Corpus overview


Overview

MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Pneumonia (297)

Fever (229)

Cough (187)

Hypertension (138)

Respiratory distress (86)


Transmission

age categories (688)

Transmission (441)

gender (358)

fomite (290)

asymptotic cases (151)


Seroprevalence
    displaying 31 - 40 records in total 2447
    records per page




    Ethnic minority groups in England and Wales - factors affecting the size and timing of elevated COVID-19 mortality: a retrospective cohort study linking Census and death MESHD records

    Authors: Daniel Ayoubkhani; Vahe Nafilyan; Chris White; Peter Goldblatt; Charlotte Gaughan; Louisa Blackwell; Nicky Rogers; Amitava Banerjee; Kamlesh Khunti; Myer Glickman; Ben Humberstone; Ian Diamond

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.03.20167122 Date: 2020-08-04 Source: medRxiv

    Objectives: To estimate population-level associations between ethnicity and coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) mortality, and to investigate how ethnicity-specific mortality risk evolved over the course of the pandemic. Design: Retrospective cohort study using linked administrative data. Setting: England and Wales, deaths MESHD occurring 2 March to 15 May 2020. Participants: Respondents to the 2011 Census of England and Wales aged TRANS [≤]100 years and enumerated in private households, linked to death MESHD registrations and adjusted to account for emigration before the outcome period, who were alive on 1 March 2020 (n=47,872,412). Main outcome measure: Death MESHD related to COVID-19, registered by 29 May 2020. Statistical methods: We estimated hazard ratios (HRs) for ethnic minority groups compared with the White population using Cox regression models, controlling for geographical, demographic, socio-economic, occupational, and self-reported health factors. HRs were estimated on the full outcome period and separately for pre- and post-lockdown periods in the UK. Results: In the age TRANS-adjusted models, people from all ethnic minority groups were at elevated risk of COVID-19 mortality; the HRs for Black males TRANS and females TRANS were 3.13 [95% confidence interval: 2.93 to 3.34] and 2.40 [2.20 to 2.61] respectively. However, in the fully adjusted model for females TRANS, the HRs were close to unity for all ethnic groups except Black (1.29 [1.18 to 1.42]). For males TRANS, COVID-19 mortality risk remained elevated for the Black (1.76 [1.63 to 1.90]), Bangladeshi/Pakistani (1.35 [1.21 to 1.49]) and Indian (1.30 [1.19 to 1.43]) groups. The HRs decreased after lockdown for all ethnic groups, particularly Black and Bangladeshi/Pakistani females TRANS. Conclusions: Differences in COVID-19 mortality between ethnic groups were largely attenuated by geographical and socio-economic factors, although some residual differences remained. Lockdown was associated with reductions in excess mortality risk in ethnic minority populations, which has major implications for a second wave of infection MESHD or local spikes. Further research is needed to understand the causal mechanisms underpinning observed differences in COVID-19 mortality between ethnic groups.

    The Writing On The Wall Intravitreal Injection Compliance During The COVID-19 Pandemic and Its Foreseeable Consequences

    Authors: Lauren M Wasser; Yishay Weill; Koby Brosh; Itay Magal; Michael Potter; Israel Strassman; Evgeny Gelman; Meni Koslowsky; David Zadok; Joel Hanhart

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-53248/v1 Date: 2020-08-04 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: Intravitreal injections (IVI) of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) agents have become the most prevalent intraocular procedure as they represent the major therapeutic modality for prevalent retinal conditions such as age TRANS-related macular degeneration MESHD macular degeneration HP (AMD) and diabetic retinopathy MESHD retinopathy HP. Effective therapy requires adherence to a schedule of iterative IVI as well as routine clinic appointments. The ongoing Coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has resulted in the reduction of attendance at scheduled clinics visits and IVI. In this study we attempted to analyze the effect of COVID-19 on compliance with anti-VEGF therapy.Methods: A total of 636 eyes received injections during a four-week period of the COVID-19 outbreak in the Retina Clinic. The number of clinic visits for IVI during one month from March 15 to April 14 of 2020 was compared to the similar time period in each of the last four years.Results: The study demonstrates a decrease in clinic visits for IVI when compared with the same four-week interval in the four previous years. Based on the trend of the previous four years, 10.2% of the year’s total was expected for this time period. Using this model, the 636 reported number of injections for the March-April, 2020 period was ~ 5%. This represents a decrease of ~50% of the expected IVI for this time period.Conclusion: The COVID-19 outbreak in Israel severely impacted compliance with anti-VEGF treatments.

    Assessment of a Laboratory-Based SARS-CoV-2 Antibody SERO Test Among Hemodialysis Patients: A Quality Improvement Initiative

    Authors: Dena E Cohen; Gilbert Marlowe; Gabriel Contreras; Marie Ann Sosa; Jair Munoz Mendoza; Oliver Lenz; Zain Mithani; Pura Margarita Teixeiro; Nery Queija; Araceli Moneda; Jean S Jeanty; Katherine Swanzy; Misha Palecek; Mahesh Krishnan; Jeffery Giullian; Steven M Brunelli

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.03.20163642 Date: 2020-08-04 Source: medRxiv

    Abstract Introduction: The coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID -19) pandemic is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2 (SARS -CoV -2) infection MESHD. Although tests to detect anti - SARS -CoV-2 antibodies SERO have been developed, their sensitivity SERO and specificity in hemodialysis patients have not been previously assessed. Methods: As part of a quality improvement (QI) initiative, nasopharyngeal swabs and predialysis blood SERO samples were collected on the same day from adult TRANS patients receiving routine hemodialysis care at clinics managed by a large dialysis organization in the greater Miami, Florida region (23 - 30 Apr 2020). Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests for SARS -CoV -2 and chemiluminescence immunoassays SERO for anti -SARS -CoV2 antibodies SERO were performed according to manufacturer-specified protocols. Results: Of 715 participants in the QI initiative, 38 had symptomatology consistent with COVID -19 prior to or during the initiative. Among these, COVID -19 was PCR -confirmed in 14 and ruled out in 20, with the remaining 4 being inconclusive. Among the 34 patients with known COVID -19 status, the sensitivity SERO and specificity of the antibody test SERO were 57.1% and 85.0% when either antibody SERO was considered. The remaining 677 patients had no record of symptoms consistent with COVID -19, nor any known exposure. Of these, 38 patients (5.6%) tested positive for anti- SARS-CoV-2 antibodies SERO. Conclusions: The operational characteristics of the laboratory-based antibody test SERO make it sufficient to rule in, but not rule out, SARS -CoV -2 infection MESHD in the appropriate clinical circumstance. A substantial proportion of dialysis patients may have had asymptomatic TRANS SARS -CoV -2 infection MESHD.

    Early clinical characteristics of Covid-19: scoping review

    Authors: Lakshmi Manoharan; Jonathan W S Cattrall; Carlyn Harris; Katherine Newell; Blake Thomson; Mark G Pritchard; Peter G Bannister; Louise Sigfrid; Tom Solomon; Peter W Horby; Gail Carson; Piero L Olliaro

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.31.20165738 Date: 2020-08-04 Source: medRxiv

    ABSTRACT Background: The Coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (covid-19) pandemic has spread rapidly across the globe. Accurate clinical characterisation studies are essential to informing research, diagnosis and clinical management efforts, particularly early in a pandemic. In this scoping review we identify the clinical characteristics of patients admitted to hospital in the early months of the pandemic, focusing on symptoms, laboratory and imaging findings, and clinical outcomes. Methods: A scoping review. MEDLINE, EMBASE and Global Health databases were searched studies published from January 1st 2020 to April 28th 2020. Studies which reported on at least 100 hospitalised patients with covid-19 of any age TRANS were included. Results: Of 1,249 studies identified through the search 78 studies were eligible for inclusion; one randomized control trial and 77 observational studies presenting data on 77,443 patients admitted with covid-19. Most studies were conducted in China (82%), 9% in the US and 10% in Europe and two studies were set in more than one country. No studies included patients from low and middle income countries. Coagulopathy was underrecognised as a complication in the early months of the pandemic. Use of corticosteroids varied widely, and the use of anticoagulants was reported in only one study. Fever MESHD Fever HP, cough MESHD cough HP and dyspnoea are less common in older adults TRANS; gastrointestinal symptoms, as the only presenting feature may be underrecognised. The most common laboratory finding was lymphocytopenia. Inflammatory biomarkers were commonly elevated, including C-reactive protein and interleukin-6. Typical computed tomography findings include bilateral infiltrates however imaging may be normal in early disease MESHD. Data on clinical characteristics in children TRANS and vulnerable populations were limited. Conclusions: Clinical characterisation studies from early in the pandemic indicated that covid-19 is a multisystem disease MESHD, with biomarkers indicating inflammation MESHD and coagulopathy. However, early data collection on symptoms and clinical outcomes did not consistently reflect this wide spectrum. Corticosteroid use varied widely, and anticoagulants were rarely used. Clinicians should remain vigilant to the possibility of covid-19 in patients presenting without fever MESHD fever HP, cough MESHD cough HP and dyspnoea, particularly in older adults TRANS. Further characterisation studies in different at-risk populations is needed. Review registration: Available at https://osf.io/r2ch9 Keywords: Covid-19, clinical characteristics, symptoms, biochemical parameters, imaging, outcomes, pandemic research

    Hypertonic saline solution inhibits SARS-CoV-2 in vitro assay

    Authors: Rafael Rahal Guaragna Machado; Talita Glaser; Danielle Bastos Araujo; Lyvia Lintzmaier Petiz; Danielle Bruna Leal Oliveira; Giuliana Stravinskas Durigon; Alessandra Lima Leal; Joao Renato R. Pinho; Luis Carlos S. Ferreira; Henning Ulrich; Edison Luiz Rodrigues Durigon; Cristiane Rodrigues Guzzo

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.04.235549 Date: 2020-08-04 Source: bioRxiv

    We are facing an unprecedented global health crisis caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). At this date more than 680 thousand people have died due to coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19). Unfortunately, until now no effective treatment to combat the virus and vaccine are available. We performed experiments to test if hypertonic saline solution is able to inhibit virus replication in vitro. Our data shows that 260 mM NaCl (1.5%) inhibits 100% SARS-CoV-2 replication in Vero cells. Furthermore, our results suggest that the virus replication inhibition is due to an intracellular mechanism and not due to the dissociation between spike SARS-CoV-2 protein and its human receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 interaction. NaCl depolarizes the plasma SERO membrane supposedly associated with the inhibition of the SARS-CoV-2 life cycle. This observation could lead to simple, safe and low cost interventions at various stages of COVID-19 treatment, improving the prognosis of infected patients, thereby mitigating the social and economic costs of the pandemic.

    Prevalence SERO and Determinants of Mental Distress During COVID-19 Outbreak in Bangladesh: Evidence from an Online Survey

    Authors: Shilpi Rani Saha; Md. Mobarak Hossain Khan

    id:10.20944/preprints202008.0104.v1 Date: 2020-08-04 Source: Preprints.org

    Background: Coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) is an ongoing pandemic and life-threatening highly infectious disease MESHD. The people of Bangladesh are at high risk of COVID-19 and have already experienced various socio-economic, health and psychological (mental) consequences. Particularly, mental health problems are dominantly reported in the literature and should be controlled. The main objective of this epidemiological study is to assess the mental distress and identify its determinants using online-based survey. Such information is urgently needed to develop feasible strategies for Bangladesh. Methods: An online survey was conducted for this study from May 01 to May 05, 2020. A total of 240 respondents provided self-reported online responses. Respondent’s mental distress was measured by the General Health Questionnaire 12 (GHQ-12) and by the self-rated mental health (SRMH) question. Various kinds of statistical analyses ranging from simple to multivariable logistic recession were performed using SPSS 23.0. Results: About 31.3% and 48.3% of respondents were mentally distressed by GHQ-12 and SRMH question, respectively. Logistic regression analysis revealed that mental distress was significantly higher among those respondents, whose usual activity was affected by the coronavirus (OR = 6.40, 95% CI: 1.87 - 21.90, p<0.001) and whose financial stress was increased due to lockdown (OR = 2.12, 95% CI: 1.01 – 4.46, p<0.05) on GHQ-12. Female TRANS sex (OR = 1.97, 95% CI: 1.03 – 3.75, p<0.05) and respondents with poor mental health before the outbreak (OR = 3.38, 95% CI: 1.18 – 9.72, p<0.05) were also significantly affected by mental distress on SRMH. Conclusions: At least thirty percent of the respondents were found to be mentally distressed. Some of the study findings, particularly significant determinants, should be considered while developing strategies to reduce the burden of mental distress among study respondents or similar group in Bangladesh.

    Therapeutic effectiveness of interferon alpha 2b treatment for COVID-19 patient recovery

    Authors: Ricardo Pereda; Daniel Gonzalez; Hubert Blas Rivero; Juan Carlos Rivero; albadio Perez; Lissette del Rosario Lopez; Natacha Mezquia; Rafael Venegas; Julio Raul Betancourt; Rodolfo Emilio Dominguez

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.28.20157974 Date: 2020-08-04 Source: medRxiv

    Background Effective antiviral treatments are required to contain the ongoing coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. A previous report in 814 patients COVID-19 positive in Cuba provided preliminary therapeutic efficacy evidence with interferon alpha-2b (IFN alpha-2b) from March 11 to April 14, 2020. This study, re-evaluates the contribution of IFN-2b on the evolution of all patients, after 98 days of the epidemic, in a period from March 11 to June 17, 2020. Method A prospective observational study was implemented to monitor a therapeutic intervention with IFN alpha-2b used in the national protocol for COVID-19 attending in Cuba. Were included patients with positive throat swab specimens by real time RT-PCR who gave informed consent and had no contraindications for IFN treatment. Patients received therapy as per the Cuban COVID protocol that included a combination of oral antivirals (lopinavir/ritonavir and chloroquine) with intramuscular or subcutaneous administration of IFN alpha-2b The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients discharged from hospital, secondary was the case TRANS fatality rate and several outcomes related to time variables were also evaluated. Results From March 11th until June 17th, 2295 patients had been confirmed SARS-CoV-2 positive in Cuba, 2165 were treated with Heberon Alpha R and 130 received the approved protocol without IFN. The proportion of fully recovered patients was higher in the IFN-treated compared with non-IFN treated group. Prior IFN treatment decreases the likelihood of intensive care and increases the survival after severe or critical diseases MESHD. The benefits of IFN were significantly supported by time variables analyzed. Conclusions This second report confirm the preliminary evidences from first for the therapeutic effectiveness of IFN alpha-2b for SARS-Cov-2 infection MESHD and postulated that Heberon Alpha R is the main component within the antiviral triad used as a therapeutic intervention in the Cuban protocol COVID-19.

    Lymphopenia MESHD Lymphopenia HP-induced T cell proliferation is a hallmark of severe COVID-19

    Authors: Sarah Adamo; Stéphane Chevrier; Carlo Cervia; Yves Zurbuchen; Miro E. Räber; Liliane Yang; Sujana Sivapatham; Andrea Jacobs; Esther Bächli; Alain Rudiger; Melina Stüssi-Helbling; Lars C. Huber; Dominik Schaer; Bernd Bodenmiller; Onur Boyman; Jakob Nilsson

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.04.236521 Date: 2020-08-04 Source: bioRxiv

    Coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19), caused by infection MESHD infection with severe HP with severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has a broad clinical presentation ranging from asymptomatic infection MESHD asymptomatic TRANS to fatal disease MESHD. Different features associated with the immune response to SARS-CoV-2, such as hyperinflammation and reduction of peripheral CD8+ T cell counts are strongly associated with severe disease MESHD. Here, we confirm the reduction in peripheral CD8+ T cells both in relative and absolute terms and identify T cell apoptosis and migration into inflamed tissues as possible mechanisms driving peripheral T cell lymphopenia MESHD lymphopenia HP. Furthermore, we find evidence of elevated serum SERO interleukin-7, thus indicating systemic T cell paucity and signs of increased T cell proliferation in patients with severe lymphopenia MESHD lymphopenia HP. Following T cell lymphopenia MESHD lymphopenia HP in our pseudo-longitudinal time course, we observed expansion and recovery of poly-specific antiviral T cells, thus arguing for lymphopenia MESHD lymphopenia HP-induced T cell proliferation. In summary, this study suggests that extensive T cell loss and subsequent T cell proliferation are characteristic of severe COVID-19.

    Analysis of COVID-19 and comorbidity co- infection MESHD Model with Optimal Control

    Authors: Dr. Andrew Omame; Nometa Ikenna

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.04.20168013 Date: 2020-08-04 Source: medRxiv

    The new coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) infection MESHD is a double challenge for people infected with comorbidities such as cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases MESHD and diabetes. Comorbidities have been reported to be risk factors for the complications of COVID-19. In this work, we develop and analyze a mathematical model for the dynamics of COVID-19 infection MESHD in order to assess the impacts of prior comorbidity on COVID-19 complications and COVID-19 re- infection MESHD. The model is simulated using data relevant to the dynamics of the diseases MESHD in Lagos, Nigeria, making predictions for the attainment of peak periods in the presence or absence of comorbidity. The model is shown to undergo the phenomenon of backward bifurcation caused by the parameter accounting for increased susceptibility to COVID-19 infection MESHD by comorbid susceptibles as well as the rate of re- infection MESHD by those who have recovered from a previous COVID-19 infection MESHD. Sensitivity SERO analysis of the model when the population of individuals co-infected with COVID-19 and comorbidity is used as response function revealed that the top ranked parameters that drive the dynamics of the co- infection MESHD model are the effective contact rate for COVID-19 transmission TRANS, $\beta\sst{cv}$, the parameter accounting for increased susceptibility to COVID-19 by comorbid susceptibles, $\chi\sst{cm}$, the comorbidity development rate, $\theta\sst{cm}$, the detection rate for singly infected and co-infected individuals, $\eta_1$ and $\eta_2$, as well as the recovery rate from COVID-19 for co-infected individuals, $\varphi\sst{i2}$. Simulations of the model reveal that the cumulative confirmed cases TRANS (without comorbidity) may get up to 180,000 after 200 days, if the hyper susceptibility rate of comorbid susceptibles is as high as 1.2 per day. Also, the cumulative confirmed cases TRANS (including those co-infected with comorbidity) may be as high as 1000,000 cases by the end of November, 2020 if the re- infection MESHD rates for COVID-19 is 0.1 per day. It may be worse than this if the re- infection MESHD rates increase higher. Moreover, if policies are strictly put in place to step down the probability of COVID-19 infection MESHD by comorbid susceptibles to as low as 0.4 per day and step up the detection rate for singly infected individuals to 0.7 per day, then the reproduction number TRANS can be brought very low below one, and COVID-19 infection MESHD eliminated from the population. In addition, optimal control and cost-effectiveness analysis of the model reveal that the the strategy that prevents COVID-19 infection MESHD by comorbid susceptibles has the least ICER and is the most cost-effective of all the control strategies for the prevention of COVID-19.

    Epidemiological characteristics of SARS-COV-2 in Myanmar

    Authors: Aung Min Thway; Htun Tayza; Tun Tun Win; Ye Minn Tun; Moe Myint Aung; Yan Naung Win; Kyaw M Tun

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.02.20166504 Date: 2020-08-04 Source: medRxiv

    Coronavirus disease MESHD (COVID-19) is an infectious disease MESHD caused by a newly discovered severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). In Myanmar, first COVID-19 reported cases were identified on 23rd March 2020. There were 336 reported confirmed cases TRANS, 261 recovered and 6 deaths MESHD through 13th July 2020. The study was a retrospective case series and all COVID-19 confirmed cases TRANS from 23rd March to 13th July 2020 were included. The data series of COVID-19 cases were extracted from the daily official reports of the Ministry of Health and Sports (MOHS), Myanmar and Centers for Disease MESHD Control and Prevention (CDC), Myanmar. Among 336 confirmed cases TRANS, there were 169 cases with reported transmission TRANS events. The median serial interval TRANS was 4 days (IQR 3, 2-5) with the range of 0 - 26 days. The mean of the reproduction number TRANS was 1.44 with (95% CI = 1.30-1.60) by exponential growth method and 1.32 with (95% CI = 0.98-1.73) confident interval by maximum likelihood method. This study outlined the epidemiological characteristics and epidemic parameters of COVID-19 in Myanmar. The estimation parameters in this study can be comparable with other studies and variability of these parameters can be considered when implementing disease MESHD control strategy in Myanmar.

The ZB MED preprint Viewer preVIEW includes all COVID-19 related preprints from medRxiv and bioRxiv, from ChemRxiv, from ResearchSquare, from arXiv and from Preprints.org and is updated on a daily basis (7am CET/CEST).

Sources


Annotations

All
None
MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


Export subcorpus as Endnote

This service is developed in the project nfdi4health task force covid-19 which is a part of nfdi4health.

nfdi4health is one of the funded consortia of the National Research Data Infrastructure programme of the DFG.