Corpus overview


MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Pneumonia (297)

Fever (229)

Cough (187)

Hypertension (138)

Respiratory distress (86)


age categories (688)

Transmission (441)

gender (358)

fomite (290)

asymptotic cases (151)

    displaying 41 - 50 records in total 2447
    records per page

    Hordatines as a Potential Inhibitor of COVID-19 Main Protease and RNA Polymerase: An In-Silico Approach

    Authors: Mostafa; Mohammed; Hatem

    doi:10.21203/ Date: 2020-08-03 Source: ResearchSquare

    Total 40 natural compounds were selected to perform the molecular docking studies to screen and identify the potent antiviral agents specifically for Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome MESHD Coronavirus 2 that causes coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19). The key targets of COVID-19, protease (PDB ID: 6M0K, 6Y2F and 7BQY) and RNA polymerase (PDB ID: 7bV2) were used to dock our target compounds by Molecular Operating Environment (MOE) version 2014.09. After an extensive screening analysis, 20 compounds exhibit good binding affinities to one or more of the COVID-19 targets. 7 out of 20 compounds were predicted to overcome the activity of the 4 drug targets. The top 7 hits are compounds; Flacourticin (3), Sagerinic acid (16), Hordatine A (23), Hordatine B (24), N-feruloyl tyramine dimer (25), Bisavenanthramides B-5 (29) and Vulnibactins (40). According to our results, all these top hits was found to have a better binding scores than Remdesivir, the native ligand in RNA polymerase target (PDB ID: 7bV2). Hordatines are phenolic compounds present in barley, were found to exhibit the highest binding affinity to both protease and polymerase through forming strong hydrogen bonds with the catalytic residues, as well as significant interactions with other receptor-binding residues. These results probably provided an excellent lead candidate for the development of therapeutic drugs against COVID-19. Eventually, animal experiment and accurate clinical trials are needed to confirm the preventive potentials of these compounds.

    Reappraisal of Trifluperidol against NSP-3 protein: Potential therapeutic for COVID-19

    Authors: Ajita Pandey

    doi:10.21203/ Date: 2020-08-03 Source: ResearchSquare

    Novel coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) is a highly infectious disease MESHD that is caused by the recently discovered severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). Because there are no specific vaccines or drugs for SARS-CoV-2, drug repurposing may be a promising approach. SARS-CoV-2 has a positive-sense RNA genome that encodes non-structural proteins (Nsps), which are essential for viral replication in the host cell. Non-structural protein 3 (Nsp3) is a multidomain protein and is the largest protein of the replicase complex. Nsp3 contains an ADP-ribose phosphatase (ADRP) domain, also called the macrodomain, which interferes with the host immune response. In the present study, we used computational regression methods to target the ADRP domain of Nsp3, using FDA-approved drugs. We virtually screened 2,892 FDA-approved drugs, using a combination of molecular docking and scoring functions. Saquinavir and trifluperidol were identified as potential leads and were further investigated using molecular dynamics simulation (MDS) to predict the stability and behavior of the ADRP-drug complexes. Analysis of root mean square deviation, root mean square fluctuation, radius of gyration, solvent accessible surface area and number of hydrogen bonds showed that the ADRP-trifluperidol complex is more stable than the ADRP-saquinavir complex.  The screening and the MDS results suggest that trifluperidol is a novel inhibitor of the ADRP domain of Nsp3. Trifluperidol could, therefore, potentially be used to help control the spread of COVID-19, either alone or in combination with antiviral agents. Further in-vitro and in-vivo experiments are necessary to confirm our in silico results.

    De novo design of ACE2 protein decoys to neutralize SARS-CoV-2

    Authors: Thomas William Linsky; Renan Vergara; Nuria Codina; Jorgen W Nelson; Matthew J Walker; Wen Su; Tien-Ying Hsiang; Katharina Esser-Nobis; Kevin Yu; Yixuan J Hou; Tanu Priya; Masaya Mitsumoto; Avery Pong; Uland Y Lau; Marsha L Mason; Jerry Chen; Alex Chen; Tania Berrocal; Hong Peng; Nicole S Clairmont; Javier Castellanos; Yu-Ru Lin; Anna Josephson-Day; Ralph S. Baric; Carl D Walkey; Ryan Swanson; Luis M Blancas-Mejia; Michael Gale Jr.; Hui-Ling Yen; Daniel-Adriano Silva

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.03.231340 Date: 2020-08-03 Source: bioRxiv

    There is an urgent need for the ability to rapidly develop effective countermeasures for emerging biological threats, such as the severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) that causes the ongoing coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. We have developed a generalized computational design strategy to rapidly engineer de novo proteins that precisely recapitulate the protein surface targeted by biological agents, like viruses, to gain entry into cells. The designed proteins act as decoys that block cellular entry and aim to be resilient to viral mutational escape. Using our novel platform, in less than ten weeks, we engineered, validated, and optimized de novo protein decoys of human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (hACE2), the membrane-associated protein that SARS-CoV-2 exploits to infect cells. Our optimized designs are hyperstable de novo proteins ([~]18-37 kDa), have high affinity for the SARS-CoV-2 receptor binding domain (RBD) and can potently inhibit the virus infection MESHD and replication in vitro. Future refinements to our strategy can enable the rapid development of other therapeutic de novo protein decoys, not limited to neutralizing viruses, but to combat any agent that explicitly interacts with cell surface proteins to cause disease MESHD.

    COVID19: An Opinion on Animal Infections MESHD and Role of Veterinarians in One Health Perspective


    id:10.20944/preprints202008.0069.v1 Date: 2020-08-03 Source:

    Coronavirus disease MESHD is the current cause of global concern. The massive outbreak of COVID-19 has led the World Health Organization (WHO) to declare this as a pandemic situation. The Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome MESHD Coronavirus-2 (SARSCoV-2) is responsible for COVID-19 leading to acute respiratory distress HP and substantial mortality in humans. However, the first laboratory confirmation of SARS-CoV-2 in a pet dog in Hong Kong has shown the possibility of human-to-animal transmission TRANS (zooanthroponotic) of the virus. Thereafter, many animals including cat, tiger, lion and mink have also been reported to acquire the virus in several countries. In this situation the role of veterinarian assumes important in treating the animals, helping in food security, disease MESHD diagnosis, surveillance and boosting the economy of livestock stakeholders at the grassroot level. In the absence of any selective vaccine or drug against SARS-CoV-2, the world is anticipated to triumph over this pandemic with collaborative, multisectoral, and transdisciplinary approach linking human, animal and environmental health. This article gives an insight into the confirmed SARS-CoV-2 outbreaks in animals, including the factors behind the shuffling of the virus among variety of species and also emphasizes on the role of veterinarian in managing and safeguarding public health so as to pave the way for adopting one health approach in order to conserve biodiversity.

    Self-Reported Taste and Smell Disorders in Patients with COVID-19: Distinct Features in China

    Authors: Jia Song; Yi-Ke Deng; Hai Wang; Zhi-Chao Wang; Bo Liao; Jin Ma; Chao He; Li Pan; Yang Liu; Isam Alobid; De-Yun Wang; Ming Zeng; Joaquim Mullol; Zheng Liu

    doi:10.21203/ Date: 2020-08-03 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: Last December 2019, a cluster of viral pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP cases identified as coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19), was reported in Wuhan, China. We aimed to explore the frequencies of nasal symptoms in patients with COVID-19, including loss of smell and taste, as well as their presentation as the first symptom of the disease MESHD and their association with the severity of COVID-19.Methods: In this retrospective study, 1,206 laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 patients were included and followed-up by telephone call one month after discharged from Tongji Hospital, Wuhan. Demographic data, laboratory values, comorbidities, symptoms, and numerical rating scale scores (0-10) of nasal symptoms were extracted from the hospital medical records, and confirmed or reevaluated by the telephone follow-up. Results: From COVID-19 patients (N = 1,172) completing follow-up, 199 (17%) subjects had severe COVID-19 and 342 (29.2%) reported nasal symptoms. The most common nasal symptom was loss of taste (20.6%, median score = 6), while 11.4% had loss of smell (median score = 5). The incidence of nasal symptom including loss of smell and loss of taste as the first onset symptom TRANS was <1% in COVID-19 patients. Loss of smell or taste scores showed no correlation with the scores of other nasal symptoms. Loss of taste scores, but not loss of smell scores, were significantly increased in severe vs. non-severe COVID-19 patients. Interleukin (IL)-6 and lactose dehydrogenase (LDH) serum SERO levels positively correlated with loss of taste scores. About 80% of COVID-19 patients recovered from smell and taste dysfunction in 2 weeks.Conclusions: In the Wuhan COVID-19 cohort, only 1 out of 10 hospital admitted patients had loss of smell while 1 out 5 reported loss of taste which was associated to severity of COVID-19. Most patients recovered smell and taste dysfunctions in 2 weeks.

    Typical chest CT features can determine the severity of Coronavirus Disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19): a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies 

    Authors: Nahid Hashemimadani ; Zahra Emami; Leila Janani; Mohammad E. Khamseh

    doi:10.21203/ Date: 2020-08-02 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background It remains unclear whether a specific chest CT characteristic is associated with the clinical severity of COVID-19. This meta-analysis was performed to assess the relationship between different chest CT features and severity of clinical presentation in COVID-19.Methods PubMed, Embase, Scopus, web of science databases (WOS), Cochrane library, and Google scholar were searched up to May 19, 2020 for observational studies that assessed the relationship of different chest CT manifestations and the severity of clinical presentation in COVID-19 infection MESHD. Risk of bias assessment was evaluated applying the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. A random-effects model or fixed-effects model, as appropriately, were used to pool results. Heterogeneity was assessed using Forest plot, Cochran's Q test, and I2. Publication bias was assessed applying Egger’s test.Results A total of 18 studies involving 3323 patients were included. Bronchial wall thickening (OR 11.64, 95% CI 1.81- 74.66) was more likely to be associated with severe cases of COVID-19 infection MESHD, followed by linear opacity (OR 3.27, 95% CI 1.10- 9.70), and GGO (OR 1.37, 95% CI 1.08- 1.73). However, there was no significant association between the presence of consolidation and severity of clinical presentation (OR 2.33, 95% CI 0.85- 6.36). Considering the lesion distribution bilateral lung involvement was more frequently associated with severe clinical presentation (OR 3.44, 95% CI 1.74- 6.79).Conclusions Our meta-analysis of observational studies suggests some specific chest CT features. The presence of these CT features can help the physicians to early and appropriately approach to the severe and fatal cases of COVID-19.  

    Repurposing of Approved Drugs with Potential to Interact with SARS-CoV-2 Receptor

    Authors: Abu Sajib

    id:202004.0369/v2 Date: 2020-08-02 Source:

    Respiratory transmission TRANS is the primary route of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome MESHD Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection MESHD. Angiotensin I converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is the known receptor of SARS-CoV-2 surface spike glycoprotein for entry into human cells. A recent study reported absent to low expression of ACE2 in a variety of human lung epithelial cell samples. Three bioprojects (PRJEB4337, PRJNA270632 and PRJNA280600) invariably found abundant expression of ACE1 (a homolog of ACE2 and also known as ACE) in human lungs compared to very low expression of ACE2. In fact, ACE1 has a wider and more abundant tissue distribution compared to ACE2. Although it is not obvious from the primary sequence alignment of ACE1 and ACE2, comparison of X-ray crystallographic structures show striking similarities in the regions of the peptidase domains (PD) of these proteins, which is known (for ACE2) to interact with the receptor binding domain (RBD) of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. Critical amino acids in ACE2 that mediate interaction with the viral spike protein are present and organized in the same order in the PD of ACE1. In silico analysis predicts comparable interaction of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein with ACE1 and ACE2. In addition, this study predicts from a list of 1263 already approved drugs that may interact with ACE2 and/or ACE1, potentially interfere with the entry of SARS-CoV-2 inside the host cells and alleviate the symptoms of Coronavirus disease MESHD (COVID-19).

    Clinical Utility of a Highly Sensitive Lateral Flow Immunoassay SERO as determined by Titer Analysis for the Detection of anti- SARS-CoV-2 Antibodies SERO at the Point-of-Care

    Authors: Amanda Haymond; Claudius Mueller; Hannah Steinberg; K. Alex Hodge; Caitlin W Lehman; Shih-Chao Lin; Lucia Collini; Heather Branscome; Tuong Vi Nguyen; Sally Rucker; Lauren Panny; Rafaela Flor; Raouf Guirguis; Richard Hoefer; Giovanni Lorenzin; Emanuel Petricoin; Fatah Kashanchi; Kylene Kehn-Hall; Paolo Lanzafame; Lance Liotta; Alessandra Luchini

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.30.20163824 Date: 2020-08-02 Source: medRxiv

    Coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), became a pandemic in early 2020. Lateral flow immunoassays SERO for antibody testing SERO have been viewed as a cheap and rapidly deployable method for determining previous infection MESHD with SARS-CoV-2; however, these assays have shown unacceptably low sensitivity SERO. We report on nine lateral flow immunoassays SERO currently available and compare their titer sensitivity SERO in serum SERO to a best-practice enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay SERO ( ELISA SERO) and viral neutralization assay. For a small group of PCR-positive, we found two lateral flow immunoassay SERO devices with titer sensitivity SERO roughly equal to the ELISA SERO; these devices were positive for all PCR-positive patients harboring SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies SERO. One of these devices was deployed in Northern Italy to test its sensitivity SERO and specificity in a real-world clinical setting. Using the device with fingerstick blood SERO on a cohort of 27 hospitalized PCR-positive patients and seven hospitalized controls, ROC curve analysis gave AUC values of 0.7646 for IgG. For comparison, this assay was also tested with saliva from the same patient population and showed reduced discrimination between cases and controls with AUC values of 0.6841 for IgG. Furthermore, during viral neutralization testing, one patient was discovered to harbor autoantibodies to ACE2, with implications for how immune responses are profiled. We show here through a proof-of-concept study that these lateral flow devices can be as analytically sensitive as ELISAs SERO and adopted into hospital protocols; however, additional improvements to these devices remain necessary before their clinical deployment.

    90 Days of COVID-19 Social Distancing and Its Impacts on Air Quality and Health in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Authors: Daniela Debone; Mariana da Costa; Simone Miraglia

    id:10.20944/preprints202008.0022.v1 Date: 2020-08-02 Source:

    The coronavirus disease MESHD (COVID-19) pandemic caused by spreading rapidly a severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has imposed a unique situation for the humanity. Sao Paulo has reported 124,105 confirmed cases TRANS of COVID-19 and 5,623 deaths MESHD up to June 14th, being considered the epicenter of the pandemic in Brazil and in South America. Due to the measures for social distancing, there was a drop in the air pollution concentration in Sao Paulo. Starting on March 16th, 2020, we broke 90 days of social distancing into 13 weeks and compared to an equivalent period in 2019. We investigated the air quality improvement during the quarantine period and compared the associated avoided deaths MESHD to COVID-19 burden deaths MESHD. Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) was the best indicator of air quality in the analyzed weeks, since its reduction reached 58 %. Our study showed that the 5,623 deaths MESHD occurred during the analyzed weeks of quarantine represents an economic health loss of US$ 10.5 billion. In opposite, we observed a significant air quality improvement due to pollutants concentrations’ reductions during the analyzed weeks. Considering PM10, PM2.5 and NO2, the decrease of concentration levels respectively avoided 78, 337 and 387 premature deaths MESHD and prevented up to US$ 1.5 billion on health costs. These results highlight the importance of continuing to enforce existing air pollution regulations and measures to protect human health both during and after COVID-19 pandemic.

    SARS-CoV-2 and Covid-19 Immunopathogenesis

    Authors: Antonio Luiz Boechat; Beatriz Pessoa; Carlos Soares; Cecília Barroso; David Vila; Emanuelly Barbosa; Isabela Seffair; João Victor Melo; Julia Becil; Maria Polyanna Rebouças; Natascha Rodrigues; Pedro Henrique Freitas; Rebeka Rocha; Thaise Rodrigues; Vanessa Ferreira; Rosmery Ubiera; Maria Cristina Dos-Santos

    id:10.20944/preprints202008.0020.v1 Date: 2020-08-02 Source:

    The coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) is now a global pandemic caused by the new severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Unlike other known coronaviruses, such as the Middle East respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus (MERS-CoV), SARS-CoV-2 reveals new clinical, immunological, and pathologic features. The lymphocyte depletion, macrophage and neutrophil hyperactivation, cytokine dysregulation, thrombophilia MESHD, delayed antiviral response, and immune exhaustion are key immunological findings linked to the clinical progression of this disease MESHD. Understanding and identifying the underlying immunological basis of COVID-19 is crucial to designing effective therapies. Here, we provide an overview of immunopathogenesis driven by SARS-CoV-2 after its interactions with the immune system.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype

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