Corpus overview


MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype


    displaying 651 - 660 records in total 1342
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    In Silico Investigation of Spice Molecules as Potent Inhibitor of SARS-CoV-2

    Authors: Janmejaya Rout; Bikash Chandra Swain; Umakanta Tripathy

    doi:10.26434/chemrxiv.12323615.v1 Date: 2020-05-20 Source: ChemRxiv

    The severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a novel infectious disease MESHD that is in rapid growth. Several trials are going on worldwide to find a solution for this pandemic. The viral replication can be blocked by inhibiting the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein (SARS-CoV-2 Spro), and the SARS-CoV-2 main protease (SARS-CoV-2 Mpro). The binding of potential small molecules to these proteins can possibly inhibit the replication and transcription of the virus. The spice molecules that are used in our food have the properties of antiviral, antifungal, and antimicrobial nature. As spice molecules are consumed in the diet, hence its antiviral properties against SARS-CoV-2 will benefit in a significant manner. Therefore, in this work, the blind molecular docking of 30 selected spice molecules (through ADME property screening) was performed for the identification of potential inhibitors for the Spro and Mpro of SARS-CoV-2. We found that all the molecules bind actively with the SARS-CoV-2 Spro and Mpro. However, the molecule, Piperine, is found to have the highest binding affinity among the 30 screened molecules. We anticipate immediate wet-lab experiments and clinical trials in support of this computational study might be helpful in inhibiting the SARS-CoV-2 virus.

    Performance SERO of progressive and adaptive COVID-19 exit strategies: a stress test analysis for managing intensive care unit rates

    Authors: Jan-Diederik van Wees; Martijn van der Kuip; Sander Osinga; David van Westerloo; Michael Tanck; Maurice Hanegraaf; Maarten Pluymaekers; Olwijn Leeuwenburgh; Lonneke van Bijsterveldt; Pien Verreijdt; Logan Brunner; Marceline Tutu van Furth

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.16.20102947 Date: 2020-05-20 Source: medRxiv

    Background: In May 2020, many European countries have begun to introduce an exit strategy for the coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic which involves relaxing social distancing measures. Predictive epidemiological modeling indicates that chances for resurgence are high. However, parametrization of the epidemiological nature of COVID-19 and the effect of relaxing social distancing is not well constrained, resulting in highly uncertain outcomes in view of managing future intensive care unit (ICU) needs. Methods and findings: For performance SERO analysis of exit strategies we developed an open-source ensemble-based Susceptible-Exposed-Infectious-Removed (SEIR) model. It takes into account uncertainties for the COVID-19 parametrization and social distancing measures. The model is calibrated to data of the outbreak and lockdown phase. For the exit phase, the model includes the capability to activate an emergency MESHD brake, reinstating lockdown conditions. Alternatively, the model uses an adaptive COVID-19 cruise control (ACCC) capable to retain a targeted ICU level. The model is demonstrated for the Netherlands and we analyzed progressive and adaptive exit strategies through a stress test of managing ICU rates. The progressive strategy reflects the outcome of social and economic pressure to use one-way steering toward progressively relaxing measures at an early stage. It is marked by a high probability for the activation of the emergency MESHD brake due to an unsolicited growth of ICU needs in the following months. Alternatively, the two-way steering ACCC can flatten ICU needs in a more gradual way and avoids activation of the emergency MESHD brake. It also performs well for seasonal variation in the reproduction number TRANS of severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD-coronavirus. Conclusions: The adaptive strategy (ACCC) is favored, as it avoids the use of the emergency MESHD brake at the expense of small steps of restrictive measures and allows the exploration of riskier and potentially rewarding measures in the future pathways of the exit strategy.

    Adverse Drug Reactions in COVID-19 Patients: Protocol for a Living Systematic Review

    Authors: Ambrish Singh; Salman Hussain; Dimple A. Mirchandani; Nipun Shrestha; Benny Antony

    doi:10.21203/ Date: 2020-05-20 Source: ResearchSquare

    The novel coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) is a highly infectious disease MESHD with human to human transmission TRANS. The COVID-19 may present with mild, moderate, or severe illness. Currently, no proven effective therapies for COVID-19 exist and no vaccine is available. Various pharmacological treatments are currently being tested for patients with COVID-19. The current living systematic review aims to examine the definition, frequency, nature, and severity of the adverse event (AE)/ adverse drug reaction (ADR) occurring in patients with COVID-19 receiving active pharmacological treatment and to compare it against control groups where available. MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane Central databases will be searched for studies that reported COVID-19 patients receiving treatment for infection MESHD caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) with any pharmacological drugs such as but not limited to, chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, ritonavir, remdesivir, tocilizumab, pirfenidone, etc. Data pertaining to safety parameters like AEs, ADR, serious AEs, serious ADR, treatment non-response, and deterioration of illness will be captured and analysed.

    Ostavimir is ineffective against COVID-19: in silico assessment, in vitro and retrospective study

    Authors: Qi Tan; Yang Jin

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.15.20102392 Date: 2020-05-20 Source: medRxiv

    As a neuraminidase inhibitor, oseltamivir has effectively combated the pandemic influenza A and B, so it is a first-line commonly used antiviral drug, especially in primary hospitals. At the same time, oseltamivir, as an over-the-counter drug, is also a popular antiviral drug. As healthcare workers fighting against coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19), we have found that many patients experiencing discomfort or considered to be infected with a virus take oseltamivir. From severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus (SARS-CoV) in 2003 to middle east respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in 2012, and now the current COVID-19 epidemic, there is not plenty of evidence showing that oseltamivir is effective against coronavirus. Still, there is also no sufficient evidence to refute its ineffectiveness. We cannot predict whether there will be a pandemic of respiratory coronavirus in the future, so we hope to initiate such research and preliminarily explore whether oseltamivir is effective for COVID-19, which can better guide healthcare workers in the selection of appropriate antiviral drugs in the face of coronavirus epidemics. If oseltamivir is effective, then a wide promotion of its application often can achieve a double effect with half the effort. If it is not effective, then considering the side effects of oseltamivir, it is not necessary to use unreasonable drugs that will not slow the progression of the disease MESHD but can cause adverse reactions. We found that oseltamivir is not suitable for fighting against COVID-19 through the method of computer aided drug design and in vitro study and retrospective case study. Meanwhile it was high-occurrence seasons for the influenza, COVID-19 should be highly suspected in patients who did not benefit from oseltamivir. We hope that the result of our study could be shared with the frontline physicians in fighting against COVID-19.


    Authors: yale tung chen; Rafael Llamas Fuentes; Pablo Rodriguez Fuertes

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.15.20103333 Date: 2020-05-20 Source: medRxiv

    INTRODUCTION: Coronavirus Disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) is a highly contagious illness caused by the Severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). There is growing evidence regarding the imaging findings of COVID-19, in Chest X-ray and CT scan, however their availability in this pandemic outbreak might be compromised. At this moment, the role of Point-of-care ultrasonography (POCUS) has yet to be explored. OBJECTIVES: The main purpose of this study is to describe the POCUS findings of the disease MESHD in COVID-19 patients admitted to the emergency MESHD department (ED). Determining the correlation of these parameters with vital signs, laboratory results and chest X-ray, as well as, therapeutic decisions and prognosis. METHODS: Prospective study carried out in the emergency MESHD department (ED) of two academic hospitals. High suspicion or confirmed COVID-19 patients were subjected to the ultrasonographic measurement of the inferior vena cava (IVC), focused cardiac ultrasound (FOCUS), and Lung Ultrasonography (Lung POCUS). RESULTS: Between March and April 2020, ninety-six patients were enrolled. The mean age TRANS was 68.2 years (SD 17.5). The most common finding in Lung POCUS was an irregular pleural line (63.2%) followed by bilateral confluent (55.2%) and isolated B-lines (53.1%), which was associated with a positive RT-PCR (OR 4.729, 95% CI: 1.989-11.246; p<0.001), and correlated with IL-6 levels (rho = 0.622; p = 0.002). The IVC moderately correlated with levels of pO2, expiratory (rho = -0.539; p =0.014) and inspiratory (rho = -0.527; p =0.017), with troponin I (rho = 0.509; p=0.03). After POCUS exam, almost 20% of the patients had an associated condition that required a change in the treatment or management. CONCLUSION: In this pandemic era, as the shortage of resources constitutes an undeniable public health threat, POCUS presents the potential to impact in diagnosis, management and prognosis of our confirmed or suspected COVID-19 patients.

    Ageusia MESHD and Anosmia HP, a Common Aign of COVID-19? A Case Series from Four Countries

    Authors: Jair Vargas-Gandica; Daniel Winter; Rainer Schnippe; Andrea G. Rodriguez-Morales; Johana Mondragon; Juan Pablo Escalera-Antezana; María del Pilar Trelles-Thorne; D. Katterine Bonilla-Aldana; Alfonso J. Rodriguez-Morales; Alberto Paniz-Mondolfi

    id:10.20944/preprints202005.0327.v1 Date: 2020-05-20 Source:

    Over the course of the pandemic due to the severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), multiple new clinical manifestations, as the consequence of the tropism of the virus, have been recognized. That includes now the neurological manifestations and conditions, such as headache MESHD headache HP, encephalitis MESHD encephalitis HP, as well as olfactory and taste disorders MESHD. We present a series of ten cases of RT-PCR confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infected patients diagnosed with viral-associated olfactory and taste loss from four different countries.

    Estimating the cost-of-illness associated with the COVID-19 outbreak in China from January to March 2020

    Authors: Huajie Jin; Haiyin Wang; Xiao Li; Weiwei Zheng; Shanke Ye; Sheng Zhang; Jiahui Zhou; Mark Pennington

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.15.20102863 Date: 2020-05-20 Source: medRxiv

    Background COVID-19, an infectious disease MESHD caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), swept through China in 2019-2020, with over 80,000 confirmed cases TRANS reported by end of March 2020. This study estimates the economic burden of COVID-19 in 31 provincial-level administrative regions in China between January and March 2020. Methods The healthcare and societal cost of COVID-19 was estimated using bottom-up approach. The main cost components included identification, diagnosis and treatment of COVID-19, compulsory quarantine and productivity losses for all affected residents in China during the study period. Input data were obtained from government reports, clinical guidelines, and other published literature. The primary outcomes were total health and societal costs. Costs were reported in both RMB and USD (2019 value). Outcomes The total estimated healthcare and societal cost associated with the outbreak is 4.26 billion RMB (0.62 billion USD) and 2,647 billion RMB (383 billion USD), respectively. The main components of routine healthcare costs are inpatient care (41.0%) and medicines (30.9%). The main component of societal costs is productivity losses (99.8%). Hubei province incurred the highest healthcare cost (83.2%) whilst Guangdong province incurred the highest societal cost (14.6%). Interpretation This review highlights a large economic burden of the recent COVID-19 outbreak in China. These findings will aid policy makers in making informed decisions about prevention and control measures for COVID-19. Funding The author(s) received no financial support for the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article.

    Repositioning of 8565 existing drugs for COVID-19

    Authors: Kaifu Gao; Duc Duy Nguyen; Jiahui Chen; Rui Wang; Guo-Wei Wei

    id:2005.10028v1 Date: 2020-05-20 Source: arXiv

    The coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has infected near 5 million people and led to over 0.3 million deaths MESHD. Currently, there is no specific anti-SARS-CoV-2 medication. New drug discovery typically takes more than ten years. Drug repositioning becomes one of the most feasible approaches for combating COVID-19. This work curates the largest available experimental dataset for SARS-CoV-2 or SARS-CoV main protease inhibitors. Based on this dataset, we develop validated machine learning models with relatively low root mean square error to screen 1553 FDA-approved drugs as well as other 7012 investigational or off-market drugs in DrugBank. We found that many existing drugs might be potentially potent to SARS-CoV-2. The druggability of many potent SARS-CoV-2 main protease inhibitors is analyzed. This work offers a foundation for further experimental studies of COVID-19 drug repositioning.

    SARS-CoV-2 prevalence SERO in an asymptomatic TRANS cancer cohort - results and consequences for clinical routine

    Authors: Sebastian Marschner; Stefanie Corradini; Josefine Rauch; Richard Zacharias; Ana Sujic; Julia Mayerle; Raluca Petru; Béatrice Grabein; Oliver T. Keppler; Edwin Boelke; Claus Belka; Maximilian Niyazi

    doi:10.21203/ Date: 2020-05-20 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background Starting in December 2019, the current pandemic caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD corona virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) confronts the world with an unprecedented challenge. With no vaccine or drug being currently available to control the pandemic spread, prevention and PCR (Polymerase chain reaction) testing becomes a crucial pillar of medical systems. Aim of the present study was to report on the first results of the measures taken in a large German Department of Radiation Oncology, including PCR testing of asymptomatic TRANS cancer patients.Methods Pandemic-adapted hygiene regulations and prevention measures for patients and staff were implemented. A visiting ban on both wards was implemented from the beginning and medical staff and patients were required to wear face masks at all times. The waiting rooms were rearranged to ensure distance between patients of at least 1.5 meters. Clinical follow up was mainly done by telephone and all patients had to complete a questionnaire regarding symptoms and contacts with COVID-19 patients before entering our department. Educational documents were created for patients to raise awareness of symptoms and avoidance strategies for interactions with other people. Indications for therapy and fractionation schemes were adapted when possible. In a subsequent step, all new asymptomatic TRANS patients were tested via nasopharyngeal swab at our screening station shortly before their simulation CT.Results All these measures and implementations have been well accepted. Regarding the PCR testing, only 1 out of 139 asymptomatic TRANS patients of our cohort so far tested positive for SARS-CoV-2, reflecting a prevalence SERO of 0.72% in this cancer patient population. Up to this point no staff members was tested positive. The start of the treatment for the PCR-positive patient was deferred for two weeks.Conclusion Due to the pandemic-adapted implementations, our department seems well prepared during this crisis. The initial screening helps to identify asymptomatic TRANS COVID-19 patients in order to protect other patients and our staff from infection MESHD and the observed PCR prevalence SERO is in line with comparable studies. A regular PCR testing (e.g. twice a week) of all patients and staff would in principle be desirable but is limited due to testing capacities at present.

    CD8+ T cell cross-reactivity against SARS-CoV-2 conferred by other coronavirus strains and influenza virus

    Authors: Hashem Koohy; Chloe Hyun-Jung Lee; Mariana Pereira Pinho; Paul Buckley; Isaac B Woodhouse; Graham Ogg; Alison Simmons; Giorgio Napolitani

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.20.107292 Date: 2020-05-20 Source: bioRxiv

    While individuals infected with coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) manifested a broad range in susceptibility and severity to the disease MESHD, the pre-existing immune memory of related pathogens can influence the disease MESHD outcome. Here, we investigated the potential extent of T cell cross-reactivity against severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) that can be conferred by other coronaviruses and influenza virus, and generated a map of public and private predicted CD8+ T cell epitopes between coronaviruses. Moreover, to assess the potential risk of self-reactivity and/or diminished T cell response for peptides identical or highly similar to the host, we identified predicted epitopes with high sequence similarity with human proteome. Lastly, we compared predicted epitopes from coronaviruses with epitopes from influenza virus deposited in IEDB to support vaccine development against different virus strains. We believe the comprehensive in silico profile of private and public predicted epitopes across coronaviruses and influenza viruses will facilitate design of vaccines capable of protecting against various viral infections MESHD.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype

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