Corpus overview


MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype


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    Pre-diagnostic circulating concentrations of insulin-like growth factor-1 and risk of COVID-19 mortality: results from UK Biobank

    Authors: Xikang Fan; Cheng Yin; Jiayu Wang; Mingjia Yang; Hongxia Ma; Guangfu Jin; Mingyang Song; Zhibin Hu; Hongbing Shen; Dong Hang

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.09.20149369 Date: 2020-07-11

    Background: Coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) deteriorates suddenly primarily due to excessive inflammatory injury, and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) is implicated in endocrine control of the immune system. However, the effect of IGF-1 levels on COVID-19 prognosis remains unknown. Objective: To investigate the association between circulating IGF-1 concentrations and mortality risk among COVID-19 patients. Design: Prospective analysis. Setting: UK Biobank. Participants: 1425 COVID-19 patients who had pre-diagnostic serum SERO IGF-1 measurements at baseline (2006-2010). Main outcome measures: COVID-19 mortality (available death MESHD data updated to 22 May 2020). Unconditional logistic regression was performed to estimate the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of mortality across the IGF-1 quartiles. Results: Among 1425 COVID-19 patients, 365 deaths MESHD occurred due to COVID-19. Compared to the lowest quartile of IGF-1 concentrations, the highest quartile was associated with a 37% lower risk of mortality (OR: 0.63, 95% CI: 0.43-0.93, P-trend=0.03). The association was stronger in women and nonsmokers (both P-interaction=0.01). Conclusions: Higher IGF-1 concentrations are associated with a lower risk of COVID-19 mortality. Further studies are required to determine whether and how targeting IGF-1 pathway might improve COVID-19 prognosis.

    The diagnostic accuracy of nucleic acid point-of-care tests for human coronavirus: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    Authors: Pakpoom Subsoontorn; Manupat Lohitnavy; Chuenjid Kongkaew

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.09.20150235 Date: 2020-07-11

    Many recent studies reported coronavirus point of care tests (POCTs) based on isothermal amplification. However, the performances SERO of these tests have not been systematically evaluated. We searched databases for studies that provide data to calculate sensitivity SERO, specificity and diagnostic odds ratio (DOR). We included 43 studies on 5204 specimens. Most studies had high risk of patient selection and index test bias but low risk in other domains. Most studies (n = 21) used reverse-transcribed loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) to diagnose Coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19). Summary estimated ln(DOR) for RT-LAMP of RNA purified COVID-19 samples is 6.50 (95%CI 5.25-7.76), similar to the previously reported value for RT-LAMP of other RNA virus. RT-LAMP from crude samples has significantly lower ln(DOR) at 4.46 (95%CI 3.53-5.38). SAMBA-II has the highest ln(DOR) at 8.00 (95%CI 6.14-9.87). Abbott ID Now performance SERO is similar to RT-LAMP of crude sample. The performances SERO of CRISPR diagnosis and RT-LAMP are not significantly different. Types of coronaviruses and publication status have no significant effect on diagnosis performance SERO. Existing nucleic acid POCTs, particularly RT-LAMP, CRISPR diagnosis and SAMBA-II, have good diagnostic performance SERO. Future work should focus on improving a study design to minimize the risk of biases.

    Modeling and Preparedness: The Transmission TRANS Dynamics of COVID-19 Outbreak in Provinces of Ecuador

    Authors: Carlos Enrique Bustamante Orellana; Jordy Jose Cevallos Chavez; Cesar Montalvo; Jeff Sullivan; Edwin Michael; Anuj Mubayi

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.09.20150078 Date: 2020-07-11

    Coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19), a novel infectious disease MESHD first identified in December 2019 in the city of Wuhan of China, is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The disease MESHD has become a pandemic in just a few months and spread globally with more than 2.89 million cases and 203,000 deaths MESHD across 185 countries, as of April 26th, 2020. Ecuador has reported one of the highest rates of COVID-19 in Latin America, with more than 10K cases and 500 deaths MESHD in a country of approximately 17 million people. The dynamics of the outbreak is being observed quite different in different provinces of Ecuador with high reported prevalence SERO in some low population density provinces. In this study, we aim to understand variations in outbreaks between provinces and provide assistance in essential preparedness planning in order to respond effectively to ongoing COVID-19 outbreak. The study estimated the critical level of quarantine rate along with corresponding leakage in order to avoid overwhelming the local health care system. The results suggest that provinces with high population density can avoid a large disease MESHD burden provided they initiate early and stricter quarantine measures even under low isolation rate. To best of our knowledge, this study is first from the region to determine which provinces will need much preparation for current outbreak in fall HP and which might need more help.

    Addition of Tocilizumab to the standard of care reduces mortality in severe COVID-19: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    Authors: Umesha Boregowda; Abhilash Perisetti; Arpitha Nanjappa; Mahesh Gajendran; Hemant Goyal

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.10.20150680 Date: 2020-07-11

    Introduction: Tocilizumab is an anti-interleukin-6 antibody SERO that has been used for the treatment of severe coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19). However, the concrete evidence of its benefit in reducing the mortality in severe COVID-19 is lacking. Therefore, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of relevant studies that compared the efficacy of Tocilizumab in severe COVID-19 vs. standard of care alone. Methods: Literature search for studies that compared Tocilizumab and Standard of care in the treatment of COVID-19 was done using major online databases from December 2019 to June 14th, 2020. Search words Tocilizumab, anti-interleukin-6 antibody SERO, and COVID-19 or coronavirus 2019 in various combinations were used. Articles in the form of abstracts, letters without original data, case reports, and reviews were excluded. Data was gathered on an excel sheet, and statistical analysis was performed using Review Manager 5.3. Results: Five studies were eligible from 693 initial studies, including 3,641 patients (>2283 males TRANS). There were thirteen retrospective studies and three prospective studies. There were 2,488 patients in the standard of care group and 1,153 patients in the Tocilizumab group. The death MESHD rate in the tocilizumab group, 22.4% (258/1153), was lower than the standard of care group, 26.21% (652/2,488) (Pooled odds ratio 0.57 [95% CI 0.36-0.92] p=0.02). There was a significant heterogeneity (Inconsistency index= 80%) among the included studies. Conclusion: The addition of Tocilizumab to the standard of care reduces mortality in severe COVID-19. Larger randomized clinical trials are needed to validate these findings.

    Epidemiological characteristics of COVID-19 patients in Samarinda, East Kalimantan, Indonesia

    Authors: Swandari Paramita; Ronny Isnuwardana; Anton Rahmadi; Osa Rafshodia; Ismid Kusasih

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.10.20151175 Date: 2020-07-11

    Introduction. Coronavirus Disease MESHD (COVID-19) is caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD. Indonesia announced the first COVID-19 case on 2 March 2020. East Kalimantan has been determined as the new capital of Indonesia since 2019. This makes Samarinda as the capital of East Kalimantan has been focused for its capability of handling COVID-19 patients. We report the epidemiological characteristics and immunofluorescence assay results of these patients. Methods. All patients with positive confirmed COVID-19 by RT-PCR were admitted to hospitals and quarantine center in Samarinda. We retrospectively analyzed data from the daily report of the Samarinda City and East Kalimantan Health Office information system. Results. By June 25, 2020, 64 patients had been identified as having positive confirmed COVID-19. The mean age TRANS of the patients was 37.3 {+/-} 13.8 years. Most of the patients were men (57 [90.6%] patients). Thirty-nine COVID-19 patients were imported cases with a history of traveling TRANS from South Sulawesi. Most of the patients were admitted to the Quarantine Center of Samarinda City. The mean duration from the first hospital admission for isolation to discharge was 25.6 {+/-} 13.1 days. There was only one death MESHD case of COVID-19 patients in Samarinda. There were the highest confirmed cases TRANS of COVID-19 in Samarinda in early June 2020. There was a declining trend in the age TRANS of COVID-19 patients and the duration of isolation time in the hospital. Discussion. Imported cases still contributed to the increase of COVID-19 cases in Samarinda. Younger age TRANS of COVID-19 patients was more involved in frequent mobility which makes them cause the spread of the disease TRANS disease MESHD. Activation of the national reference laboratory for the COVID-19 examination in Samarinda has reduced the length of time patients treated in hospitals. Conclusion. The epidemiological characteristics of COVID-19 patients show the ability of local governments to deal with this pandemic. This can be seen from the low case fatality rate in Samarinda.

    Obesity MESHD Obesity HP, walking pace and risk of severe COVID-19: Analysis of UK Biobank

    Authors: Thomas Yates; Cameron Razieh; Francesco Zaccardi; Samuel Seidu; Melanie J Davies; Kamlesh Khunti

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.10.20150003 Date: 2020-07-11

    Obesity MESHD Obesity HP is an emerging risk factor for coronavirus disease MESHD-2019 (COVID-19). Simple measures of physical fitness, such as self-reported walking pace, could also be important risk factors, but have not been well documented. This analysis includes 414,201 UK Biobank participants with complete covariate and linked COVID-19 data. We analysed the risk of severe (in-hospital) COVID-19 across categories of obesity MESHD obesity HP status and walking pace. As of June 20th 2020 there were 972 cases of severe COVID-19 that had occurred within the cohort. Compared to normal weight individuals, the adjusted odds ratio (OR) for severe COVID-9 in those with obesity MESHD obesity HP was 1.49 (1.24, 1.78). Compared to those with a brisk walking pace, the OR in slow walkers was 1.84 (1.49, 2.27). Slow walkers had the highest risk of severe COVID-19 regardless of obesity MESHD obesity HP status. For example, compared to normal weight brisk walkers, the odds of severe COVID-19 in obese brisk walkers was 1.39 (0.99, 1.98), whereas the odds in normal weight slow walkers was 2.48 (1.56, 3.93). Self-reported walking pace, a simple measure of functional fitness, appears to be a risk factor for severe COVID-19 that is independent of obesity MESHD obesity HP. This may help inform simple pragmatic public health risk stratification and preventative strategies.

    Diagnosis of COVID-19 using CT scan images and deep learning techniques

    Authors: Vruddhi Shah; Rinkal Keniya; Akanksha Shridharani; Manav Punjabi; Jainam Shah; Ninad Mehendale

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.11.20151332 Date: 2020-07-11

    Early diagnosis of the coronavirus disease MESHD in 2019 (COVID-19) is essential for controlling this pandemic. COVID-19 has been spreading rapidly all over the world. There is no vaccine available for this virus yet. Fast and accurate COVID-19 screening is possible using computed tomography (CT) scan images. The deep learning techniques used in the proposed method was based on a convolutional neural network (CNN). Our manuscript focuses on differentiating the CT scan images of COVID-19 and non-COVID 19 CT using different deep learning techniques. A self developed model named CTnet-10 was designed for the COVID-19 diagnosis, having an accuracy of 82.1 %. Also, other models that we tested are DenseNet-169, VGG-16, ResNet-50, InceptionV3, and VGG-19. The VGG-19 proved to be superior with an accuracy of 94.52 % as compared to all other deep learning models. Automated diagnosis of COVID-19 from the CT scan pictures can be used by the doctors as a quick and efficient method for COVID-19 screening.

    ICU admissions and in-hospital deaths MESHD linked to covid-19 in the Paris region are correlated with previously observed ambient temperature

    Authors: Mehdi Mejdoubi; Xavier Kyndt; Mehdi Djennaoui

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.10.20150508 Date: 2020-07-11

    OBJECTIVE To study the effect of weather on severity indicators of coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (covid-19). DESIGN Ecological study. SETTING Paris region. POPULATION Severely ill patients with covid-19. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Daily covid-19-related intensive care unit (ICU) admission and in-hospital deaths MESHD in the Paris region, and the daily weather characteristics of Paris midtown. RESULTS Daily ICU admissions and in-hospital deaths MESHD were strongly and negatively correlated to ambient temperatures, with a time lag. The highest Pearson correlation coefficients and statistically significant P values were found 8 days before occurrence of ICU admissions and 15 days before deaths MESHD. CONCLUSIONS The study findings show a strong effect of previously observed ambient temperature that has an effect on severity indicators of covid-19.

    Clinical Features of Hemodialysis (HD) patients confirmed with Coronavirus Disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19): a Retrospective Case-Control Study

    Authors: Xiaohui Wang; Huan Zhou; Xiaofen Xiao; Xianhua Tan; Xin Zhang; Yong He; Jing Li; Guosheng Yang; Mingmei Li; Duan Liu; Shanshan Han; Haibo Kuang

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.06.20147827 Date: 2020-07-10

    Background: Since December 2019, Coronavirus Disease MESHD 2019(COVID-19) occurred in wuhan, China, and outbreaked rapidly into a global pandemic. This current poses great challenges to hemodialysis (HD) patients. Objective: To make a comprehensive evaluation and comparison between HD patients confirmed with COVID-19 and the general HD patients. Methods: HD patients confirmed with COVID-19 in Wuhan No.5 Hospital were admitted as confirmed group from Jan 10 to Mar 15, 2020. And HD patients not infected in our dialysis center were chosen as control group. General characteristics, laboratory indicators were retrospectively collected, analyzed and compared. Results: A total of 142 cases were admitted, including 43 cases in confirmed TRANS group and 99 in control group. Body mass index (BMI) was slightly lower in confirmed group than that in control group (P=0.011). The proportion of one or less underlying disease MESHD in confirmed group(51.16%) was higher than that in control group(14.14%)(P< 0.001), and the proportion of three or more underlying diseases MESHD in confirmed group(11.63%) was lower than that in control group(52.53%)(P< 0.001). Patients in confirmed group exhibited significantly lower hemoglobin, lymphocyte count, and lymphocyte percentage, but higher neutrophil percentage, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), C-reactive protein, aspartate transaminase, and alkaline phosphatase. There was no significant difference in age TRANS, gender TRANS, dialysis age TRANS, primary disease MESHD, the using of ACEI/ARB, platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) , and other indicators between the two groups. Conclusions: Faced with Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome MESHD-CoV-2 (SARS-CoV-2), HD patients with lower BMI and hemoglobin were more susceptible to be infected, which might be related to malnutrition MESHD malnutrition HP. Once confirmed with COVID-19, HD patients expressed obviously disregulated in inflammation MESHD and immune.

    A Multicenter, randomized, open-label, controlled trial to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of hydroxychloroquine and a retrospective study in adult TRANS patients with mild to moderate Coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19)

    Authors: Cheng-Pin Chen; Yi-Chun Lin; Tsung-Chia Chen; Ting-Yu Tseng; Hon-Lai Wong; Cheng-Yu Kuo; Wu-Pu Lin; Sz-Rung Huang; Wei-Yao Wang; Jia-Hung Liao; Chung-Shin Liao; Yuan-Pin Hung; Tse-Hung Lin; Tz-Yan Chang; Chin-Fu Hsiao; Yi-Wen Huang; Wei-Sheng Chung; Chien-Yu Cheng; Shu-Hsing Cheng

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.08.20148841 Date: 2020-07-10

    Objective In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) against coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) via a randomized controlled trial (RCT) and a retrospective study. Methods Subjects admitted to 11 designated public hospitals in Taiwan between April 1 and May 31, 2020, with COVID-19 diagnosis confirmed by pharyngeal real-time RT-PCR for SARS-CoV-2, were randomized at a 2:1 ratio and stratified by mild or moderate illness. HCQ 400 mg twice for 1 d and HCQ 200 mg twice daily for 6 days were administered. Both study group and controlled group received standard of care (SOC). Pharyngeal swabs and sputum were collected every other day. The proportion and time to negative viral PCR were assessed on day 14. In the retrospective study, medical records were reviewed for patients admitted before March 31, 2020. Results There were 33 and 37 cases in the RCT and retrospective study, respectively. In the RCT, the median times to negative rRT-PCR from randomization to hospital day 14 were 5 days (95% CI; 1-9 days) and 10 days (95% CI; 2-12 days) for the HCQ and SOC groups, respectively (p = 0.40). On day 14, 81.0% (17/21) and 75.0% (9/12) of the subjects in the HCQ and SOC groups, respectively, had undetected virus (p = 0.36). In the retrospective study, 12 (42.9%) in the HCQ group and 5 (55.6%) in the control group had negative rRT-PCR results on hospital day 14 (p = 0.70). Conclusions Neither study demonstrated that HCQ shortened viral shedding in mild to moderate COVID-19 subjects.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype

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