Corpus overview


MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Pneumonia (298)

Fever (231)

Cough (189)

Hypertension (139)

Respiratory distress (88)


age categories (694)

Transmission (443)

gender (360)

fomite (292)

asymptotic cases (151)

    displaying 1111 - 1120 records in total 2473
    records per page

    The characteristics of overseas imported COVID-19 cases and the effectiveness of screening strategy in Beijing, China

    Authors: Li Li; Cheng-Jie Ma; Yu-Fei Chang; Si-Yuan Yang; Yun-Xia Tang; Rong-Meng Jiang

    doi:10.21203/ Date: 2020-05-21 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background While great success in the coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) control has been achieved in China, imported cases have become a major challenge. This study aimed to describe the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of imported COVID-19 cases and to assess the effectiveness of screening strategy in Beijing, China.Methods This retrospective study included all imported COVID-19 cases from Beijing Ditan Hospital from 29 February to 20 March 2020, who were screened by both chest computed tomography (CT) and reverse-transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) at initial presentation. Demographic, clinical and laboratory data, in addition to chest CT imaging were were collected and analyzed.Results A total of 71 imported cases were finally diagnosed with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19. The cases were mainly acquired from Europe (63 cases, 88.73%). The main clinical manifestations were fever MESHD fever HP and cough MESHD cough HP, which accounted for 30 cases (42.25%) and 35 cases (49.30%), respectively. Only 4 cases (5.63%) had lymphocytopenia and 13 (18.31%) cases demonstrated elevated levels of C-reactive protein HP (CRP). All cases had normal serum SERO levels of procalcitonin (PCT). 35 cases (49.30%) had abnormal CT findings at initial presentation, whereas 36 cases (50.70%) had a normal CT. Using RT-PCR, 59 cases (83.10%) were tested positive at initial presentation.Conclusions The number of overseas imported COVID-19 cases continues to rise in China. The combination of screening tools, particularly CT and RT-PCR, can detect imported COVID-19 cases efficiently.

    The prevalence SERO rate and demographic correlates of perceived stress in Alberta during the COVID-19 pandemic: A one-week cross-sectional study

    Authors: Wesley Vuong; April Gusnowski; Shireen Surood; Reham Shalaby; Marianne Hrabok; Kelly Mrklas; Liana Urichuk; Andrew J. Greenshaw; Xin-Min Li; Vincent V. I. O. Agyapong

    doi:10.21203/ Date: 2020-05-21 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background Coronavirus Disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) continues to have an unprecedented global effect on health and daily life, with many countries struggling to adapt to the adverse pandemic impact. While strict public health measures are necessary to slow the virus’ spread, these measures may adversely affect individual mental health and wellbeing. Texting-based programs offer organizations a feasible and cost-effective option to deliver mental health supports and to collect population-level data. This study reports on the prevalence SERO rate and demographic correlates of perceived stress on the one-week data obtained from Text4Hope enrollees during the COVID-19 pandemic.Methods This was a cross-sectional study that used the Perceived Stress Scale to determine the one-week prevalence SERO for perceived stress in Alberta. Univariate and binomial logistic regression analysis were used to determine the demographic correlates (i.e., gender TRANS, age TRANS, ethnicity, educational attainment, employment status, relationship status, and housing status) of moderate/high perceived stress.Results One week after the program launch, 32,805 individuals were enrolled. 6,041 enrollees completed the baseline survey (18.4% response rate). 84.7% of respondents reported moderate/high stress. All demographic variables, except ethnicity, were significantly associated with moderate/high stress (p < 0.001). Females TRANS were 1.5 times more likely to report moderate/high stress (95% CI = 1.2–1.9) than males TRANS. Compared to respondents in the 26–40 years, 41–60 years, and > 60 years of age categories TRANS, those ≤ 25 years of age TRANS were 1.9 (95% CI = 1.1–3.4), 3.4 (95% CI = 1.9–6.3), and 5.3 (95% CI = 2.8–10.0) times more likely to report moderate/high stress, respectively. Unemployed individuals were 2.5 times more likely to report moderate/high stress (95% CI = 1.8–3.6) than employed individuals. Retirees were 1.6 times less likely to report moderate/high stress (95% CI = 1.1–2.2) than employed respondents. Respondents renting a home were 1.7 times more likely to report moderate/high stress (95% CI = 1.3–2.1) than home owners.Conclusion Prevalence SERO rate for perceived stress during the COVID-19 pandemic is very high in Alberta, signaling detrimental pandemic impacts on mental health. Our demographic correlates of perceived stress align with research results from other jurisdictions.Trail registration: The study was approved by the University of Alberta Human Research Ethics Board (Pro00086163).

    An insertion unique to SARS-CoV-2 exhibits superantigenic character strengthened by recent mutations

    Authors: Mary Hongying Cheng; She Zhang; Rebecca A. Porritt; Moshe Arditi; Ivet Bahar

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.21.109272 Date: 2020-05-21 Source: bioRxiv

    Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome MESHD in Children TRANS (MIS-C) associated with Coronavirus Disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) is a newly recognized condition in which children TRANS with recent SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD present with a constellation of symptoms including hypotension MESHD hypotension HP, multiorgan involvement, and elevated inflammatory markers. These symptoms and the associated laboratory values strongly resemble toxic shock MESHD shock HP syndrome MESHD, an escalation of the cytotoxic adaptive immune response triggered upon the binding of pathogenic superantigens to MHCII molecules and T cell receptors (TCRs). Here, we used structure-based computational models to demonstrate that the SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) exhibits a high-affinity motif for binding TCR, interacting closely with both the - and {beta}-chains variable domains complementarity-determining regions. The binding epitope on S harbors a sequence motif unique to SARS-CoV-2 (not present in any other SARS coronavirus), which is highly similar in both sequence and structure to bacterial superantigens. Further examination revealed that this interaction between the virus and human T cells is strengthened in the context of a recently reported rare mutation (D839Y/N/E) from a European strain of SARS-CoV-2. Furthermore, the interfacial region includes selected residues from a motif shared between the SARS viruses from the 2003 and 2019 pandemics, which has intracellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-like character. These data suggest that the SARS-CoV-2 S may act as a superantigen to drive the development of MIS-C as well as cytokine storm in adult TRANS COVID-19 patients, with important implications for the development of therapeutic approaches. SignificanceAlthough children TRANS have been largely spared from severe COVID-19 disease, a rare MESHD hyperinflammatory syndrome MESHD has been described in Europe and the East Coast of the United States, termed Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome MESHD in Children TRANS (MISC). The symptoms and diagnostic lab values of MIS-C resemble those of toxic shock MESHD shock HP, typically caused by pathogenic superantigens stimulating excessive activation of the adaptive immune system. We show that SARS-CoV-2 spike has a sequence and structure motif highly similar to those of bacterial superantigens, and may directly bind to the T cell receptors. This sequence motif, not present in other coronaviruses, may explain the unique potential for SARS-CoV-2 to cause both MIS-C and the cytokine storm observed in adult TRANS COVID-19 patients.

    Repurpose Open Data to Discover Therapeutics for COVID-19 using Deep Learning

    Authors: Xiangxiang Zeng; Xiang Song; Tengfei Ma; Xiaoqin Pan; Yadi Zhou; Yuan Hou; Zheng Zhang; George Karypis; Feixiong Cheng

    id:2005.10831v1 Date: 2020-05-21 Source: arXiv

    There have been more than 850,000 confirmed cases TRANS and over 48,000 deaths MESHD from the human coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by novel severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), in the United States alone. However, there are currently no proven effective medications against COVID-19. Drug repurposing offers a promising way for the development of prevention and treatment strategies for COVID-19. This study reports an integrative, network-based deep learning methodology to identify repurposable drugs for COVID-19 (termed CoV-KGE). Specifically, we built a comprehensive knowledge graph that includes 15 million edges across 39 types of relationships connecting drugs, diseases MESHD, genes, pathways, and expressions, from a large scientific corpus of 24 million PubMed publications. Using Amazon AWS computing resources, we identified 41 repurposable drugs (including indomethacin, toremifene and niclosamide) whose therapeutic association with COVID-19 were validated by transcriptomic and proteomic data in SARS-CoV-2 infected human cells and data from ongoing clinical trials. While this study, by no means recommends specific drugs, it demonstrates a powerful deep learning methodology to prioritize existing drugs for further investigation, which holds the potential of accelerating therapeutic development for COVID-19.

    Prevalence SERO of facemask use among general public when visiting wet market during Covid-19 pandemic: An observational study.

    Authors: Gobi Hariyanayagam Gunasekaran; Sera Selvanthan Sundram Gunasekaran; Shargunan Selvanthan Gunasekaran; Nur Syafina Insyirah Zaimi; Nor Amirah Abdul Halim

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.17.20105023 Date: 2020-05-21 Source: medRxiv

    Background In late December 2019, an outbreak of a novel coronavirus disease MESHD (COVID-19; previously known as 2019-nCoV) was epidemiologically linked to seafood and wet animal wholesale market in Wuhan, Hubei, China. This has instigated stigma among the general population as the wet market is viewed as a high-risk location for getting infected with coronavirus. Objective This study investigated the prevalence SERO of facemask use among general population visiting the wet market. This study also investigated the demographic factors contributing to unacceptable facemask practice. Setting This prospective observational study was done among visitor to a district wet market selling range of live or freshly slaughtered animals during COVID-19 pandemic outbreak. Methods Individuals entering through dedicated entry point were observed for the type, category and practice of wearing personal protective equipment. Inclusion criteria for this study were any individuals entering the wet market. Subjects were categorized into two groups of acceptable and unacceptable facemask practice. The Pearson chi-square was used to test for differences in investigated variables in the univariate setting and Binary Logistic regression model was used in the multivariate setting. Main outcome measure Prevalence SERO, acceptance practice and odds ratio of unacceptance of facemask use. Results Among 1697 individuals included in the final analysis, 1687 (99.7%) was observed wearing facemask with 1338 (78.8%) using medical-grade facemask. Among them, 1615 (95.7%) individuals facemask practice was acceptable while the reaming 72 (4.3%) individuals were observed with unacceptable facemask practice. Individuals using medical-grade facemask and high-risk age group TRANS are 6.4 times (OR=6.40; 95% CI, 2.00-20.43; p=.002) and 2.06 times practice (OR=2.06; 95% CI, 1.08-3.94; p=.028). More likely to practice unacceptable facemask use respectively. Conclusion High saturation of facemask among the general population is an adequate indicator of public hygiene measures strategy which can help to mitigate the COVID-19 epidemic impact. Alarmingly, the unacceptable facemask practice among high-risk population raises the need for a targeted approach by healthcare authorities to ensure satisfactory facemask use.

    Structure-Based Virtual Screening and Molecular Dynamics of Phytochemicals Derived from Saudi Medicinal Plants to Identify Potential COVID-19 Therapeutics

    Authors: MUBARAK ALAMRI; Ali Altharawi; Alhumaidi B. Alabbas; Manal A. Alossaimi; Safar M. Alqahtani

    doi:10.26434/chemrxiv.12336635.v1 Date: 2020-05-21 Source: ChemRxiv

    Coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) has affected almost every country in the world by causing a global pandemic with a high mortality rate. Lack of an effective vaccine and/or antiviral drugs against SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent, has severely hampered the response to this novel coronavirus. Natural products have long been used in traditional medicines to treat various diseases MESHD, and purified phytochemicals from medicinal plants provide a valuable scaffold for the discovery of new drug leads. In the present study, we performed a computational screening of an in-house database composed of ~1000 phytochemicals derived from traditional Saudi medicinal plants with recognised antiviral activity. Structure-based virtual screening was carried out against three druggable SARS-CoV-2 targets, viral RNAdependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), 3-chymotrypsin-like cysteine protease (3CLpro) and papain like protease (PLpro) to identify putative inhibitors that could facilitate the development of potential anti-COVID-19 drug candidates. Computational analyses identified three compounds inhibiting each target, with binding affinity scores ranging from-9.9 to -6.5 kcal/mol. Among these, luteolin 7-rutinoside, chrysophanol 8-(6-galloylglucoside) and kaempferol 7-(6’’-galloylglucoside) bound efficiently to RdRp, while chrysophanol 8-(6galloylglucoside), 3,4,5-tri-O-galloylquinic acid and mulberrofuran G interacted strongly with 3CLpro, and withanolide A, isocodonocarpine and calonysterone bound tightly to PLpro. These potential drug candidates will be subjected to further in vitro and in vivo studies and may assist the development of effective anti-COVID-19 drugs.

    Vasculitis MESHD Vasculitis HP-Associated Auto- antibodies SERO and Complement Levels in patients with COVID-19 Infection 

    Authors: Maryam Mobini; Roya Ghasemian; Laleh Vahedi Larijani; Maeede Mataji; Iradj Maleki

    doi:10.21203/ Date: 2020-05-21 Source: ResearchSquare

    Introduction / objectives: The cause of coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) is severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD 2 (SARS-CoV-2). There are evidences of involvement of immune system in pathogenesis of this disease MESHD. We investigated the presence of various vasculitis MESHD vasculitis HP-associated auto- antibodies SERO and complement levels in a series of patients with COVID-19 infection MESHD admitted to our hospital.Methods: Forty patients with severe or critical type of COVID 19 were evaluated for symptoms, signs MESHD and laboratory tests of vasculitis MESHD vasculitis HP syndromes MESHD including rheumatoid factor (RF), anti-nuclear antibody SERO (ANA), anti dsDNA, c and p anti-neutrophilic cytoplasmic antibody SERO (c ANCA and p ANCA) and complement levels. Descriptive statistics methods were used to describe the clinical / laboratory findings.Results: Forty patients with severe to critical illness MESHD were enrolled in the study. The mean age TRANS of the patients was 48.5 ± 9.8 years. All patients had pulmonary involvement in lung CT scan. Lymphopenia MESHD Lymphopenia HP in 19 (47.5%), raised creatinine in 8(20%) and hyperbilirubinemia MESHD hyperbilirubinemia HP in 19(47.5%) of patients were seen. Vasculitis MESHD Vasculitis HP laboratory test results included: RF in 2 patients, ANA in 3 patients and ANCA in one patient. 17(42.5%) of patients had hypocomplementemia in one or more complement tests. Of the four patients who were expired, three had a decrease in complement.Conclusion: In 17 of patients (42.5%) we detected low complement levels. A decrease in complement levels may predict a critical state of the disease MESHD. Therefore, measuring its levels may be helpful in making earlier decisions to initiate disease MESHD-suppressing treatments, including corticosteroids and IVIG.

    An acceptable method to evaluate the analytical performance SERO of real-time fluorescent RT-PCR targeting SARS-CoV-2

    Authors: Xiao-dong Ren; Qi-Mei Tang; Min Chen; Qian Huang; Heng-Liu Huang; Liu Wang; Ning Su; Xian-Ge Sun; Kun Wei; Wei-Ping Lu; Shao-Li Deng; Qing Huang

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.18.20105247 Date: 2020-05-21 Source: medRxiv

    It was necessary to carry out methodologies evaluations of real-time fluorescent reverse-transcription PCR (RT-PCR) targeting severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Considering biosafety issues and lack of positive specimens in some special locations in China, the routine specimens from healthy individuals were used to perform methodologies evaluations, in which the indexes were the differences of quantification cycle values ({Delta}Cq) between human derived internal reference control (IRC) genes of a specimen and quality control (QC). Serial experiments were carried out to evaluate various factors that might affect aforementioned methodologies, such as types of virus transport mediums, methods of specimen pretreatment and template preparation, specimen vortex strength, specimen storage temperature and duration. The results showed that using {Delta}Cq values as indexes, among various factors that might affect analytical performance SERO, it was better to store specimens in the normal saline transport mediums, inactivate pathogens using water or metal bath, release more virus particles from swabs by vortex mixing, extract nucleic acids with centrifuge methods, and perform amplification assays timely. Aforementioned opinions and optimum conditions were further confirmed by SRAS-CoV-2 pseudovirus and clinical positive specimens. Altogether, the results of this study indicated that the routine specimens from healthy individuals could be used to evaluate the analytical performance SERO of real-time fluorescent RT-PCR targeting SRAS-CoV-2, of which the indexes were the {Delta}Cq values between IRC genes of a specimen and QC. This acceptable method was extremely valuable in both theoretical and practical significance under current pandemic of coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19).

    Similar incidence of Coronavirus Disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) in patients with rheumatic diseases MESHD with and without hydroxychloroquine therapy

    Authors: Juan Macias; Paz Gonzalez-Moreno; Esther Sanchez-Garcia; Ramon Morillo-Verdugo; Carmen Dominguez-Quesada; Ana Pinilla; MaMar Macho; MaVictoria Martinez; Alejandro Gonzalez-Serna; Anais Corma; Luis Miguel Real; Juan Antonio Pineda

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.16.20104141 Date: 2020-05-20 Source: medRxiv

    Background: Hydroxychloroquine is currently being tested as post-exposure prophylaxis against coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) in several ongoing clinical trials. Objective: To compare the incidence of COVID-19 in Spanish patients with autoimmune rheumatic diseases MESHD treated with and without hydroxychloroquine. Methods: Retrospective electronic record review, from February 27th to April 16th, of patients with autoimmune inflammatory diseases MESHD followed at two academic tertiary care hospitals in Seville, Spain. The cumulative incidence of COVID-19, confirmed or suspected, was compared between patients with and without hydroxychloroquine as part of their treatment of autoimmune inflammatory diseases MESHD. Results: Among 722 included subjects, 290 (40%) were receiving hydroxychloroquine. During the seven-week study period, five (1.7% [95% CI: 0.5%-4.0%] cases of COVID-19 were registered among patients with hydroxychloroquine and five (1.2% [0.4%-2.7%]) (p=0.523) in without hydroxychloroquine. COVID-19 was confirmed by PCR in one (0.3%, 95% CI 0.008-1.9%) patient with hydroxychloroquine and two (0.5%, 95% CI 0.05%-1.6%) without hydroxychloroquine (p=1.0). One patient on hydroxychloroquine and two subjects without hydroxychloroquine were admitted to the hospital, none of them required to be transferred to the intensive care unit and no patient died during the episode. Conclusions: The incidence and severity of COVID-19 among patients with autoimmune rheumatic diseases MESHD with and without hydroxychloroquine was not significantly different. Hydroxychloroquine does not seem to be an appropriate therapy for post-exposure prophylaxis against COVID-19.

    COVID-19; Systematic and literature review of transmission TRANS, case definitions, clinical management and clinical trials.

    Authors: Laura McArthur; DhanaSekaran Sakthivel; Ricardo Ataide; Felicia Chan; Jack S Richards; Charles A Narh

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.14.20102475 Date: 2020-05-20 Source: medRxiv

    Background: SARS-CoV-2, the viral agent responsible for coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) was identified in Wuhan, China at the end of December 2019. It rapidly spread to the rest of the world, and was declared a Public Health Emergency MESHD of International Concern on the 30th of January 2020. Our understanding of the virus, it is clinical manifestations and treatment options continues to evolve at an unparalleled pace. Objective: This review sought to summarise the key literature regarding transmission TRANS, case definitions, clinical management and trials, and performed a systematic review of reported clinical data on COVID-19. Synthesis methods: Two reviewers selected all the literature independently, and extracted information according to pre-defined topics. Results: COVID-19 is pandemic with ~4 million cases and 270,000 deaths MESHD in 210 countries as of 8 May 2020. Our review of reports showed that SARS-CoV-2 was mainly transmitted via inhalation of respiratory droplets containing the virus and had an incubation period TRANS of four to six days. The commonly reported symptoms were fever MESHD fever HP (80%) and cough MESHD cough HP (60%) across the spectrum of clinical disease MESHD - mild, moderate, severe and critical. Categorization of these cases for home care or hospital management need to be well defined considering the age TRANS of the patient and the presence of underlying co-morbidities. The case definitions we reviewed varied among affected countries, which could have contributed to the differences observed in the mean case fatality rates among continents: Oceania (1%), Asia (3%), Africa (4%), South America (5%), North America (6%) and Europe (10%). Asymptomatic TRANS cases, which constituted an estimated 80% of COVID-19 cases are a huge threat to control efforts. Conclusion: The presence of fever MESHD fever HP and cough MESHD cough HP may be sufficient to warrant a COVID-19 testing but using these symptoms in isolation will miss a proportion of cases. A clear definition of a COVID-19 case is important for managing, treating and tracking clinical illness. While several treatments are in development or in clinical trials for COVID-19, home care of mild/moderate cases and hospital care for severe and critical cases remain the recommended management for the disease MESHD. Quarantine measures and social distancing can help control the spread of SARS-CoV-2.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype

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