Corpus overview


Overview

MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Transmission

Seroprevalence

There are no seroprevalence terms in the subcorpus

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    Incidence of “new-onset” constipation HP constipation MESHD and associated factors during lockdown due to the coronavirus-19 pandemic.

    Authors: Jose María Remes-Troche; Enrique Coss-Adame; Mercedes Amieva-Balmori; José Antonio Velarde-Ruiz Velasco; Paulo César Gómez-Castaños; Ricardo Flores-Rendón; Octavio Gómez-Escudero; María Celina Rodríguez-Leal; Cristina Durán-Rosas; Samanta Mayanin Pinto-Gálvez; Bryan Adrián Priego-Parra; Arturo Triana-Romero

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-77783/v1 Date: 2020-09-14 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: A minimum of physical activity and low liquid intake are factors that have been associated with constipation HP constipation MESHD. The health emergency brought on by the COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in adopting behavior, such as sheltering-in-place (less mobility) and dietary changes, creating a scenario we believe to be an adequate model for examining the appearance of symptoms of constipation HP constipation MESHD and its associated factors. Methods: A cross-sectional and descriptive study was conducted on an open population, applying an electronic survey (4 weeks after lockdown due to COVID-19 in Mexico) to evaluate: demographic characteristics, physical activity, water and fiber intake, appearance of constipation HP constipation MESHD symptoms (including stool consistency), and quality of life.Key results: Out of 678 subjects evaluated, 170 (25%, 95% CI 21.7-28.4) developed symptoms of “new-onset” constipation HP constipation MESHD, with a significant decrease in the number of daily bowel movements (p<0.05) and hardness MESHD of stool consistency (p<0.05) during lockdown. The multivariate analysis (logistic regression) showed that female TRANS sex (p=0.001), water intake (p=0.039), and physical activity (p=0.012) were associated with “new-onset” constipation HP constipation MESHD. Conclusions: Reduced physical activity and less water intake due to mobility restrictions imposed for epidemiologic reasons, such as a pandemic, can lead to symptoms of “new-onset” constipation HP constipation MESHD

    North American deer mice are susceptible to SARS-CoV-2

    Authors: Bryan D Griffin; Mable Chan; Nikesh Tailor; Emelissa J Mendoza; Anders Leung; Bryce M Warner; Ana T Duggan; Estella Moffat; Shihua He; Lauren Garnett; Kaylie N Tran; Logan Banadyga; Alixandra Albietz; Kevin Tierney; Jonathan Audet; Alexander Bello; Robert Vendramelli; Amrit S Boese; Lisa Fernando; L Robbin Lindsay; Claire M Jardine; Heidi Wood; Guillaume Poliquin; James E Strong; Michael Drebot; David Safronetz; Carissa Embury-Hyatt; Darwyn Kobasa

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.25.221291 Date: 2020-07-26 Source: bioRxiv

    The zoonotic spillover of the pandemic SARS-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) from an animal reservoir, currently presumed to be the Chinese horseshoe bat, into a naive human population has rapidly resulted in a significant global public health emergency. Worldwide circulation of SARS-CoV-2 in humans raises the theoretical risk of reverse zoonosis events with wildlife, reintroductions of SARS-CoV-2 into permissive non-domesticated animals, potentially seeding new host reservoir species and geographic regions in which bat SARS-like coronaviruses have not historically been endemic. Here we report that North American deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) and some closely related members of the Cricetidae family of rodents possess key amino acid residues within the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor known to confer SARS-CoV-2 spike protein binding. Peromyscus rodent species are widely distributed across North America and are the primary host reservoirs of several emerging pathogens that repeatedly spill over into humans including Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease, deer tick virus, and Sin Nombre orthohantavirus, the causative agent of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome MESHD ( HPS MESHD). We demonstrate that adult TRANS deer mice are susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD following intranasal exposure to a human isolate, resulting in viral replication in the upper and lower respiratory tract with little or no signs of disease. Further, shed infectious virus is detectable in nasal washes, oropharyngeal and rectal swabs, and viral RNA is detectable in feces and occasionally urine. We further show that deer mice are capable of transmitting SARS-CoV-2 to naive deer mice through direct contact. The extent to which these observations may translate to wild deer mouse populations remains unclear, and the risk of reverse zoonosis and/or the potential for the establishment of Peromyscus rodents as a North American reservoir for SARS-CoV-2 is unknown. Nevertheless, efforts to monitor wild, peri-domestic Peromyscus rodent populations are likely warranted as the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic progresses.

    Shell Disorder Analysis Suggests That Pangolins Offered a Window for a Silent Spread of an Attenuated SARS-CoV-2 Precursor among Humans

    Authors: Gerard Kian-Meng Goh; A. Keith Dunker; James A. Foster; Vladimir N. Uversky

    id:202006.0327/v1 Date: 2020-06-28 Source: Preprints.org

    A model to predict the relative levels of respiratory and fecal-oral transmission TRANS potentials of coronaviruses (CoVs) by measuring the percentage of protein intrinsic disorder MESHD ( PID MESHD) of the M (Membrane) and N (nucleoprotein) proteins in their outer and inner shells, respectively, was built before the MERS-CoV outbreak. Application of this model to the 2003 SARS-CoV indicated that this virus with MPID = 8.6% and NPID = 50.2% falls HP into group B, which consists of CoVs with intermediate levels of both fecal-oral and respiratory transmission TRANS potentials. Further validation of the model came with MERS-CoV MESHD (MPID = 9%, NPID = 44%) and SARS-CoV-2 (MPID = 5.5%, NPID = 48%) falling HP into the groups C and B, respectively. Group C contains CoVs with higher fecal-oral but lower respiratory transmission TRANS potentials. Unlike SARS-CoV, SARS-CoV-2 MESHD with MPID = 5.5% has one of the hardest outer shells among CoVs. This shell hardness MESHD is believed to be responsible for high viral loads in the mucus and saliva making it more contagious than SARS-CoV MESHD. The hard shell is able to resist the anti-microbial enzymes in body fluids. Further searches have found that high rigidity HP rigidity MESHD of outer shell is characteristic for the CoVs of burrowing animals, such as rabbits (MPID = 5.6%) and pangolins (MPID = 5-6%), which are in contact with the buried feces. A closer inspection of pangolin-CoVs from 2017-19 reveals that these animals provided a unique window of opportunity for the entry of an attenuated SARS-CoV-2 precursor into the human population in 2017 or earlier, with the subsequent slow and silent spread as a mild cold that followed by its mutations into the current more virulent form. Evidence of this lies in the similarity of shell disorder MESHD and genetic proximity of the pangolin-CoVs to SARS-CoV-2 (~90%). A 2017 pangolin-CoV strain shows evidence of higher levels of attenuation and higher fecal-oral transmission TRANS associated with lower human infectivity via having lower NPID (44.8%). Our shell disorder analysis also revealed that lower inner shell disorder MESHD is associated with the lesser virulence in a variety of viruses.

    Synergistic effects of anionic surfactants on coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) virucidal efficiency of sanitizing fluids to fight COVID-19

    Authors: Reza Jahromi; Vahid Mogharab; Hossein Jahromi; Arezoo Avazpour

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.29.124107 Date: 2020-06-01 Source: bioRxiv

    Our surrounding environment, especially often-touched contaminated surfaces, plays an important role in the transmission TRANS of pathogens in society. The shortage of effective sanitizing fluids, however, became a global challenge quickly after the coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) outbreak in December 2019. In this study, we present the effect of surfactants on coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) virucidal efficiency in sanitizing fluids. Sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate (SDBS), sodium laureth sulfate (SLS), and two commercial dish soap and liquid hand soap were studied with the goal of evaporation rate reduction in sanitizing liquids to maximize surface contact time. Twelve fluids with different recipes composed of ethanol, isopropanol, SDBS, SLS, glycerin, and water of standardized hardness MESHD ( WSH MESHD) were tested for their evaporation time and virucidal efficiency. Evaporation time increased by 17-63% when surfactant agents were added to the liquid. In addition, surfactant incorporation enhanced the virucidal efficiency between 15-27% according to the 4-field test in the EN 16615:2015 European Standard method. Most importantly, however, we found that surfactant addition provides a synergistic effect with alcohols to inactivate the SARS-CoV-2 virus. This study provides a simple, yet effective solution to improve the virucidal efficiency of commonly used sanitizers.

    Expression of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 proteins in the upper and lower aerodigestive tracts of rats

    Authors: Rumi Ueha; Taku Sato; Takao Goto; Akihito Yamauchi; Kenji Kondo; Tatsuya Yamasoba

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.14.097204 Date: 2020-05-15 Source: bioRxiv

    Objective Patients with coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 MESHD (SARS-CoV-2), exhibit not only respiratory symptoms but also symptoms of chemo-sensitive disorders MESHD and kidney failure MESHD. Cellular entry of SARS-CoV-2 depends on the binding of its spike protein to a cellular receptor named angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), and the subsequent spike protein-priming by host cell proteases, including transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2). Thus, high expression of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 are considered to enhance the invading capacity of SARS-CoV-2.Methods To elucidate the underlying histological mechanisms of the aerodigestive disorders caused by SARS-CoV-2, we investigated the expression of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 proteins in the aerodigestive tracts of the tongue, hard palate MESHD with partial nasal tissue, larynx with hypopharynx, trachea, esophagus, lung, and kidney of rats through immunohistochemistry.Results Strong co-expression of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 proteins was observed in the nasal respiratory epithelium, trachea, bronchioles, alveoli, kidney, and taste buds of the tongue. Remarkably, TMPRSS2 expression was much stronger in the peripheral alveoli than in the central alveoli. These results coincide with the reported clinical symptoms of COVID-19, such as the loss of taste, loss of olfaction MESHD, respiratory dysfunction MESHD, and acute nephropathy HP nephropathy MESHD.Conclusions A wide range of organs have been speculated to be affected by SARS-CoV-2 depending on the expression levels of ACE2 and TMPRSS2. Differential distribution of TMPRSS2 in the lung indicated the COVID-19 symptoms to possibly be exacerbated by TMPRSS2 expression. This study might provide potential clues for further investigation of the pathogenesis of COVID-19.Level of Evidence NACompeting Interest StatementThe authors have declared no competing interest.View Full Text

    A Novel Strategy for the Development of Vaccines for SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) and Other Viruses Using AI and Viral Shell Disorder MESHD

    Authors: Gerard Goh; A. Keith Dunker; James Foster; Vladimir Uversky

    id:202005.0116/v1 Date: 2020-05-07 Source: Preprints.org

    A model that predicts levels of coronavirus (CoV) respiratory/fecal-oral transmission TRANS potentials based on the outer shell hardness MESHD has been built using neural network (artificial intelligence, AI) analysis of the percentage of disorder (PID) in the nucleocapsid, N, and membrane, M, proteins of the inner and outer viral shells, respectively. Based mainly on the PID of N, SARS-CoV-2 is categorized as having intermediate levels of both respiratory and fecal oral transmission TRANS potential. Related to this, other studies have found strong positive correlations between virulence and inner shell disorder MESHD among numerous viruses, including Nipah, Ebola, and Dengue viruses. There is some evidence that this is also true for SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV MESHD, which have N PIDs of 48% and 50%, and are characterized by case-fatality rates of 7.1% and 10.9%, respectively. The link between levels of respiratory transmission TRANS and virulence lies in viral load of body fluids and organ respectively. A virus can be infectious via respiratory modes only if the viral loads in saliva and mucus exceed certain minima. Likewise, a person may die, if the viral load is too high especially in viral organs. Inner shell proteins of viruses play important roles in the replication of viruses, and structural disorder MESHD enhances these roles by providing greater efficiency in protein-protein/DNA/RNA/lipid binding. This paper outlines a novel strategy in attenuating viruses involving comparison of disorder patterns of inner shells of related viruses to identify residues and regions that could be ideal for mutation. The M protein of SARS-CoV-2 has one of the lowest M PID values (6%) in its family, and therefore this virus has one of the hardest outer shells, which makes it resistant to antimicrobial enzymes in body fluid. While this is likely responsible for its contagiousness, the risks of creating an attenuated virus with a more disordered M are discussed.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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