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MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Transmission

Seroprevalence

There are no seroprevalence terms in the subcorpus

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    Surprising protective mechanisms against severe forms of COVID-19 infection MESHD among Common Variable Immunodeficiency MESHD Immunodeficiency HP Patients- one center experience.

    Authors: Carina Petricau; Irena Nedelea; Diana Deleanu

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-57542/v1 Date: 2020-08-11 Source: ResearchSquare

    In this report we aimed to present the nonthreatening experience of patients diagnosed with Common variable immunodeficiency MESHD immunodeficiency HP (CVID) included in the National Rare Disease MESHD Program registry and consulted at the Immunology department of the Regional Institute of Gastroenterology and Hepatology “Prof Dr. Octavian Fodor” during the Coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic as well as to review the current understanding of COVID-19 immunopathology followed by possible protective mechanisms against severe infection HP infection MESHD in these highly susceptible individuals. We report clinical and laboratory results of patients in a single-center retrospective study after lockdown restrictions were partially lifted (May-June 2020) and patients were able to come into the hospital for routine check-up and immunoglobulin replacement treatment. Of the 49 patients consulted during this period, we identified only one asymptomatic TRANS patient with severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection MESHD, supporting recently published data that not all immune compromised patients are at increased risk. According to recent publications the virus induces an inflammatory response leading to a cytokine storm responsible for severe complications. CVID patients seem to be protected from severe forms of this severe virus through reduced viral susceptibility, deficient B lymphocyte response, loss of Interleukin-6 (IL-6) receptor and impaired toll-like receptor pathway activation. Despite being at high risk for other infectious disease MESHD, in the context of SARS-CoV-2 induced pandemic, CVID patient’s lack of immune response is their protection against the dangerous macrophage hyper-activation resulting cytokine storm consequences. 

    An insertion unique to SARS-CoV-2 exhibits superantigenic character strengthened by recent mutations

    Authors: Mary Hongying Cheng; She Zhang; Rebecca A. Porritt; Moshe Arditi; Ivet Bahar

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.21.109272 Date: 2020-05-21 Source: bioRxiv

    Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome MESHD in Children TRANS (MIS-C) associated with Coronavirus Disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) is a newly recognized condition in which children TRANS with recent SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD present with a constellation of symptoms including hypotension MESHD hypotension HP, multiorgan involvement, and elevated inflammatory markers. These symptoms and the associated laboratory values strongly resemble toxic shock MESHD shock HP syndrome MESHD, an escalation of the cytotoxic adaptive immune response triggered upon the binding of pathogenic superantigens to MHCII molecules and T cell receptors (TCRs). Here, we used structure-based computational models to demonstrate that the SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) exhibits a high-affinity motif for binding TCR, interacting closely with both the - and {beta}-chains variable domains complementarity-determining regions. The binding epitope on S harbors a sequence motif unique to SARS-CoV-2 (not present in any other SARS coronavirus), which is highly similar in both sequence and structure to bacterial superantigens. Further examination revealed that this interaction between the virus and human T cells is strengthened in the context of a recently reported rare mutation (D839Y/N/E) from a European strain of SARS-CoV-2. Furthermore, the interfacial region includes selected residues from a motif shared between the SARS viruses from the 2003 and 2019 pandemics, which has intracellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-like character. These data suggest that the SARS-CoV-2 S may act as a superantigen to drive the development of MIS-C as well as cytokine storm in adult TRANS COVID-19 patients, with important implications for the development of therapeutic approaches. SignificanceAlthough children TRANS have been largely spared from severe COVID-19 disease, a rare MESHD hyperinflammatory syndrome MESHD has been described in Europe and the East Coast of the United States, termed Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome MESHD in Children TRANS (MISC). The symptoms and diagnostic lab values of MIS-C resemble those of toxic shock MESHD shock HP, typically caused by pathogenic superantigens stimulating excessive activation of the adaptive immune system. We show that SARS-CoV-2 spike has a sequence and structure motif highly similar to those of bacterial superantigens, and may directly bind to the T cell receptors. This sequence motif, not present in other coronaviruses, may explain the unique potential for SARS-CoV-2 to cause both MIS-C and the cytokine storm observed in adult TRANS COVID-19 patients.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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