Corpus overview


Overview

MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Transmission

Seroprevalence
    displaying 1 - 10 records in total 217
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    Extended SEIQR type model for COVID-19 epidemic and data analysis

    Authors: Swarnali Sharma; Vitaly Volpert; Malay Banerjee

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.10.20171439 Date: 2020-08-12 Source: medRxiv

    An extended SEIQR type model is considered in order to model the COVID-19 epidemic. It contains the classes of susceptible individuals, exposed, infected symptomatic and asymptomatic TRANS, quarantined, hospitalized and recovered. The basic reproduction number TRANS and the final size of epidemic are determined. The model is used to fit available data for some European countries. A more detailed model with two different subclasses of susceptible individuals is introduced in order to study the influence of social interaction HP social interaction TRANS on the disease progression MESHD. The coefficient of social interaction HP social interaction TRANS $K$ characterizes the level of social contacts in comparison with complete lockdown (K=0) and the absence of lockdown (K=1). The fitting of data shows that the actual level of this coefficient in some European countries is about 0.1, characterizing a slow disease progression MESHD. A slight increase of this value in the autumn can lead to a strong epidemic burst.

    Exposure to Mycobacteria influences disease progression MESHD in COVID-19 patients 

    Authors: Ajay Gupta; Sumit Sural; Ayush Gupta; Shashank Rousa; B.C.Koner; Anju Bhalotra; Rohit Chawla

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-56141/v1 Date: 2020-08-08 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: COVID-19−related deaths MESHD are significantly higher in countries with higher quality of life. A strong negative correlation is reported between the BCG index and COVID- 19 mortality. The present study explored if a high Th1immunity due to frequent exposure to strong Th1 antigens like Mycobacteria or Salmonella could be the cause for lesser COVID-19−related deaths MESHD in Indian population. Methods: This prospective comparative study was conducted with 3 groups of twenty patients each of mildly symptomatic (A), severely ill (S) Covid patients and healthy volunteers with a Covid Negative report (H).Results: All severely ill patients showed increased leucocyte counts, lymphopenia MESHD lymphopenia HP and raised D-dimer. A gross reversible unresponsiveness of T cells was seen among all patients in S group with absolutely no response even to the mitogen stimulus. Quantiferon TB test value and distribution of test positivity was significantly lower in group S. Three out of 6 survived patients in S group had positive Quantiferon TB test while 2 patients turned positive on repeat test and the sixth patient showed high TH titre on widal test.Conclusion: Altered Th1 immunity associated with frequent community exposure of tuberculosis MESHD and typhoid antigen in Indian population might be responsible for its relatively lesser prevalence SERO and mortality following Covid-19.  

    Comparison of Two Intravenous Fluid Management Strategies in COVID-19 Patients in Hubei, China: A Retrospective Multicenter Study

    Authors: Yaping Yuan; Jionghe Wu; Runsheng Wang; Zhanling Wu; Lei Pan; Jing Cheng; Yifan Que; Jing Deng; Christopher Chang; Guogang Xu; Hongxia Li

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-55580/v1 Date: 2020-08-07 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background Optimal fluid management in patients with COVID-19 has not been reported. This retrospective, multicenter study investigated the impact of intravenous infusion volume in the early stage of COVID-19 on clinical outcomes.Methods 127 patients from two tertiary hospitals were separated into the “conservative” and “liberal” groups based on average daily intravenous infusion volume within the first seven days after admission. Basic information, demographic and epidemiological characteristics, laboratory findings, treatments, and outcome measures were retrieved from medical records. The disease progression MESHD and prognosis were analyzed and compared.Results The average daily intravenous infusion volume within 7 days was 500 (150–700) ml/day in the conservative-strategy group (n = 87), and 1100 (1000–1288) ml/day in the liberal-strategy group (n = 40) (p < 0.001). There were no statistical differences in median age TRANS, male TRANS-to- female TRANS ratio, epidemiology, laboratory findings on admission, comorbidities, and average daily urine output within the seven days (p > 0.05). The final K+ in the liberal group was slightly higher than that at admission, and the final hematocrit level in the conservative group had a significant difference than that at admission (p < 0.05). The mean (± SD) duration of hospitalization was 22.41 ± 11.99 days in the conservative group and 25.28 ± 12.08 days in the liberal group (p = 0.120). However, compared to the liberal group, conservative group had statistically lower rates of disease progression MESHD (9.3% vs 37.5%, p < 0.001), mechanical ventilation (2.3% vs 27.5%, p < 0.001) and in-hospital mortality (2.3% vs 15.0%, p = 0.012).Conclusions Although there appeared to be no significant difference in the duration of hospitalization between using conservative and liberal fluid management strategies, the former was associated with lower rates of disease progression MESHD, mechanical ventilation and in-hospital mortality without increased nonpulmonary-organ dysfunction. These results support the importance of implementing conservative intravenous fluid infusion in the early stage of COVID-19.

    Serology assessment of antibody SERO response to SARS-CoV-2 in patients with COVID-19 by rapid IgM/IgG antibody test SERO

    Authors: Yang De Marinis; Torgny Sunnerhagen; Pradeep Bompada; Anna Blackberg; Runtao Yang; Joel Svensson; Ola Ekstrom; Karl-Fredrik Eriksson; Ola Hansson; Leif Groop; Isabel Goncalves; Magnus Rasmussen

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.05.20168815 Date: 2020-08-06 Source: medRxiv

    The coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has created a global health- and economic crisis. Lifting confinement restriction and resuming to normality depends greatly on COVID-19 immunity screening. Detection of antibodies SERO to severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) which causes COVID-19 by serological methods is important to diagnose a current or resolved infection MESHD. In this study, we applied a rapid COVID-19 IgM/IgG antibody test SERO and performed serology assessment of antibody SERO response to SARS-CoV-2. In PCR-confirmed COVID-19 patients (n=45), the total antibody SERO detection rate is 92% in hospitalized patients and 79% in non-hospitalized patients. We also studied antibody SERO response in relation to time after symptom onset TRANS and disease MESHD severity, and observed an increase in antibody SERO reactivity and distinct distribution patterns of IgM and IgG following disease progression MESHD. The total IgM and IgG detection is 63% in patients with < 2 weeks from disease MESHD onset; 85% in non-hospitalized patients with > 2 weeks disease MESHD duration; and 91% in hospitalized patients with > 2 weeks disease MESHD duration. We also compared different blood SERO sample types and suggest a potentially higher sensitivity SERO by serum SERO/ plasma SERO comparing with whole blood SERO measurement. To study the specificity of the test, we used 69 sera/ plasma SERO samples collected between 2016-2018 prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, and obtained a test specificity of 97%. In summary, our study provides a comprehensive validation of the rapid COVID-19 IgM/IgG serology test, and mapped antibody SERO detection patterns in association with disease MESHD progress and hospitalization. Our study supports that the rapid COVID-19 IgM/IgG test may be applied to assess the COVID-19 status both at the individual and at a population level.

    Inhomogeneous mixing and asynchronic transmission TRANS between local outbreaks account for the spread of COVID-19 epidemics

    Authors: Carlos I Mendoza

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.04.20168443 Date: 2020-08-06 Source: medRxiv

    The ongoing epidemic of COVID-19 originated in China has reinforced the need to develop epidemiological models capable of describing the progression of the disease MESHD to be of use in the formulation of mitigation policies. Here, this problem is addressed using a metapopulation approach to show that the delay in the transmission TRANS of the spread between different subsets of the total population, can be incorporated into a SIR framework through a time-dependent transmission TRANS rate. Thus, the reproduction number TRANS decreases with time despite the population dynamics remains uniform and the depletion of susceptible individuals is small. The obtained results are consistent with the early subexponential growth observed in the cumulated number of confirmed cases TRANS even in the absence of containment measures. We validate our model by describing the evolution of the COVID-19 using real data from different countries with an emphasis in the case of Mexico and show that it describes correctly also the long-time dynamics of the spread. The proposed model yet simple is successful at describing the onset and progression of the outbreak and considerably improves accuracy of predictions over traditional compartmental models. The insights given here may probe be useful to forecast the extent of the public health risks of epidemics and thus improving public policy-making aimed at reducing such risks.

    Asthma MESHD Asthma HP and COVID-19 - A systematic review

    Authors: Natália F. Mendes; Carlos P. Jara; Eli Mansour; Eliana P. Araújo; Licio Velloso

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-53998/v1 Date: 2020-08-05 Source: ResearchSquare

    BackgroundSevere coronavirus disease MESHD-19 (COVID-19) presents with progressive dyspnea MESHD dyspnea HP, which results from acute lung inflammatory edema MESHD edema HP leading to hypoxia MESHD. As with other infectious diseases MESHD that affect the respiratory tract, asthma MESHD asthma HP has been cited as a potential risk factor for severe COVID-19. However, conflicting results have been published over the last few months and the putative association between these two diseases MESHD is still unproven.MethodsHere, we systematically reviewed all reports on COVID-19 published since its emergence in December 2019 to May 18, 2020, looking into the description of asthma MESHD asthma HP as a premorbid condition, which could indicate its potential involvement in disease progression MESHD.ResultsWe found 169 articles describing the clinical characteristics of 36,072 patients diagnosed with COVID-19. Asthma MESHD Asthma HP was reported as a premorbid condition in only 655 patients accounting for 1.8% of all patients.ConclusionsAs the global prevalence SERO of asthma MESHD asthma HP is 4.4%, we conclude that either asthma MESHD asthma HP is not a premorbid condition that contributes to the development of COVID-19 or clinicians and researchers are not accurately describing the premorbidities in COVID-19 patients.

    Clearing the fog: Is HCQ effective in reducing COVID-19 progression: A randomized controlled trial

    Authors: sultan mehmood kamran; Zill e Humayun Mirza; Arshad Naseem; Farrukh Saeed; Rizwan Azam; Naqeeb Ullah; Wazir Ahmad; Salman Saleem

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.30.20165365 Date: 2020-08-04 Source: medRxiv

    Objective: To analyze the efficacy of Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) plus standard of care (SOC) compared with SOC alone in reducing disease progression MESHD in Mild COVID-19 Design: A single centre, open label randomized controlled trial Place and Duration: Pulmonology department, Pak emirates Military Hospital (PEMH) from 10 April 2020 to 31 May 2020. Methodology: Five hundred patients of both genders TRANS having age TRANS between 18-50 years who were PCR positive and had Mild COVID-19 were selected. Patients assigned to standard dose of HCQ (400mg 12 hourly day 1 then 200mg 12 hrly for next 4 days) plus SOC were 349 while 151 patients received SOC comprising of Vit C, Vit D, and Zinc only (control group). Primary outcome was progression of disease MESHD while secondary outcome was PCR negativity on day 7 and 14. The results were analyzed on SPSS version 23. P value <0.05 was considered significant. Results: Median age TRANS of intervention group (34 + 11.778 years) and control group (34 + 9.813 years). Disease MESHD progressed in 16 patients, 11 (3.15%) were in intervention group as compared to 5 (3.35%) in control group, (p value = 0.865). PCR negativity in intervention and control groups were (day 7, 182 (52.1%) vs. 54 (35.7%) (p value = 0.001), (day 14, 244 (69.9%) vs. 110 (72.8%) (p value = 0.508). Consecutive PCR negativity at day 7 and 14 was observed in 240 (68.8%) in intervention group compared to 108 (71.5%) in control group. (p value = 0.231). Conclusion: Addition of HCQ to standard of care treatment in Mild COVID-19 neither prevents disease progression MESHD nor is it significantly associated with successive PCR negativity on day 7 and 14.

    COVID-19 in CXR: from Detection and Severity Scoring to Patient Disease MESHD Monitoring

    Authors: Rula Amer; Maayan Frid-Adar; Ophir Gozes; Jannette Nassar; Hayit Greenspan

    id:2008.02150v1 Date: 2020-08-04 Source: arXiv

    In this work, we estimate the severity of pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP in COVID-19 patients and conduct a longitudinal study of disease progression MESHD. To achieve this goal, we developed a deep learning model for simultaneous detection and segmentation of pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP in chest Xray (CXR) images and generalized to COVID-19 pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP. The segmentations were utilized to calculate a " Pneumonia MESHD Pneumonia HP Ratio" which indicates the disease MESHD severity. The measurement of disease MESHD severity enables to build a disease MESHD extent profile over time for hospitalized patients. To validate the model relevance to the patient monitoring task, we developed a validation strategy which involves a synthesis of Digital Reconstructed Radiographs (DRRs - synthetic Xray) from serial CT scans; we then compared the disease progression MESHD profiles that were generated from the DRRs to those that were generated from CT volumes.

    Severity Assessment and Progression Prediction of COVID-19 Patients based on the LesionEncoder Framework and Chest CT

    Authors: Youzhen Feng; Sidong Liu; Zhongyuan Cheng; Juan Quiroz; Data Rezazadegan; Pingkang Chen; Qiting Lin; Long Qian; Xiaofang Liu; Shlomo Berkovsky; Enrico Coiera; Lei Song; Xiaoming Qiu; Xiangran Cai

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.03.20167007 Date: 2020-08-04 Source: medRxiv

    Automatic severity assessment and progression prediction can facilitate admission, triage, and referral of COVID-19 patients. This study aims to explore the potential use of lung lesion features in the management of COVID-19, based on the assumption that lesion features may carry important diagnostic and prognostic information for quantifying infection MESHD severity and forecasting disease progression MESHD. A novel LesionEncoder framework is proposed to detect lesions in chest CT scans and to encode lesion features for automatic severity assessment and progression prediction. The LesionEncoder framework consists of a U-Net module for detecting lesions and extracting features from individual CT slices, and a recurrent neural network (RNN) module for learning the relationship between feature vectors and collectively classifying the sequence of feature vectors. Chest CT scans of two cohorts of COVID-19 patients from two hospitals in China were used for training and testing the proposed framework. When applied to assessing severity, this framework outperformed baseline methods achieving a sensitivity SERO of 0.818, specificity of 0.952, accuracy of 0.940, and AUC of 0.903. It also outperformed the other tested methods in disease progression MESHD prediction with a sensitivity SERO of 0.667, specificity of 0.838, accuracy of 0.829, and AUC of 0.736. The LesionEncoder framework demonstrates a strong potential for clinical application in current COVID-19 management, particularly in automatic severity assessment of COVID-19 patients. This framework also has a potential for other lesion-focused medical image analyses. NOTE: This manuscript has been submitted to the Medical Image Analysis Special Issue on Intelligent Analysis of COVID-19 Imaging Data on the 20th of May, 2020. This version is submitted version, last updated on the 20th of May. Its current status with Medical Image Analysis is still "under review" (last accessed on 2nd of August, 2020).

    Analytical Model of COVID-19 for lifting non-pharmaceutical interventions

    Authors: Garry Jacyna; James R. Thompson; Matt Koehler; David M. Slater

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.31.20166025 Date: 2020-08-04 Source: medRxiv

    In the present work, we outline a set of coarse-grain analytical models that can be used by decision-makers to bound the potential impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on specific communities with known or estimated social contact structure and to assess the effects of various non-pharmaceutical interventions on slowing the progression of disease MESHD disease spread TRANS. This work provides a multi-dimensional view of the problem by examining steady-state and dynamic disease MESHD disease spread TRANS spread using a network-based approach. In addition, Bayesian-based estimation procedures are used to provide a realistic assessment of the severity of outbreaks based on estimates of the average and instantaneous basic reproduction number TRANS R0 TRANS.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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