventions, 41 Ayurveda interventions, 14 Homeopathy interventions, one in Unani, and 2 in yoga and Naturopathy. Conclusion: This study will provide a background of COVID-19 clinical trials registered in CTRI and provide specific issues observed related to clinical trial designs, which offer information to perform clinical trials on COVID-19 Keywords: COVID-19, CTRI, Clinical Trial Registry of India, Ministry of AYUSH, Clinical trial, Interventional, Randomized, Blinding.

    Risks and Benefits of Antibiotics vs. COVID-19 Morbidity and Mortality

    Authors: Hisaya Tanioka; Sayaka Tanioka; Asad Shah; Abeer Al Helali; Emadullah Raidullah; Ameirah Al Ali; Mohammed Elghazali; Deena Ahmed; Shaikha Al Kaabi; Safaa Almazrouei; Juan M Lavista Ferres; Jane Eddleston; Chris Brookes; Christopher Harrison; Weiqi Liu; Tianyi Liu; Jin-Wen Song; Liangliang Sun; Fan Yang; Xin Zhang; Bo Zhang; Ming Shi; Fanping Meng; Yanning Song; Yongpei Yu; Jiqiu Wen; Qi Li; Qing Mao; Markus Maeurer; Alimuddin Zumla; Chen Yao; Weifen Xie; Fu-Sheng Wang; Anthony Atala; Ali Ghodsizad; Joshua M Hare

    doi:10.1101/2020.10.15.20213603 Date: 2020-10-20 Source: medRxiv

    The purpose is to analyze the potential association of each antibiotic consumption rate and use ratio with COVID-19 morbidity and mortality, and to investigate the efficacy and safe use of antibiotics against COVID-19. Design Retrospective statistical analysis of antibiotic use compared with COVID-19 morbidity and mortality. Methods Each antibiotic defined daily dose per 1000 inhabitants per day as each antibiotic consumption rate was available in the official reports and each antibiotic use ratio data was calculated from them. Coronavirus disease data were obtained from the WHO Coronavirus Disease Dashboard MESHD. The relationships between the sum of defined daily dose, each antibiotic defined daily dose, each antibiotic use ratio, and COVID-19 morbidity and mortality were examined. The statistical correlation was calculated by univariate linear regression analysis and expressed by Pearson's correlation coefficient. Results Cephalosporins were a negative correlation with mortality and morbidity. Penicillin had a weak positive correlation with them. Macrolides, quinolone, and sulfonate showed a slightly negative correlation tendency with mortality. Conclusions Cephalosporins may affect less morbidity and mortality. Penicillin suggests to accelerate them. The combination of cephalosporins with macrolides or quinolones may be a helpful treatment.

    Temporal course of SARS-CoV-2 antibody SERO positivity in patients with COVID-19 following the first clinical presentation

    Authors: Martin Risch; Myriam Weber; Sarah Thiel; Kirsten Grossmann; Nadia Wohlwend; Thomas Risch; Dorothea Hillmann; Michael Ritzler; Francesca Ferrara; Susanna Bigler; Konrad Egli; Thomas Bodmer; Mauro Imperiali; Yacir Salimi; Felix Fleisch; Alexia Cusini; Harald Renz; Philipp Kohler; Pietro Vernazza; Christian R Kahlert; Matthias Paprotny; Lorenz Risch; Fanping Meng; Yanning Song; Yongpei Yu; Jiqiu Wen; Qi Li; Qing Mao; Markus Maeurer; Alimuddin Zumla; Chen Yao; Weifen Xie; Fu-Sheng Wang; Anthony Atala; Ali Ghodsizad; Joshua M Hare

    doi:10.1101/2020.10.17.20214445 Date: 2020-10-20 Source: medRxiv

    Knowledge of the sensitivities SERO of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 MESHD ( SARS-CoV-2) antibody SERO tests beyond 35 days after the clinical onset of COVID-19 is insufficient. We aimed to describe positivity rate of SARS-CoV-2 assays employing three different measurement principles over a prolonged period. Two hundred sixty-eight samples from 180 symptomatic patients with COVID-19 and a reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test followed by serological investigation of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies SERO were included.. We conducted three chemiluminescence (including electrochemiluminscence, ECLIA), four enzyme linked immunosorbent assay SERO ( ELISA SERO), and one lateral flow immunoassay SERO (LFIA) test formats. Positivity rates, as well as positive (PPV) and negative predictive values SERO (NPV) were calculated for each week after the first clinical presentation for COVID-19. Furthermore, combinations of tests were assessed within an orthogonal testing approach employing two independent assays and predictive values were calculated. Heat maps were constructed to graphically illustrate operational test characteristics. During a follow-up period of more than 9 weeks, chemiluminescence assays and one ELISA IgG SERO test showed stable positivity rates after the third week. With the exception of ECLIA, the PPVs of the other chemiluminescence assays were [≥]95% for COVID-19 only after the second week. ELISA SERO and LFIA had somewhat lower PPVs. IgM exhibited insufficient predictive characteristics. An orthogonal testing approach provided PPVs [≥]95% for patients with a moderate pretest probability (e.g., symptomatic patients), even for tests with a low single test performance SERO. After the second week, NPVs of all but IgM assays were [≥]95% for patients with low to moderate pretest probability. The confirmation of negative results using an orthogonal algorithm with another assay provided lower NPVs than the single assays. When interpreting results from SARS-CoV-2 tests, the pretest probability, time of blood SERO draw and assay characteristics must be carefully considered. An orthogonal testing approach increases the accuracy of positive, but not negative, predictions.

    Isolation of cross-reactive monoclonal antibodies SERO against divergent human coronaviruses that delineate a conserved and vulnerable site on the spike protein

    Authors: Chunyan Wang; Rien van Haperen; Javier Gutierrez-Alvarez; Wentao Li; Nisreen Okba; Irina Albulescu; Ivy Widjaja; Brenda van Dieren; Raul Fernandez-Delgado; Isabel Sola; Daniel Hurdiss; Olalekan Daramola; Frank Grosveld; Frank van Kuppeveld; Bart Haagmans; Luis Enjuanes; Dubravka Drabek; Berend-Jan Bosch; Gabriel Umaji Oka; Natalia Fernanda Bueno; Fausto K Ferraris; Mariana TQ de Magalhaes; Renata J Medeiros; Juliana MM Gomes; Mara Souza Junqueira; Katia Conceicao; Leticia G. Pontes; Antonio Condino Neto; Andrea C Perez; Leonardo G Barcellos; Jose Dias Correa Junior; Erick Gustavo Dorlass; Niels OS Camara; Edison Luiz Durigon; Fernando Q Cunha; Rafael H Nobrega; Glaucia M Machado-Santelli; Chuck S Farah; Flavio P Veras; Jorge Galindo-Villegas; Leticia Costa-Lotufo; Thiago M Cunha; Roger Chammas; Luciani R. Carvalho; Cristiane R. Guzzo; Ives Charlie-Silva

    doi:10.1101/2020.10.20.346916 Date: 2020-10-20 Source: bioRxiv

    The coronavirus spike glycoprotein, located on the virion surface, is the key mediator of cell entry. As such, it is an attractive target for the development of protective antibodies SERO and vaccines. Here we describe two human monoclonal antibodies SERO, 1.6C7 and 28D9, that display a remarkable cross-reactivity against distinct species from three Betacoronavirus subgenera, capable of binding the spike proteins of SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 MESHD, MERS-CoV and the endemic human coronavirus HCoV-OC43. Both antibodies SERO, derived from immunized transgenic mice carrying a human immunoglobulin repertoire, blocked MERS-CoV infection MESHD in cells, whereas 28D9 also showed weak cross-neutralizing potential against HCoV-OC43, SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 MESHD in a neutralization-sensitive virus pseudotyping system, but not against authentic virus. Both cross-reactive monoclonal antibodies SERO were found to target the stem helix in the spike protein S2 fusion subunit which, in the prefusion conformation of trimeric spike, forms a surface exposed membrane-proximal helical bundle, that is antibody SERO-accessible. We demonstrate that administration of these antibodies SERO in mice protects from a lethal MERS-CoV challenge in both prophylactic and/or therapeutic models. Collectively, these antibodies SERO delineate a conserved, immunogenic and vulnerabe site on the spike protein which spurs the development of broad-range diagnostic, preventive and therapeutic measures against coronaviruses.

    High-throughput detection of antibodies SERO targeting the SARS-CoV-2 Spike MESHD in longitudinal convalescent plasma SERO samples

    Authors: Sai Priya Anand; Jeremie Prevost; Jonathan Richard; Josee Perreault; Tony Tremblay; Mathieu Drouin; Marie-Josee Fournier; Antoine Lewin; Renee Bazin; Andres Finzi; Daniel Hurdiss; Olalekan Daramola; Frank Grosveld; Frank van Kuppeveld; Bart Haagmans; Luis Enjuanes; Dubravka Drabek; Berend-Jan Bosch; Gabriel Umaji Oka; Natalia Fernanda Bueno; Fausto K Ferraris; Mariana TQ de Magalhaes; Renata J Medeiros; Juliana MM Gomes; Mara Souza Junqueira; Katia Conceicao; Leticia G. Pontes; Antonio Condino Neto; Andrea C Perez; Leonardo G Barcellos; Jose Dias Correa Junior; Erick Gustavo Dorlass; Niels OS Camara; Edison Luiz Durigon; Fernando Q Cunha; Rafael H Nobrega; Glaucia M Machado-Santelli; Chuck S Farah; Flavio P Veras; Jorge Galindo-Villegas; Leticia Costa-Lotufo; Thiago M Cunha; Roger Chammas; Luciani R. Carvalho; Cristiane R. Guzzo; Ives Charlie-Silva

    doi:10.1101/2020.10.20.346783 Date: 2020-10-20 Source: bioRxiv

    Background: The SARS-CoV-2 virus is the cause of the ongoing coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, infecting millions of people and causing more than a million deaths. The SARS-CoV-2 Spike glycoproteins mediate viral entry and represent the main target for antibody SERO responses. Humoral responses were shown to be important for preventing and controlling infection by coronaviruses. A promising approach to reduce the severity of COVID-19 is the transfusion of convalescent plasma SERO. However, longitudinal studies revealed that the level of antibodies SERO targeting the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the SARS-CoV-2 Spike declines MESHD rapidly after the resolution of the infection MESHD. Study Design and Methods: To extend this observation beyond the RBD domain, we performed a longitudinal analysis of the persistence of antibodies SERO targeting the full-length SARS-CoV-2 Spike in the plasma SERO from 15 convalescent donors. We generated a 293T cell line constitutively expressing the SARS-CoV-2 Spike and used it to develop a high-throughput flow cytometry-based assay to detect SARS-CoV-2 Spike specific antibodies SERO in the plasma SERO of convalescent donors. Results and Conclusion: We found that the level of antibodies SERO targeting the full-length SARS-CoV-2 Spike declines MESHD gradually after the resolution of the infection MESHD. This decline was not related to the number of donations, but strongly correlated with the decline of RBD-specific antibodies SERO and the number of days post- symptom onset TRANS. These findings help to better understand the decline of humoral responses against the SARS-CoV-2 Spike MESHD and provide important information on when to collect plasma SERO after recovery from active infection for convalescent plasma SERO transfusion.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype

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