Corpus overview


MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Pneumonia (321)

Fever (181)

Cough (115)

Respiratory distress (101)

Hypertension (99)


age categories (657)

Transmission (540)

asymptotic cases (280)

gender (276)

fomite (208)

    displaying 1 - 10 records in total 3153
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    Review of Infective Dose, Routes of Transmission TRANS, and Outcome of COVID-19 Caused by the SARS-CoV-2 Virus MESHD: Comparison with Other Respiratory Viruses MESHD

    Authors: Sedighe Karimzadeh; Raj Bhopal; Huy Nguyen Tien

    id:202007.0613/v2 Date: 2020-10-22 Source:

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is pandemic. Prevention and control strategies require an improved understanding of SARS-CoV-2 dynamics. We did a rapid review of the literature on SARS-CoV-2 viral dynamics with a focus on infective dose. We sought comparisons of SARS-CoV-2 with other respiratory viruses including SARS-CoV-1 and MERS-CoV. We examined laboratory animal, and human studies. The literature on infective dose, transmission TRANS, and routes of exposure was limited specially in humans, and varying endpoints were used for measurement of infection MESHD. We propose the minimum infective dose of COVID-19 in humans, is higher than 100 particles, possibly slightly lower than the 700 particles estimated for H1N1 influenza. Despite variability in animal studies, there was some evidence that increased dose at exposure correlated with higher viral load clinically, and severer symptoms. Higher viral load measures did not reflect COVID-19 severity. Aerosol transmission TRANS seemed to raise the risk of more severe respiratory complications in animals. An accurate quantitative estimate of the infective dose of SARS-CoV-2 in humans is not currently feasible and needs further research. Further work is also required on the relationship between routes of transmission TRANS, infective dose, co-infection MESHD, and outcomes.

    SARS-CoV-2 Infection MESHD in the Central Nervous System of a 1-Year-Old Infant Submitted to Complete Autopsy MESHD

    Authors: Ismael Carlos Gomes; Karina Karmirian; Julia Oliveira; Carolina Pedrosa; Fernando Colonna Rosman; Leila Chimelli; Stevens Rehen

    id:202009.0297/v3 Date: 2020-10-22 Source:

    Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was initially characterized as a respiratory illness MESHD. Neurological manifestations were reported mostly in severely affected patients. Routes for brain infection MESHD and the presence of virus particles in situ have not been well described, raising controversy about how the virus causes neurological symptoms. Here, we report the autopsy findings of a 1-year old infant with COVID-19. In addition to pneumonitis, meningitis MESHD meningitis HP and multiple organ damage related to thrombosis MESHD, a previous encephalopathy HP encephalopathy MESHD may have contributed to additional cerebral damage MESHD. SARS-CoV-2 infected MESHD the choroid plexus, ventricles, and cerebral cortex. This is the first evidence of SARS-CoV-2 detection in an infant post-mortem brain.

    Immunogenicity of a new gorilla adenovirus vaccine candidate for COVID-19

    Authors: Alessandra Vitelli Sr.; Stefania Capone Sr.; Angelo Raggioli; Michela Gentile; Simone Battella; Armin Lahm; Andrea Sommella; Alessandra Maria Contino; Richard A Urbanowicz; Romina Scala; Federica Barra; Adriano Leuzzi; Eleonora Lilli; Giuseppina Miselli; Alessia Noto; Maria Ferraiuolo; Francesco Talotta; Theocharis Tsoleridis; Silvia Meschi; Marco Soriani; Antonella Folgori; Jonathan K Ball; Stefano Colloca

    doi:10.1101/2020.10.22.349951 Date: 2020-10-22 Source: bioRxiv

    The COVID-19 pandemic caused by the emergent SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus threatens global public health and there is an urgent need to develop safe and effective vaccines. Here we report the generation and the preclinical evaluation of a novel replication-defective gorilla adenovirus-vectored vaccine encoding the pre-fusion stabilized Spike (S) protein of SARS-CoV2. We show that our vaccine candidate, GRAd-COV2, is highly immunogenic both in mice and macaques, eliciting both functional antibodies which neutralize SARS-CoV-2 SERO SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD and block Spike protein binding to the ACE2 receptor, and a robust, Th1-dominated cellular response in the periphery and in the lung. We show here that the pre-fusion stabilized Spike antigen is superior to the wild type in inducing ACE2-interfering, SARS-CoV2 neutralizing antibodies SERO. To face the unprecedented need for vaccine manufacturing at massive scale, different GRAd genome deletions were compared to select the vector backbone showing the highest productivity in stirred tank bioreactors. This preliminary dataset identified GRAd-COV2 as a potential COVID-19 vaccine candidate, supporting the translation of GRAd-COV2 vaccine in a currently ongoing Phase I clinical trial (NCT04528641).

    Broad transcriptional dysregulation of brain and choroid plexus cell types with COVID-19

    Authors: Andrew Chris Yang; Fabian Kern; Patricia M Losada; Christina A Maat; Georges Schmartz; Tobias Fehlmann; Nicholas Schaum; Davis P Lee; Kruti Calcuttawala; Ryan T Vest; David Gate; Daniela Berdnik; M. Windy McNerney; Divya Channappa; Inma Cobos; Nicole Ludwig; Walter J. Schulz-Schaeffer; Andreas Keller; Tony Wyss-Coray; Marco Soriani; Antonella Folgori; Jonathan K Ball; Stefano Colloca

    doi:10.1101/2020.10.22.349415 Date: 2020-10-22 Source: bioRxiv

    Though SARS-CoV-2 primarily targets the respiratory system, it is increasingly appreciated that patients may suffer neurological symptoms of varied severity. However, an unbiased understanding of the molecular processes across brain cell types that could contribute to these symptoms in COVID-19 patients is still missing. Here, we profile 47,678 droplet-based single-nucleus transcriptomes from the frontal cortex and choroid plexus across 10 non-viral, 4 COVID-19, and 1 influenza patient. We complement transcriptomic data with immunohistochemical staining for the presence of SARS-CoV-2. We find that all major cortex parenchymal and choroid plexus cell types are affected transcriptionally with COVID-19. This arises, in part, from SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD of the cortical brain vasculature, meninges, and choroid plexus MESHD, stimulating increased inflammatory signaling into the brain. In parallel, peripheral immune cells infiltrate the brain, microglia activate programs mediating the phagocytosis of live neurons, and astrocytes dysregulate genes involved in neurotransmitter homeostasis. Among neurons, layer 2/3 excitatory neurons--evolutionarily expanded in humans--show a specific downregulation of genes encoding major SNARE and synaptic vesicle components, predicting compromised synaptic transmission TRANS. These perturbations are not observed in terminal influenza. Many COVID-19 gene expression changes are shared with those in chronic brain disorders MESHD and reside in genetic variants associated with cognitive function, schizophrenia HP schizophrenia MESHD, and depression MESHD. Our findings and public dataset provide a molecular framework and new opportunities to understand COVID-19 related neurological disease MESHD.

    Prevalence SERO of antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 SERO in healthy blood SERO donors in New York

    Authors: Kathy Kamath; Elisabeth Baum-Jones; Gregory Jordan; Winston Haynes; Rebecca Waitz; John Shon; Steve Kujawa; Lyn Fitzgibbons; Debra Kessler; Larry L Luchsinger; - Yale IMPACT Team; Patrick Daugherty; Shershah Assadullah; Matthew Leung; Aisling O'Neill; Chhaya Popat; Radhika Kumar; Thomas J Humphries; Rebecca Talbutt; Sarika Raghunath; Philip L Molyneaux; Miriam Schechter; Jeremy Lowe; Andrew Barlow

    doi:10.1101/2020.10.19.20215368 Date: 2020-10-21 Source: medRxiv

    ABSTRACT Despite the high level of morbidity and mortality worldwide, there is increasing evidence for asymptomatic TRANS carriers TRANS of the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. We analyzed blood SERO specimens from 1,559 healthy blood SERO donors, collected in the greater New York metropolitan area between the months of March and July 2020 for antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 SERO virus. Using our proprietary technology, SERA ( Serum SERO Epitope Repertoire Analysis), we observed a significant increase in SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity rates over the four-month period, from 0% [95% CI: 0 - 1.5%] (March) to 11.6% [6.0 - 21.2%] (July). Follow-up ELISA SERO tests using S1 and nucleocapsid viral proteins confirmed most of these results. Our findings are consistent with seroprevalence SERO studies within the region and with reports that SARS-COV-2 infections MESHD can be asymptomatic TRANS or cause only mild symptoms. IMPORTANCE The COVID-19 pandemic, caused by the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, has caused vast morbidity and mortality worldwide, yet several studies indicate that there may be a significant number of infected people MESHD who are asymptomatic TRANS or exhibit mild symptoms. In this study, samples were collected from healthy blood SERO donors in a region of rapidly increasing disease burden (New York metropolitan area) and we hypothesized that a subset would be seropositive to SARS-CoV-2. People who experienced mild or no symptoms during SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD may represent a source for convalescent plasma SERO donors.

    From multiplex serology to serolomics: A novel approach to the antibody SERO response against the SARS-CoV-2 proteome

    Authors: Julia Butt; Rajagopal Murugan; Theresa Hippchen; Sylvia Olberg; Monique van Straaten; Hedda Wardemann; Erec Stebbins; Hans-Georg Kraeusslich; Ralf Bartenschlager; Hermann Brenner; Vibor Laketa; Ben Schoettker; Barbara Mueller; Uta Merle; Tim Waterboer; James Watmough; Jude Dzevela Kong; Iain Moyles; Huaiping Zhu

    doi:10.1101/2020.10.19.20214916 Date: 2020-10-21 Source: medRxiv

    Background: The emerging SARS-CoV-2 pandemic entails an urgent need for specific and sensitive high-throughput serological assays SERO to assess SARS-CoV-2 epidemiology. We therefore aimed at developing a fluorescent-bead based SARS-CoV-2 multiplex serology assay for detection of antibody SERO responses to the SARS-CoV-2 proteome. Methods: Proteins of the SARS-CoV-2 proteome and protein N of SARS-CoV-1 and common cold Coronaviruses (ccCoVs) were recombinantly expressed in E. coli or HEK293 cells. Assay performance SERO was assessed in a Covid-19 case cohort (n=48 hospitalized patients from Heidelberg) as well as n=85 age TRANS- and sex-matched pre-pandemic controls from the ESTHER study. Assay validation included comparison with home-made immunofluorescence and commercial Enzyme-linked immunosorbent ( ELISA) assays SERO. Results: A sensitivity SERO of 100% (95% CI: 86%-100%) was achieved in Covid-19 patients 14 days post symptom onset TRANS with dual sero-positivity to SARS-CoV-2 N MESHD and the receptor-binding domain of the spike protein. The specificity obtained with this algorithm was 100% (95% CI: 96%-100%). Antibody SERO responses to ccCoVs N were abundantly high and did not correlate with those to SARS-CoV-2 N MESHD. Inclusion of additional SARS-CoV-2 proteins as well as separate assessment of immunoglobulin (Ig) classes M, A, and G allowed for explorative analyses regarding disease progression and course of antibody SERO response. Conclusion: This newly developed SARS-CoV-2 multiplex serology assay achieved high sensitivity SERO and specificity to determine SARS-CoV-2 sero-positivity. Its high throughput ability allows epidemiologic SARS-CoV-2 research in large population-based studies. Inclusion of additional pathogens into the panel as well as separate assessment of Ig isotypes will furthermore allow addressing research questions beyond SARS-CoV-2 sero- prevalence SERO.

    Innate Immune Response Modulation and Resistance to SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD: A Prospective Comparative Cohort Study in High Risk Healthcare Workers

    Authors: Dr Sarita Rani Jaiswal; Anupama Mehta; Dr. Gitali Bhagwati; Mr. Rohit Lakhchaura; Dr. Hemamalini Aiyer; Dr. Bakulesh M Khamar; Dr. Suparno Chakrabarti; Ineke Welschen; Petra Van Mechelen; Suzan Pas; Jan Kluytmans; Patrick Daugherty; Shershah Assadullah; Matthew Leung; Aisling O'Neill; Chhaya Popat; Radhika Kumar; Thomas J Humphries; Rebecca Talbutt; Sarika Raghunath; Philip L Molyneaux; Miriam Schechter; Jeremy Lowe; Andrew Barlow

    doi:10.1101/2020.10.20.20214965 Date: 2020-10-21 Source: medRxiv

    To evaluate ability of modulated innate immune response to provide resistance to development of symptomatic RT-PCR confirmed COVID-19, 96 inpatient front line health care workers (HCW) were cohorted in 1:2 ratio to receive TLR2 agonist (heat killed Mycobacterium w, Mw; n=32) as innate immune response modulator or observation (n=64). All were followed up for 100 days. The incidence of COVID-19 was 31 (32.3%) for the entire cohort, with only one developing COVID-19 in Mw group (3.1% vs 46.8%. protective efficacy - 93.33%, p=0.0001; 95% CI 53.3-99.1). Self-limiting local injection site reaction was the only side effect and was seen in 14 HCW. Findings from the study suggest the potential for providing resistance against novel pathogen like SARS-CoV-2 by modulating innate immune response.

    City-level SARS-CoV-2 sewage surveillance

    Authors: Karin Yaniv; Marilou Shagan; Esti Kramarsky-Winter; Victoria Indenbaum; Merav Weil; Michal Elul; Oran Erster; Alin Sela Brown; Ella Mendelson; Batya Mannasse; Rachel Shirazi; Satish Lakkakula; Oren Miron; Ehud Rinott; Ricardo Gilead Baibich; Iris Bigler; Matan Malul; Rotem Rishti; Asher Brenner; Yair E. Lewis; Eran Friedler; Yael Gilboa; Sara Sabach; Yuval Alfiya; Uta Cheruti; Nadav Davidovitch; Natalya Bilenko; Jacob Moran-Gilad; Yakir Berchenko; Itay Bar-Or; Ariel Kushmaro; Timothy Spector; Claire J Steves

    doi:10.1101/2020.10.19.20215244 Date: 2020-10-21 Source: medRxiv

    The COVID-19 pandemic created a global crisis impacting not only healthcare systems, but also world economies and society. Recent data have indicated that fecal shedding of SARS-CoV-2 is common, and that viral RNA can be detected in wastewater. This suggests that wastewater monitoring is a potentially efficient tool for both epidemiological surveillance, and early warning for SARS-CoV-2 circulation at the population level. In this study we sampled an urban wastewater infrastructure in the city of Ashkelon, Israel, during the end of the first COVID-19 wave in May 2020 when the number of infections MESHD seemed to be waning. We were able to show varying presence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in wastewater from several locations in the city during two sampling periods. This was expressed as a new index, Normalized Viral Load (NVL), which can be used in different area scales to define levels of virus activity such as red (high) or green (no), and to follow morbidity in the population at tested area. Our index showed the rise in viral load between the two sampling periods (one week apart) and indicated an increase in morbidity that was evident a month later in the population. Thus, this methodology may provide an early indication for SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD outbreak in a population before an outbreak is clinically apparent.


    Authors: Valeria Oliveira Silva; Elaine Lopes de Oliveira; Marcia Jorge Castejon; Rosemeire Yamashiro; Cintia Mayumi Ahagon; Giselle Ibette Lopez-Lopes; Edilene Peres Real da Silveira; Marisa Ailin Hong; Maria do Carmo Timenetsky; Carmem aparecida de Freitas Oliveira; Luis Fernando de Macedo Brigido; Satish Lakkakula; Oren Miron; Ehud Rinott; Ricardo Gilead Baibich; Iris Bigler; Matan Malul; Rotem Rishti; Asher Brenner; Yair E. Lewis; Eran Friedler; Yael Gilboa; Sara Sabach; Yuval Alfiya; Uta Cheruti; Nadav Davidovitch; Natalya Bilenko; Jacob Moran-Gilad; Yakir Berchenko; Itay Bar-Or; Ariel Kushmaro; Timothy Spector; Claire J Steves

    doi:10.1101/2020.10.19.20213421 Date: 2020-10-21 Source: medRxiv

    Background: Covid-19 Serology may document exposure and perhaps protection to the virus, and serological test SERO may help understand epidemic dynamics. To evaluate previous exposure to the virus we estimated the prevalence SERO of antibodies SERO against-SARS-CoV-2 among HPs in Adolfo Lutz Institute, State of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Methods: This study was performed among professionals of Adolfo Lutz Institute in Sao Paulo, Brazil and some administrative areas of the Secretary of Health that shares common areas with the institute. We used a lateral flow immunoassay SERO ( rapid test SERO) to detect IgG and IgM for SARS-CoV-2; positive samples were further evaluated using Roche Electrochemiluminescence assay and SARS-CoV-2 RNA by real time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was also offered to participants. Results: A total of 406 HPs participated. Thirty five (8.6%) tested positive on rapid test SERO and 32 these rapid test SERO seropositive cases were confirmed TRANS by ECLIA.. 43 HPs had SARS-CoV-2 RNA detected at a median of 33 days, and the three cases not reactive at Roche ECLIA had a previous positive RNA. Outsourced professionals (34% seropositive), males TRANS (15%) workers referring COVID-19 patients at home (22%) and those living farther form the institute tended to have higher prevalence SERO of seropositivity, but in multivariable logistic analysis only outsourced workers and those with COVID patients at home remained independently associated to seropositivity. We observed no relation of seropositivity to COVID samples handling. Presence of at least one symptom was common but some clinical manifestations as anosmia HP anosmia MESHD/dysgeusia. Fatigue HP, cough HP cough MESHD and fever HP fever MESHD were associated to seropositivity. Conclusions: We documented a relatively high (8.6%) of anti-SARS-CoV-2 serological reactivity in this population, with higher rates among outsourced workers and those with referring cohabitation with COVID-19 patients. COVID samples handling was not related to increased seropositivity. Some symptoms how strong association to COVID-19 serology and may be used in scoring tools for screening or diagnosis in resort limited settings.

    Could nutrition modulate COVID-19 susceptibility and severity of disease? A systematic review

    Authors: Federico Salfi; Giulia Amicucci; Domenico Corigliano; Aurora D'Atri; Lorenzo Viselli; Daniela Tempesta; Michele Ferrara; Marisa Ailin Hong; Maria do Carmo Timenetsky; Carmem aparecida de Freitas Oliveira; Luis Fernando de Macedo Brigido; Satish Lakkakula; Oren Miron; Ehud Rinott; Ricardo Gilead Baibich; Iris Bigler; Matan Malul; Rotem Rishti; Asher Brenner; Yair E. Lewis; Eran Friedler; Yael Gilboa; Sara Sabach; Yuval Alfiya; Uta Cheruti; Nadav Davidovitch; Natalya Bilenko; Jacob Moran-Gilad; Yakir Berchenko; Itay Bar-Or; Ariel Kushmaro; Timothy Spector; Claire J Steves

    doi:10.1101/2020.10.19.20214395 Date: 2020-10-21 Source: medRxiv

    Background: Many nutrients have powerful immunomodulatory actions with the potential to alter susceptibility to COVID-19 infection MESHD, progression to symptoms, likelihood of severe disease and survival. The pandemic has fostered many nutrition-related theories, sometimes backed by a biased interpretation of evidence. Objectives: To provide a systematic review of the latest evidence on how malnutrition HP across all its forms (under- and over-nutrition and micronutrient status) may influence both susceptibility to, and progression and severity of, COVID-19. Methods: We synthesised information on 13 nutrition-related components and their potential interactions with COVID-19: overweight HP, obesity HP obesity MESHD and diabetes MESHD; protein-energy malnutrition MESHD malnutrition HP; anaemia MESHD; vitamins A, C, D, and E; poly-unsaturated fatty acids; iron; selenium; zinc; anti-oxidants, and nutritional support. For each section we provide: a) a landscape review of pertinent material; b) a systematic search of the literature in PubMed and EMBASE databases, including a systematic search of a wide range of pre-print servers; and c) a screen of six clinical trial registries. Two reviewers were assigned per section for data extraction. All original research was considered, without restriction to study design, and included if it covered: 1) SARS-CoV-2, MERS-CoV or SARS-CoV viruses MESHD and 2) disease susceptibility or 3) disease progression, and 4) the nutritional component of interest. Searches took place between 16th May and 11th August, 2020. PROSPERO registration CRD42020186194. Results: Across the 13 searches, a total of 2732 articles from PubMed and EMBASE, 4164 articles from the pre-print servers, and 433 trials were returned. A total of 288 published articles and 278 pre-print articles were taken to full text screening. In the final narrative synthesis, we cover 22 published articles, 39 pre-print articles and 79 trials. The review highlights a range of mechanistic and observational evidence to highlight the role nutrition can play in susceptibility and progression of COVID-19. However, to date, there is limited evidence that high-dose supplements of micronutrients will either prevent severe disease or speed up recovery, although results of clinical trials are eagerly awaited. Conclusions: To date there is no conclusive evidence supporting adoption of novel nutritional therapies. However, given the known impacts of all forms of malnutrition HP on the immune system, public health strategies to reduce micronutrient deficiencies and undernutrition remain of critical importance. There is strong evidence that prevention of obesity HP obesity MESHD, and its consequent type-2 diabetes MESHD, will reduce the risk of serious COVID-19 outcomes.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype

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