Corpus overview


Overview

MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Pneumonia (297)

Fever (229)

Cough (187)

Hypertension (138)

Respiratory distress (86)


Transmission

age categories (688)

Transmission (441)

gender (358)

fomite (290)

asymptotic cases (151)


Seroprevalence
    displaying 21 - 30 records in total 2447
    records per page




    Physical activity, BMI and COVID-19: an observational and Mendelian randomisation study

    Authors: Xiaomeng Zhang; Xue Li; Ziwen Sun; Yazhou He; Wei Xu; Harry Campbell; Malcolm G Dunlop; Maria Timofeeva; Evropi Theodoratou

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.01.20166405 Date: 2020-08-04 Source: medRxiv

    Physical activity (PA) is known to be a protective lifestyle factor against several non- communicable diseases MESHD while its impact on infectious diseases MESHD, including Coronavirus Disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) is not as clear. We performed univariate and multivariate logistic regression to identify associations between body mass index (BMI) and both objectively and subjectively measured PA collected prospectively and COVID-19 related outcomes (Overall COVID-19, inpatient COVID-19, outpatient COVID-19, and COVID-19 death MESHD) in the UK Biobank (UKBB) cohort. Subsequently, we tested causality by using two-sample Mendelian randomisation (MR) analysis. In the multivariable model, the increased acceleration vector magnitude PA (AMPA) was associated with a decreased probability of overall and outpatient COVID-19. No association was found between self-reported moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) or BMI and COVID-19 related outcomes. Although no causal association was found by MR analyses, this may be due to limited power and we conclude policies to encourage and facilitate exercise at a population level during the pandemic should be considered.

    Characteristics of COVID-19 fatality cases in East Kalimantan, Indonesia

    Authors: Swandari Paramita; Ronny Isnuwardana; Krispinus Duma; Rahmat Bakhtiar; Muhammad Khairul Nuryanto; Riries Choiru Pramulia Yudia; Evi Fitriany; Meiliati Aminyoto

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.01.20166470 Date: 2020-08-04 Source: medRxiv

    Introduction. Coronavirus Disease MESHD (COVID-19) is caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD. On March 2, 2020, Indonesia announced the first confirmed cases TRANS of COVID-19 infection MESHD. East Kalimantan will play an important role as the new capital of Indonesia. There is attention to the preparedness of East Kalimantan to respond to COVID-19. We report the characteristics of COVID-19 fatality cases in here. Methods. We retrospectively analyzed the fatality cases of COVID-19 patients from the East Kalimantan Health Office information system. All patients were confirmed COVID-19 by RT-PCR examination. Results. By July 31, 2020, 31 fatality cases of patients had been identified as having confirmed COVID-19 in East Kalimantan. The mean age TRANS of the patients was 55.1 + 9.2 years. Most of the patients were men (22 [71.0%]) with age TRANS more than 60 years old (14 [45.2%]). Balikpapan has the highest number of COVID-19 fatality cases from all regencies. Hypertension MESHD Hypertension HP was the most comorbidities in the fatality cases of COVID-19 patients in East Kalimantan. Discussion. Older age TRANS and comorbidities still contributed to the fatality cases of COVID-19 patients in East Kalimantan, Indonesia. Hypertension MESHD Hypertension HP, diabetes, cardiovascular disease MESHD, and cerebrovascular disease MESHD were underlying conditions for increasing the risk of COVID-19 getting into a serious condition. Conclusion. Active surveillance for people older than 60 years old and having underlying diseases MESHD is needed for reducing the case fatality rate of COVID-19 in East Kalimantan. Keywords. Comorbidity, fatality cases, COVID-19, Indonesia.

    SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD, disease MESHD and transmission TRANS in domestic cats

    Authors: Natasha N Gaudreault; Jessie D Trujillo; Mariano Carossino; David A Meekins; Igor Morozov; Daniel W Madden; Sabarish V Indran; Dashzeveg Bold; Velmurugan Balaraman; Taeyong Kwon; Bianca Libanori Artiaga; Konner Cool; Adolfo Garcia-Sastre; Wenjun Ma; William C Wilson; Jamie Henningson; Udeni BR Balasuriya; Juergen A Richt

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.04.235002 Date: 2020-08-04 Source: bioRxiv

    Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome MESHD Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the cause of Coronavirus Disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) and responsible for the current pandemic. Recent SARS-CoV-2 susceptibility and transmission TRANS studies in cats show that the virus can replicate in these companion animals and transmit to other cats. Here, we present an in-depth study of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD, associated disease MESHD and transmission TRANS dynamics in domestic cats. Six 4- to 5-month-old cats were challenged with SARS-CoV-2 via intranasal and oral routes simultaneously. One day post challenge (DPC), two sentinel contact cats were co-mingled with the principal infected animals. Animals were monitored for clinical signs, clinicopathological abnormalities and viral shedding throughout the 21 DPC observation period. Postmortem examinations were performed at 4, 7 and 21 DPC to investigate disease progression MESHD. Viral RNA was not detected in blood SERO but transiently in nasal, oropharyngeal and rectal swabs and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid as well as various tissues. Tracheobronchoadenitis of submucosal glands with the presence of viral RNA and antigen was observed in airways of the infected cats on 4 and 7 DPC. Serology showed that both, principal and sentinel cats, developed SARS-CoV-2-specific and neutralizing antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 SERO detectable at 7 DPC or 10 DPC, respectively. All animals were clinically asymptomatic TRANS during the course of the study and capable of transmitting SARS-CoV-2 to sentinels within 2 days of comingling. The results of this study are critical for our understanding of the clinical course of SARS-CoV-2 in a naturally susceptible host species, and for risk assessment of the maintenance of SARS-CoV-2 in felines and transmission TRANS to other animals and humans.

    COVID-19 Vaccine Candidates by Identification of B and T Cell Multi-Epitopes Against SARS-COV-2

    Authors: Suresh Kumar; Sarmilah Mathavan; Wee Jia Jin; Nur Azznira Bt Azman; Devindren Subramanaiam; Nur Afiqah Binti Zainalabidin; Dhivashini Lingadaran; Zainah Binti Abdul Sattar; Danniya Lakshmi Manickam; Priscilla Sheba Anbananthan; Johan Ahmad Taqiyuddin; Yuvapriya Thevarajan

    id:10.20944/preprints202008.0092.v1 Date: 2020-08-04 Source: Preprints.org

    Coronavirus disease MESHD (COVID-19) is a new discovered strain where WHO officially declares the disease MESHD as COVID-19 while the virus responsible for it called Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome MESHD Coronavirus 2 or SARS-CoV-2. The incubation period TRANS of this disease MESHD is between 14 days. Ordinary clinical symptoms that reported around the world include fever MESHD fever HP, cough MESHD cough HP, fatigue MESHD fatigue HP, diarrhoea and vomiting MESHD vomiting HP as well as asymptomatic TRANS for certain people. Infection MESHD is spread mainly through broad droplets. In early March 2020, WHO again has announced that COVID-19 is a pandemic with currently no specific treatment. The potential use of SARS-COV-2 proteome as a vaccine candidate by analysing through B-cell and T-cell antigenicity by using a immunoinformatics approach as a vaccine development early stage. In this study, we used consensus sequence for SARS-COV-2 proteome that was retrieved from NCBI database. VaxiJen 2.0 was mainly used to identify the antigenic property of SARS-COV-2 proteins. IEDB then used to analyse the B-cell epitope, the presence of T cell immunogenic epitope in SARS-COV-2 proteins was obtained by using compromise method of MHC class I and II tools that accessible respectively using ProPred-1 server and MHC II Binding Prediction in IEDB database. The best epitopes of B and T-cell epitopes were predicted with high antigencity and the information is disseminated through web-based database resource (https://covid-19.omicstutorials.com/epitopes/). This study will be useful to find a new epitope-based candidate for SARS-COV-2. However, further study needs to be done for the next stages of vaccine development.

    Face masks prevent transmission TRANS of respiratory diseases MESHD: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    Authors: Hanna M Ollila; Markku Partinen; Jukka Koskela; Riikka Savolainen; Anna Rotkirch; Liisa T Laine

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.31.20166116 Date: 2020-08-04 Source: medRxiv

    Background: Coronavirus Disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome MESHD Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and spreads through droplet-mediated transmission TRANS on contaminated surfaces and in air. Mounting scientific evidence from observational studies suggests that face masks for the general public may reduce the spread of infections MESHD. However, results from randomized control trials (RCT) have been presented as inconclusive, and concerns related to the safety and efficacy of non-surgical face masks in non-clinical settings remain. This controversy calls for a meta-analysis which considers non-compliance in RCTs, the time-lag in benefits of universal masking, and possible adverse effects. Methods: We performed a meta-analysis of RCTs of non-surgical face masks in preventing viral respiratory infections MESHD in non-hospital and non-household settings at cumulative and maximum follow-up as primary endpoints. The search for RCTs yielded five studies published before May 29th, 2020. We pooled estimates from the studies and performed random-effects meta-analysis and mixed-effects meta-regression across studies, accounting for covariates in compliance vs. non-compliance in treatment. Results: Face masks decreased infections across MESHD all studies at maximum follow-up (p=0.0318$, RR=0.608 [0.387 - 0.956]), and particularly in studies without non-compliance bias. We found significant between-study heterogeneity in studies with bias (I^2=71.2%, p=0.0077). We also used adjusted meta-regression to account for heterogeneity. The results support a significant protective effect of masking (p=0.0006, beta=0.0214, SE= 0.0062). No severe adverse effects were detected. Interpretation: The meta-analysis of existing randomized control studies found support for the efficacy of face masks among the general public. Our results show that face masks protect populations from infections MESHD and do not pose a significant risk to users. Recommendations and clear communication concerning the benefits of face masks should be provided to limit the number of COVID-19 and other respiratory infections MESHD.

    Weather Conditions and COVID-19 Incidence in a Cold Climate: A Time-series Study in Finland

    Authors: Behzad Heibati; Wenge Wang; Niilo Ryti; Francesca Dominici; Alan Ducatman; Zhijie Zhang; Jouni Jaakkola

    id:202008.0099/v1 Date: 2020-08-04 Source: Preprints.org

    Background: The current coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) is spreading globally at an accelerated rate. There is some previous evidence that weather may influence the incidence of COVID-19 infection MESHD. We assessed the role of meteorological factors including temperature (T) and relative humidity (RH) considering the concentrations of two air pollutants, inhalable coarse particles (PM10) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) in the incidence of COVID-19 infections MESHD in Finland, located in arctic-subarctic climatic zone. Methods: We retrieved daily counts of COVID-19 in Finland from Jan 1 to May 31, 2020, nationwide and separately for all 21 hospital districts across the country. The meteorological and air quality data were from the monitoring stations nearest to the central district hospital. A quasi-Poisson generalized additional model (GAM) was fitted to estimate the associations between district-specific meteorological factors and the daily counts of COVID-19 during the study period. Sensitivity SERO analyses were conducted to test the robustness of the results. Results: The incidence rate of COVID-19 gradually increased until a peak around April 6 and then decreased. There were no associations between daily temperature and incidence rate of COVID-19. Daily average RH was negatively associated with daily incidence rate of COVID-19 in two hospital districts located inland. No such association was found nationwide. The sensitivity SERO analyses indicate the results are robust. Conclusions: Weather conditions, such as air temperature and relative humidity, may not be important factors affecting the COVID-19 incidence in the arctic and subarctic winter and spring. More evidence is needed on the associations between weather and COVID-19 during different seasons.

    Land Use Change and Coronavirus Emergence Risk

    Authors: Maria Cristina Rulli; Paolo D'Odorico; Nikolas Galli; David Hayman

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.31.20166090 Date: 2020-08-04 Source: medRxiv

    Coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) and severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD (SARS) causing coronaviruses are mostly discovered in Asian horseshoe bats. It is still unclear how ongoing land use changes may facilitate SARS-related coronavirus transmission TRANS to humans. Here we use a multivariate hotspot analysis of high-resolution land-use data to show that regions of China populated by horseshoe bats are hotspots of forest fragmentation, livestock and human density. We also identify areas susceptible to new hotspot emergence in response to moderate expansion of urbanization, livestock production, or forest disturbance, thereby highlighting regions vulnerable to SARS-CoV spillover under future land-use change. In China population growth and increasing meat consumption associated with urbanization and economic development have expanded the footprint of agriculture, leading to human encroachment in wildlife habitat and increased livestock density in areas adjacent to fragmented forests. The reduced distance between horseshoe-bats and humans elevates the risk for SARS-related coronavirus transmission TRANS to humans.

    Malawi at the crossroads: Does the fear of contracting COVID-19 affect the propensity to vote?

    Authors: Gowokani Chijere Chirwa; Boniface Dulani; Lonjezo Sithole; Joseph J. Chunga; Witness Alfonso; John Tengatenga

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-53705/v1 Date: 2020-08-04 Source: ResearchSquare

    The new coronavirus disease MESHD (COVID-19) has disrupted ways of life, including political processes. In this paper, we assess the effect of own perceived risk of catching COVID-19 on willingness to vote. The paper draws from a nationally representative survey of adult TRANS Malawians (n=1155). Our main method used instrumental variables to account for potential endogeneity. Findings show that 63% of Malawians thought that they are likely to catch COVID-19. Notwithstanding the COVID19 risk, 86% were willing to vote. The regression analysis suggests that an individual’s perceived risk of catching COVID-19 is associated with lower likelihood of voting (β=-0.096; p<0.05). The results suggest that voter turnout in Malawi’s fresh presidential election may have been highly affected by the perceived risk of catching COVID-19. The policy implication is that instituting and enforcing primary preventive measures may help reduce the perceived risk of catching COVID19 and mitigate voter apathy HP.

    Delayed Interventions, Low Compliance, and Health Disparities Amplified the Early Spread of COVID-19

    Authors: Aliea M. Jalali; Sumaia G. Khoury; JongWon See; Alexis M. Gulsvig; Brent M. Peterson; Richard S. Gunasekera; Gentian Buzi; Jason Wilson; Thushara Galbadage

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.31.20165654 Date: 2020-08-04 Source: medRxiv

    The United States (US) public health interventions were rigorous and rapid, yet failed to arrest the spread of the Coronavirus Disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic as infections MESHD spread throughout the US. Many factors have contributed to the spread of COVID-19, and the success of public health interventions depends on the level of community adherence to preventative measures. Public health professionals must also understand regional demographic variation in health disparities and determinants to target interventions more effectively. In this study, a systematic evaluation of three significant interventions employed in the US, and their effectiveness in slowing the early spread of COVID-19 was conducted. Next, community-level compliance with a state-level stay at home orders was assessed to determine COVID-19 spread behavior. Finally, health disparities that may have contributed to the disproportionate acceleration of early COVID-19 spread between certain counties were characterized. The contribution of these factors for the disproportionate spread of the disease TRANS disease MESHD was analyzed using both univariate and multivariate statistical analyses. Results of this investigation show that delayed implementation of public health interventions, a low level of compliance with the stay at home orders, in conjunction with health disparities, significantly contributed to the early spread of the COVID-19 pandemic.

    Comparing the impact on COVID-19 mortality of self-imposed behavior change and of government regulations across 13 countries

    Authors: Julian Jamison; Donald Bundy; Dean Jamison; Jacob Spitz; Stephane Verguet

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.02.20166793 Date: 2020-08-04 Source: medRxiv

    Background: Countries have adopted different approaches, at different times, to reduce the transmission TRANS of coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19). Cross-country comparison could indicate the relative efficacy of these approaches. We assess various non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) over time, comparing the effects of self-imposed (i.e. voluntary) behavior change and of changes enforced via official regulations, by statistically examining their impacts on subsequent death MESHD rates in 13 European countries. Methods and findings: We examine two types of NPI: the introduction of government-enforced closure policies over time; and self-imposed alteration of individual behaviors in response to awareness of the epidemic, in the period prior to regulations. Our proxy for the latter is Google mobility data, which captures voluntary behavior change when disease MESHD salience is sufficiently high. The primary outcome variable is the rate of change in COVID-19 fatalities per day, 16-20 days after interventions take place. Linear multivariate regression analysis is used to evaluate impacts. Voluntarily reduced mobility, occurring prior to government policies, decreases the percent change in deaths MESHD per day by 9.2 percentage points (95% CI 4.5-14.0 pp). Government closure policies decrease the percent change in deaths MESHD per day by 14.0 percentage points (95% CI 10.8-17.2 pp). Disaggregating government policies, the most beneficial are intercity travel TRANS restrictions, cancelling public events, and closing non-essential workplaces. Other sub-components, such as closing schools and imposing stay-at-home rules, show smaller and statistically insignificant impacts. Conclusions: This study shows that NPIs have substantially reduced fatalities arising from COVID-19. Importantly, the effect of voluntary behavior change is of the same order of magnitude as government-mandated regulations. These findings, including the substantial variation across dimensions of closure, have implications for the phased withdrawal of government policies as the epidemic recedes, and for the possible reimposition of regulations if a second wave occurs, especially given the substantial economic and human welfare consequences of maintaining lockdowns.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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