Corpus overview


Overview

MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Transmission

Seroprevalence
    displaying 11 - 20 records in total 1342
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    Application of Optimal Control to Long Term Dynamics of COVID-19 Disease MESHD in South Africa

    Authors: Farai Nyabadza; Williams Chukwu; Faraimunashe Chirove; fatmawati fatmawati; Princess Gatyeni

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.10.20172049 Date: 2020-08-11 Source: medRxiv

    SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) belongs to the beta-coronavirus family, these include; the severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and the Middle East respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus (MERS-CoV). Since its resurgence in South Africa in March 2020, it has lead to high mortality and thousands of people contracting the virus. In this study, we use a set of five differential equations to analyse the effects on long term dynamics of COVID-19 pandemic with optimal control measures. Mathematical analyses of the model without control were done and the basic reproduction number TRANS ( R0 TRANS) of the COVID-19 for the South African epidemic determined. The model steady states were also determined, and their analyses presented based on R0 TRANS: We introduced permissible control measures and formulated an optimal control problem using the Pontraygain Maximum Principle. Our numerical findings suggest that joint implementation of effective mask usage, physical distancing and active screening and testing are effective measures to curtail the spread of the disease TRANS disease on undiagnosed MESHD humans. The results obtained in this paper are of public health importance in the control and management of the spread for the novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, in South Africa.

    Structural insights into spike protein and its natural variants of SARS-CoV-2 found on Mexican population.

    Authors: Yudibeth Sixto-López; Martiniano Bello; José Correa-Basurto; Jose Antonio Garzón-Tiznado; Sarita Montaño

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-57627/v1 Date: 2020-08-11 Source: ResearchSquare

    The severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a newly emerged coronavirus responsible for COVID-19; it becomes a pandemic since March 2020. To date, there are described three lineages of SARS-CoV-2 circulating worldwide, in Mexican population are found two of them, within this, we observed three variants of Spike (S) protein located at H49Y, D614G, and T573I. In order to understand if these mutations could affect the structural behavior of S protein of SARS-CoV-2, as well as the binding with three experimental describe inhibitors (Cepharanthine, Nelfinavir, and Hydroxychloroquine), molecular dynamic simulation and molecular docking were employed. It was found that in spite, these punctual mutations affect considerably the structural behavior of the S Protein, which also affect the binding of the inhibitors into their respective binding site. Thus, further experimental studies need to be done in order to explore if these affectations have an impact on drug-S protein binding and the possible clinical effect.

    Surprising protective mechanisms against severe forms of COVID-19 infection MESHD among Common Variable Immunodeficiency MESHD Immunodeficiency HP Patients- one center experience.

    Authors: Carina Petricau; Irena Nedelea; Diana Deleanu

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-57542/v1 Date: 2020-08-11 Source: ResearchSquare

    In this report we aimed to present the nonthreatening experience of patients diagnosed with Common variable immunodeficiency MESHD immunodeficiency HP (CVID) included in the National Rare Disease MESHD Program registry and consulted at the Immunology department of the Regional Institute of Gastroenterology and Hepatology “Prof Dr. Octavian Fodor” during the Coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic as well as to review the current understanding of COVID-19 immunopathology followed by possible protective mechanisms against severe infection HP infection MESHD in these highly susceptible individuals. We report clinical and laboratory results of patients in a single-center retrospective study after lockdown restrictions were partially lifted (May-June 2020) and patients were able to come into the hospital for routine check-up and immunoglobulin replacement treatment. Of the 49 patients consulted during this period, we identified only one asymptomatic TRANS patient with severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection MESHD, supporting recently published data that not all immune compromised patients are at increased risk. According to recent publications the virus induces an inflammatory response leading to a cytokine storm responsible for severe complications. CVID patients seem to be protected from severe forms of this severe virus through reduced viral susceptibility, deficient B lymphocyte response, loss of Interleukin-6 (IL-6) receptor and impaired toll-like receptor pathway activation. Despite being at high risk for other infectious disease MESHD, in the context of SARS-CoV-2 induced pandemic, CVID patient’s lack of immune response is their protection against the dangerous macrophage hyper-activation resulting cytokine storm consequences. 

    Petabase-scale sequence alignment catalyses viral discovery

    Authors: Robert C Edgar; Jeff Taylor; Tomer Altman; Pierre Barbera; Dmitry Meleshko; Victor Lin; Dan Lohr; Gherman Novakovsky; Basem Al-Shayeb; Jill Banfield; Anton Korobeynikov; Rayan Chikhi; Artem Babaian

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.07.241729 Date: 2020-08-10 Source: bioRxiv

    Public sequence data represents a major opportunity for viral discovery, but its exploration has been inhibited by a lack of efficient methods for searching this corpus, which is currently at the petabase scale and growing exponentially. To address the ongoing pandemic caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome MESHD Coronavirus 2 and expand the known sequence diversity of viruses, we aligned pangenomes for coronaviruses (CoV) and other viral families to 5.6 petabases of public sequencing data from 3.8 million biologically diverse samples. To implement this strategy, we developed a cloud computing architecture, `Serratus`, tailored for ultra-high throughput sequence alignment at the petabase scale. From this search, we identified and assembled thousands of CoV and CoV-like genomes and genome fragments ranging from known strains to putatively novel genera. We generalise this strategy to other viral families, identifying several novel deltaviruses and huge bacteriophages. To catalyse a new era of viral discovery we made millions of viral alignments and family identifications freely available to the research community (https://serratus.io). Expanding the known diversity and zoonotic reservoirs of CoV and other emerging pathogens can accelerate vaccine and therapeutic developments for the current pandemic, and help us anticipate and mitigate future ones.

    Potential Phytopharmaceutical Constituents of Solanum Trilobatum L. as Significant Inhibitors Against COVID-19: Robust-Binding Mode of Inhibition by Molecular Docking, PASS-Aid Bioactivity and ADMET Investigations

    Authors: Shanmugam Anandakumar; Damodharan Kannan; Eugene Wilson; Kasthuri Bai Narayanan; Ganesan Suresh; Kadarkarai Kanakavalli; Muthu Tamizh Manoharan

    doi:10.26434/chemrxiv.12781754.v1 Date: 2020-08-10 Source: ChemRxiv

    The novel coronavirus is better known as COVID–19 caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome MESHD Corona–Virus 2 (SARS–CoV–2) which initially outburst at Wuhan in China on December 2019 and spread very rapidly around the globe. Scientists from the global regions endeavours to still probe for detecting potential treatment and discover effective therapeutic drug candidates for this unabated pandemic. In our article, we reported the molecular docking, bioactivity score, ADME and toxicity prediction of the phytoconstituents of Solanum trilobatum Linn. such as Solanidine, Solasodine and a–Solanine as potential inhibitors against the main protease (Mpro) of SARS–CoV–2 tropism. The molecular docking of Solanidine, Solasodine and a–Solanine has revealed that it bounded deep into the active cavity site on the Mpro. Further, the pharmacodynamics and bioactivity profile has confirmed that the molecules obeyed the Lipinski’s rule and will be used as notably treasured lead drug candidates to pursue further biochemical and cell–based assays to explore its potential against COVID–19 pandemic. Thus, envisioning thought–provoking research certainly provide new leads for the global researchers.

    A single-cell mathematical model of SARS-CoV-2 induced pyroptosis and the anti-inflammatory response to the drug tranilast

    Authors: Sara J Hamis; Fiona R Macfarlane

    id:2008.04172v1 Date: 2020-08-10 Source: arXiv

    Pyroptosis is an inflammatory mode of cell death MESHD that contributes to the cytokine storm associated with severe cases of coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19). Central to pyroptosis induced by severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the formation of the NLRP3 inflammasome. Inflammasome formation, and by extension pyroptosis, may be inhibited by certain anti-inflammatory drugs. One such drug, tranilast, is currently being evaluated as a COVID-19 treatment target in a clinical trial. In this study, we present a single-cell mathematical model that captures the formation of the NLRP3 inflammasome, pyroptotic cell death MESHD and drug-responses to tranilast. The model is formulated in terms of a system of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) that describe the dynamics of proteins involved in pyroptosis. The model demonstrates that tranilast delays the formation of the NLRP3 inflammasome, and thus may alter the mode of cell death MESHD from inflammatory (pyroptosis) to non-inflammatory (e.g., apoptosis).

    Nonstructural protein 1 of SARS-CoV-2 is a potent pathogenicity factor redirecting host protein synthesis machinery toward viral RNA.

    Authors: Shuai Yuan; Lei Peng; Jonathan J. Park; Yingxia Hu; Swapnil C. Devarkar; Matthew B. Dong; Shenping Wu; Sidi Chen; Ivan Lomakin; Yong Xiong

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.09.243451 Date: 2020-08-10 Source: bioRxiv

    The COVID-19 pandemic affects millions of people worldwide with a rising death MESHD toll. The causative agent, severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), uses its nonstructural protein 1 (Nsp1) to redirect host translation machinery to the viral RNA by binding to the ribosome and suppressing cellular, but not viral, protein synthesis through yet unknown mechanisms. We show here that among all viral proteins, Nsp1 has the largest impact on host viability in the cells of human lung origin. Differential expression analysis of mRNA-seq data revealed that Nsp1 broadly alters the transcriptome in human cells. The changes include repression of major gene clusters in ribosomal RNA processing, translation, mitochondria function, cell cycle and antigen presentation; and induction of factors in transcriptional regulation. We further gained a mechanistic understanding of the Nsp1 function by determining the cryo-EM structure of the Nsp1-40S ribosomal subunit complex, which shows that Nsp1 inhibits translation by plugging the mRNA entry channel of the 40S. We also determined the cryo-EM structure of the 48S preinitiation complex (PIC) formed by Nsp1, 40S, and the cricket paralysis MESHD paralysis HP virus (CrPV) internal ribosome entry site (IRES) RNA, which shows that this 48S PIC is nonfunctional due to the incorrect position of the 3 region of the mRNA. Results presented here elucidate the mechanism of host translation inhibition by SARS-CoV-2, provide insight into viral protein synthesis, and furnish a comprehensive understanding of the impacts from one of the most potent pathogenicity factors of SARS-CoV-2. HighlightsORF screen identified Nsp1 as a major cellular pathogenicity factor of SARS-CoV-2 Nsp1 broadly alters the gene expression programs in human cells Nsp1 inhibits translation by blocking mRNA entry channel Nsp1 prevents physiological conformation of the 48S PIC

    Assessment of Musculoskeletal Pain MESHD Pain HP, Fatigue MESHD Fatigue HP and Grip Strength in Hospitalized Patients with COVID-19

    Authors: Sansin Tuzun; Aslinur Keles; dilara okutan; Tugbay Yildiran; Deniz Palamar

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-56548/v1 Date: 2020-08-10 Source: ResearchSquare

    IMPORTANCE Coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) is an emerging disease MESHD that was declared as a pandemic by WHO. Although there are many retrospective studies to present clinical aspects of the COVID-19, still the involvement of the musculoskeletal system has not been deeply investigated.OBJECTIVE To classify the symptoms of musculoskeletal system in COVID-19 patients, to evaluate myalgia MESHD myalgia HP, arthralgia MESHD arthralgia HP and physical/ mental fatigue MESHD fatigue HP, to assess handgrip muscle strength, and to examine the relationship of these parameters with the severity and laboratory values of the disease MESHD. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS This cross-sectional study was performed at the IUC-Cerrahpaşa Pandemic Clinic. Hospitalized 150 adults TRANS with laboratory and radiological confirmation of severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) according to WHO interim guidance were included in the study. Data were recorded from May 15,2020, to June 30, 2020.MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Demographic data, comorbidities, musculoskeletal symptoms, laboratory findings and CT scans were recorded. To determine the disease MESHD severity 2007 idsa/ats guidelines for community acquired pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP was used. Myalgia MESHD Myalgia HP severity was calculated by numerical rating scale (NRS). Visual analog scale and Chalder Fatigue MESHD Fatigue HP Scale (CFS) were used for fatigue MESHD fatigue HP severity determination. Handgrip strength (HGS) was measured by Jamar hand dynamometer.RESULTS 103 patients (68.7%) were nonsevere and 47 patients (31.3%) were severe. The most common musculoskeletal symptom was fatigue MESHD fatigue HP (133 [85.3%]), followed by myalgia MESHD myalgia HP (102 [68.0%]), arthralgia MESHD arthralgia HP (65 [43.3%]) and back pain MESHD back pain HP (33 [22.0%]). Arthralgia MESHD Arthralgia HP, which was mostly notable at wrist (25 [16.7%]), ankle (24 [16.0%]) and knee (23 [15.3%]) joints, showed significant correlation with disease MESHD severity. There was severe myalgia MESHD myalgia HP according to NRS regardless of disease MESHD severity. The physical fatigue MESHD fatigue HP severity score was significantly higher in severe cases, whereas no relationship was found with mental fatigue MESHD fatigue HP score. Female patients with severe infection HP infection MESHD had lower grip strength with a mean value of 18.26 kg (P= .010) in dominant hand, whereas no relationship was found between disease MESHD severity and grip strength in male TRANS patients, but the mean values in both genders TRANS and in decades appears below the specified normative values. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) level and lymphocyte count were significantly correlated with lower grip strength. LDH, C-reactive protein (CRP) and D-dimer levels were above the normal range in patients with myalgia MESHD myalgia HP, arthralgia MESHD arthralgia HP and fatigue MESHD fatigue HP. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Musculoskeletal symptoms are quite common aside from other multi-systemic symptoms in patients with COVID-19. Arthralgia MESHD Arthralgia HP, which is related to the disease MESHD severity, should be considered apart from myalgia MESHD myalgia HP. COVID-19 patients have severe ischemic myalgia MESHD myalgia HP regardless of the disease MESHD activity. Although there is a muscle weakness MESHD muscle weakness HP in all patients, the loss of muscle function is related with the disease MESHD activity especially in women. Muscular involvement in coronavirus disease MESHD is a triangle of myalgia MESHD myalgia HP, physical fatigue MESHD fatigue HP, and functional impairment.

    Knowledge and attitude of dentists, dental auxiliaries, and students regarding the COVID-19 pandemic in Saudi Arabia: A Cross-Sectional Survey

    Authors: Suliman Yousif Shahin; Amr Said Bugshan; Khalid Salman Almulhim; Mishali Saud AlSharief; Yousif Al Dulaijan; Faisal Dhaifallah Alqarni

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-57059/v1 Date: 2020-08-10 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: This study aimed to assess the knowledge and attitude of dental professionals in Saudi Arabia regarding severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19).Methods: A questionnaire was developed to assess various dental professionals from both governmental and private sectors through online and social media outlets. Results: A total of 1,033 responses were collected. Moreover, 63.4% of respondents (63.4%) were working in hospitals. Of all respondents, 44.9%, 33.4%, and 21.7% were in governmental clinics, academia, and private sector, respectively. Overall knowledge on incubation period TRANS and route of transmission TRANS of SARS-CoV-2 was satisfactory across all dental professions. All dental professionals except for dental assistants demonstrated adequate knowledge on the recommended hand-soap cleaning time (p < 0.001). Most dental professionals displayed unsatisfactory knowledge and disagreement on the survival of SARS-CoV-2 outside the host (p < 0.001). Furthermore, 75.1% of respondents were reluctant to treat a suspected COVID-19 patient, and 92% participants believed that the mode of transmission TRANS was droplet inhalation. Fever MESHD Fever HP, coughing MESHD coughing HP, and shortness of breath were identified as the most common symptoms of COVID-19. Most standard methods of prevention in the dental office were selected by at least 50% of participants. Conclusions: An appropriate level of knowledge on SARS-CoV-2 incubation period TRANS and signs and symptoms MESHD of COVID-19 was noted among all dental professionals in Saudi Arabia. Perceived survival outside the host was modest. A certain level of apprehension toward suspected SARS-CoV-2 patients existed among most professionals. Pandemic-awareness campaigns are essential among healthcare providers.

    The New Normal of ENT OPD - Adapting Safe Practices.

    Authors: Aditya Yeolekar; Sudhir Bhalerao; Maya Bhalerao

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-56938/v1 Date: 2020-08-10 Source: ResearchSquare

    The COVID-19 epidemic originating in China has spread rapidly worldwide and converted to pandemic proportions in March 2020. In India and densely populated countries like Brazil and USA the numbers are still rising. Clinicians all over the world are trying to contain it by minimizing the cross- transmission TRANS of disease MESHD among hospital staff members. In the field of Otorhinolaryngology (ENT) the doctors are exposed to high viral load while examining the patients. Therefore contingency plans are required for dealing with patients in outpatient clinics, and while performing diagnostic endoscopies, minor procedures in OPD and surgeries in operating rooms. Infected patients may shed severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV- 2) particles into their environment via body secretions. Therefore, Otolaryngologists should be vigilant. In this submission, we share our experience of an innovative practice plan in redesigning the ENT OPD setup, endoscopy set up and OT so as to reduce the risk of transmission TRANS of virus not only to doctors but other healthcare workers. We hope that our modifications will serve as a guide for every Otolaryngologist throughout India towards performing their clinical duties confidently without any apprehension and ensuring adequate safety during this testing times in their small set-up/ clinical establishments.

The ZB MED preprint Viewer preVIEW includes all COVID-19 related preprints from medRxiv and bioRxiv, from ChemRxiv, from ResearchSquare, from arXiv and from Preprints.org and is updated on a daily basis (7am CET/CEST).

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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