Corpus overview


Overview

MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Transmission

Seroprevalence
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    Value of laboratory tests in COVID-19 hospitalized patients for clinical decision-makers: a predictive model, using data mining approach

    Authors: Atefeh Mousavi; Soheyla Rezaei; Jamshid Salamzadeh; Ali Mirzazadeh; Farzad Peiravian; Nazila Yousefi

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-56252/v1 Date: 2020-08-09 Source: ResearchSquare

    Purpose: Because of the rapid increase in confirmed cases TRANS of COVID-19, in particular those with severe or critical status, overwhelming of health systems is a worldwide concern. Therefore, identifying high-risk COVID-19 patients, can help service providers for priority setting and hospital resource allocation. Methods: 4542 adult TRANS patients with confirmed COVID-19 admitted in 15 hospitals in Tehran, Iran, from Feb 20 to April 18, 2020 were included in this retrospective cohort study with final outcomes of survived and died patients. Demographic features including age TRANS and sex, and laboratory data measured at admission were extracted and compared between recovered and died patients. Data analysis was performed applying SPSS modeler software using a logistic regression method.Results: Of 4542 hospitalized adult TRANS patients, 822 patients (18.09%) died during hospitalization, and 3720 (81.90%) recovered and discharged. Based on logistic regression model, older age TRANS, 40-49 (RR= 1.80, CI: 1.13-2.87), 50-59 (RR=2.63, CI: 1.71-4.02), 60-69 (RR= 4.40, CI: 2.92-6.63), 70-79 (RR=7.49, CI: 5.01-11.19), Above 80 (RR=13.85, CI: 9.23-2.77), ALT ≥ 55 IU/ (RR=2.20, CI: 1.69-2.86), AST ≥ 100 IU/L (RR=5.93, CI: 4.75-7.39), ALP MESHD ≥ 200 IU/L (RR=2.46, CI: 1.80-3.37), sodium < 135 mEq/l (RR=1.69, CI: 1.35-2.11) or more than 145 mEq/l (RR=7.24, CI: 5.07-10.33), potassium > 5.50 mEq/l (RR=7.53, CI: 4.15-13.64), and calcium < 8.50 mEq/l (RR=3.39, CI: 2.81-4.09), CPK between 307-600 IU/L (RR=2.73, CI: 2.12-3.53) and above 600 IU/L (RR=4.41, CI: 3.40-5.71) in men, and 192-400 IU/L (RR=2.73, CI: 2.12-3.53), and above 400 (RR=4.41, CI: 3.40-5.71) in women, CRP > 3 mg/l (RR=3.22, CI: 1.99-5.20), and creatinine > 1.5 mg/l (RR=6.37, CI: 5.30-7.66) were significantly associated with COVID-19 mortality. Conclusion: Our findings suggested less than one in five hospitalized patients with COVID-19 die mostly due to electrolyte disbalance, liver, and renal dysfunctions MESHD. Better supportive care is needed to improve outcomes for patients with COVID-19.

    The Pattern of Liver Dysfunction in Patients with COVID-19: A Retrospective Study

    Authors: Chunyan wang; Yihui Rong; Lei Wei; Huanwei Zheng; Jing Xu; Xiaoxia Niu; Dong Ji

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-42863/v1 Date: 2020-07-14 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background. Information about liver dysfunction MESHD in patients with COVID-19 is scarce. We aimed to explored the pattern and risk factors of liver dysfunction MESHD in patients with COVID-19.Methods. In this retrospective study, we included all consecutive confirmed patients with COVID-19 in Fuyang Second People’s Hospital between January 20 and February 25, 2020 and collected clinical characteristics until discharge. The pattern and risk factors of liver dysfunction MESHD, viral shedding and outcome were analyzed.Results. Totally, 146 patients were analyzed. The median age TRANS was 44.9 years and 54.1% were men, 43.8% patients presented liver dysfunction MESHD (22.6% on admission, 21.2% during hospitalization). The percentage of elevated ALT (15.1% on admission and 24.7% during hospitalization) were significantly higher than ALP MESHD (2.1% on admission and 3.4% during hospitalization) (P < 0.001). Four clinical types were identified, type 1 (persistent normal liver function, 56.2%), type 2 (normal liver function on admission developed to liver dysfunction MESHD during hospitalization, 21.2%), type 3 ( liver dysfunction MESHD on admission restored to normal on discharge, 13.0%) and type 4 (persistent liver dysfunction MESHD, 9.6%). The median duration of viral shedding was 12.0 (type 1), 15.0 (type 2), 14.0 (type 3) and 18.0 (type 4) days (P < 0.001). Prolonged viral shedding and severity were potential risk factors associated with liver dysfunction MESHD. Conclusions. The incidence of liver dysfunction MESHD in patients with COVID-19 is common but not severe, which mainly due to SARS-CoV-2-mediated immune injury on hepatocyte rather than cholangiocyte, DILI and underlying chronic liver disease MESHD should not be neglect. 

    Withanolides from Withania somnifera as an immune booster and their therapeutic option against COVID-19

    Authors: Pukar Khanal; B. M. Patil; Ismail Pasha; Yadu Nandan Dey; Sharad Chand

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-32955/v1 Date: 2020-06-01 Source: ResearchSquare

    Aim: The present study aimed to investigate the withanolides as an immune system booster and anti-viral agents against the coronavirus.Materials and Methods: Reported withanolides from Withinana somnifera were retrieved from the open-source database i.e. ChEBI, PCIDB and Dr. Duke's Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases. Their protein-based targets were predicted using DigepPred and the protein-protein interaction was evaluated using STRING. Similarly, the drug-likeness score of individual compounds was predicted using MolSoft and intestinal absorptivity was predicted using the boiled-egg model. The network among the compounds, proteins, and modulated pathways was constructed using Cytoscape and the docking was performed using autodock4.0.Results: Withanoloid Q was predicted to modulate the highest number of proteins, showed positive human intestinal absorption and had the highest druglikeness score. Similarly, combined network interaction identified withanolide Q to target the highest number of proteins; RAC1 was majorly modulated and regulating Fluid shear stress and atherosclerosis HP atherosclerosis MESHD as a majorly regulated pathway. Similarly, Withanolide D and Withanolide G were predicted to have the better binding affinity with PLpro, Withanolide M with 3clpro, and Withanolide M with spike protein based on binding energy and number of hydrogen bond interactions. Conclusion: Among the multiple withanolides from Withania somnifera, withanolide-D, -G, -M, and -Q were predicted as a lead hit based on druglikeness score, modulated proteins, and docking score to boost immune system and inhibit the COVID infection.

    Early prediction for severe COVID-19 with  hypertension MESHD and intervention

    Authors: Denggao Peng; Yanzhang Gao; Zhenyu Zhou; Huan Wang; Anjue Tang

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-31888/v1 Date: 2020-05-28 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background To identify the early predictors of severe coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) with hypertension HP hypertension MESHD,explore antihypertensive drugs with potential therapeutic effects, and provide a basis for clinical prediction and treatment decisions.Method: A retrospective study was performed on all included cases.Results A total of 68 COVID-19 patients with hypertension HP hypertension MESHD were included,27 (39.7%) was severe and 41 (60.3%) was non-severe. Between the non-severe group (n = 41) and the severe group (n = 27),number of elevated B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) and abnormal renal function MESHD,and albumin,lactate dehydrogenase,ultrasensitive troponin I,PH Value,arterial carbon dioxide partial pressure,sodium,osmotic pressure (OP), blood SERO sugar (BS) and oxygenation index (OI) are significantly different.While age TRANS, male TRANS gender TRANS,comorbidities with diabetes MESHD or atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease MESHD,smoking history,number of abnormal liver function MESHD,heart rate,respiratory rate, blood SERO pressure,white blood SERO cell count,hematocrit,potassium and lactic acid are statistically insignificant.Four independent predictors of BNP (P = .026),OP (P = .004),BS (P = .017) and OI (P = .001) are obtained through multivariate binary logistic regression model.The area under curve (AUC) of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) of model is 0.904 ([95%CI] [0.832–0.976];P = .000),with excellent performance SERO.Compared with blank control group (n = 27) and other antihypertensive drugs group (n = 20),OP ([287.3 ± 5.7] vs [283.5 ± 6.1];P = .045) ([287.3 ± 5.7] vs [281.9 ± 5.4];P = .007) in renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAS) inhibitors group (n = 21) have increased significantly.Compared with controlled blood SERO pressure group (n = 30),OP ([285.7 ± 6.2] vs [282.2 ± 5.2];P = .012) of uncontrolled group (n = 38) increased significantly.Conclusion Decreased OP MESHD and OI, increased BNP and BS are early predictors for severe COVID-19 patients with hypertension HP hypertension MESHD.For poorly controlled blood SERO pressure,targeting RAS MESHD and OP,early use of RAS inhibitors or combination with loop diuretics may be an effective treatment.

    Incidence and consequences of systemic arterial thrombotic MESHD events in COVID-19 patients

    Authors: Estefanía Cantador MD; Alberto Núñez MD; Pilar Sobrino MD; Victoria Espejo MD; Lucía Fabia MD; Lydia Vela MD, PhD; Luis de Benito MD, PhD; Javier Botas MD, PhD, FESC

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-31168/v1 Date: 2020-05-23 Source: ResearchSquare

    A high incidence of thrombotic MESHD events, particularly deep vein thrombosis MESHD and pulmonary embolism HP pulmonary embolism MESHD, has been clearly documented in COVID-19 patients. In addition, small series of patients with coronary, cerebrovascular MESHD and peripheral arterial thrombotic MESHD events have also been reported, but their true incidence and consequences are not well described, and constitute the objective of this study. From February 1st to April 21st, 2020, 2,115 COVID-19 patients were treated at Hospital Universitario Fundación Alcorcón (Madrid, Spain), and 1,419 were eventually admitted. Patient characteristics and outcomes were collected by reviewing their electronic medical records. Fourteen patients had a systemic arterial thrombotic event, which represents a 1% incidence in relation to the total number of hospitalized patients. Three patients suffered an acute coronary syndrome MESHD, two with persistent ST-segment elevation HP, one of whom was treated invasively, and one with transient ST-segment elevation HP. Eight patients had a cerebrovascular event. Six suffered an acute ischemic stroke HP ischemic stroke MESHD and two a transient ischemic attack HP ischemic MESHD attack, 50% of them had a Rankin score ≥3 at discharge. Three additional patients had a limb thrombotic MESHD event, all of them infrapopliteal, and were managed conservatively.  All three cases developed necrosis of the toes MESHD, two of them with bilateral involvement. The hospitalization death rate of patients with an arterial event was 28.6%. Although COVID-19 may favor the occurrence of thrombotic MESHD events, the destabilization and thrombosis of arterial HP thrombosis of arterial MESHD atherosclerotic plaques do not seem to be a frequent mechanism which warrants the need for specific systematic preventive measures.

    The Impact of Coronavirus Disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) on Liver Injury MESHD in China: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    Authors: Xin Zhao; Zehua Lei

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.03.20089557 Date: 2020-05-08 Source: medRxiv

    Abstract Background: The evidence for the incidence and severity of liver injury MESHD in Chinese patients with COVID-19 is still controversial. Aims: The purpose of this study was to summarize the incidence of liver injury MESHD and the differences between liver injury MESHD markers among different patients with COVID-19 in China. Methods: Computer searches of PubMed, Embase, CNKI and medRxiv were used to obtain reports on the incidence and markers of liver injury MESHD in Chinese patients with COVID-19, from January 1, 2020 to April 10, 2020. (No. CRD42020181350) Results: A total of 57 reports from China were included, including 9889 confirmed cases TRANS of COVID-19 infection MESHD. The results of the meta-analysis showed that among the patients with early COVID-19 infection MESHD in China, the incidence of liver injury MESHD events was 24.7% (95% CI, 23.4%-26.4%). Liver injury MESHD in severe patients was more common than that in non-severe patients, with a risk ratio of 2.07 (95% CI, 1.77 to 2.43). Quantitative analysis showed that the severe the coronavirus infection MESHD, the higher the level of AST, ALT, TB, ALP MESHD, GGT and the lower the level of ALB. The changing trend of the appeal index was similar in ICU patients and dead patients. Conclusion: There is a certain risk of liver injury MESHD in Chinese patients with COVID-19, and the risk and degree of liver injury MESHD are related to the severity of COVID-19.

    Active-site Molecular docking of Nigellidine to nucleocapsid/Nsp2/Nsp3/MPro of COVID-19  and to human IL1R and TNFR1/2 may stop viral-growth/cytokine-flood, and the drug source Nigella sativa (black cumin) seeds show potent antioxidant role in experimental rats.

    Authors: Smarajit Maiti; Amrita Banerjee; Aarifa Nazmeen; Mehak Kanwar; Shilpa Das

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-26464/v1 Date: 2020-05-02 Source: ResearchSquare

    The recent outbreak of SARS CoV-2 has changed the global scenario of human lives and economy. In this pandemic-outbreak the ratio of infected person is much higher than the death encountered. Most of the dead patients were observed with dysfunction/failure of cardiac and renal systems MESHD. Beside this a ‘cytokine storm’ namely TNF-α/IL1 receptors i.e. TNFR1/TNFR2/IL1R over-functioning was reported in the infected-persons. Here, nigellidine, an indazole-alkaloid and key-component of Nigella Sativa L. ( NS MESHD); black-cumin-seed, has been analyzed for COVID-19 different protein and TNFα receptors TNFR1/TNFR2 and IL1R inhibition through molecular-docking study and biochemical-study of cumin-seed extract exposure to experimental-rat. The NMR, X-ray-crystallographic or Electron-microscopic structures of COVID-19 Main-protease(6LU7), Spike-glycoprotein(6vsb), NSP2(QHD43415_2), N-terminus-protenase (QHD43415_3), Nucleocapsid(QHD43423) and Human IL1R (1itb), TNFR1 (1ncf), TNFR2 (3alq) from PDB MESHD were retrieved/analyzed for receptor-ligand interaction in normal condition. Then those structures were docked with nigellidine using Autodock-software and Patchdock-server. Where nigellidine showed highest binding-energy of -7.61 (kcal/mol) and ligand-efficiency value of (-0.35) forming bonds with amino acids THR943/LYS945/MET1556/ALA1557/PRO1558/ILE1559. Highest ACE-value of -356.72 was also observed for nigellidine N-terminal-protease interaction. Nigellidine also showed strong interaction with NSP2 (-6.28) and Mpro/3CLpro_Q (-6.38s). Nigellidine showed affinity to TNFR1 (-6.81), IL1R (-6.23) and TNFR2 (-5.16). In rat experiment 2-groups (vehicle and NS treated) of female TRANS Wistar-rats were taken for experiments. The NS treated tissue showed marked decline in ALP MESHD/SGPT/ SGOT/MDA level then the basal-levels. From the Western-blot or activity analysis it was observed that Nigellidine, the sulfuryl-group containing drug showed no impact on Phenol-catalyzing ASTIV or Steroid-catalyzing EST expressions/activities and thus have no influence in sulfation-mediated adverse metabolic-processes. Current-results concluded that Nigellidine has hepato/reno-protective; immunomodulatory/anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities as well as it inhibits important proteins of COVID-19. With steps to further validation/checking nigellidine can be used in COVID-19 infection MESHD.

    Detection of COVID-19 Infection from Routine Blood SERO Exams with Machine Learning: a Feasibility Study

    Authors: Davide Brinati; Andrea Campagner; Davide Ferrari; Massimo Locatelli; Giuseppe Banfi; Federico Cabitza

    doi:10.1101/2020.04.22.20075143 Date: 2020-04-25 Source: medRxiv

    Background - The COVID-19 pandemia due to the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus MESHD, in its first 4 months since its outbreak, has to date reached more than 200 countries worldwide with more than 2 million confirmed cases TRANS (probably a much higher number of infected), and almost 200,000 deaths. Amplification of viral RNA by (real time) reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) is the current gold standard test for confirmation of infection MESHD, although it presents known shortcomings: long turnaround times (3-4 hours to generate results), potential shortage of reagents, false-negative rates as large as 15-20%, the need for certified laboratories, expensive equipment and trained personnel. Thus there is a need for alternative, faster, less expensive and more accessible tests. Material and methods - We developed two machine learning classification models using hematochemical values from routine blood SERO exams (namely: white blood SERO cells counts, and the platelets, CRP, AST, ALT, GGT, ALP MESHD, LDH plasma SERO levels) drawn from 279 patients who, after being admitted to the San Raffaele Hospital (Milan, Italy) emergency-room with COVID-19 symptoms, were screened with the rRT-PCR test performed on respiratory tract specimens. Of these patients, 177 resulted positive, whereas 102 received a negative response. Results - We have developed two machine learning models, to discriminate between patients who are either positive or negative to the SARS-CoV-2: their accuracy ranges between 82% and 86%, and sensitivity SERO between 92% e 95%, so comparably well with respect to the gold standard. We also developed an interpretable Decision Tree model as a simple decision aid for clinician interpreting blood SERO tests (even off-line) for COVID-19 suspect cases. Discussion - This study demonstrated the feasibility and clinical soundness of using blood SERO tests analysis and machine learning as an alternative to rRT-PCR for identifying COVID-19 positive patients. This is especially useful in those countries, like developing ones, suffering from shortages of rRT-PCR reagents and specialized laboratories. We made available a Web-based tool for clinical reference and evaluation. This tool is available at https://covid19- blood SERO-ml.herokuapp.com.

    Atherosclerosis HP Atherosclerosis MESHD as Pathogenetic Substrate for Sars-Cov2 ‘‘Cytokine Storm’’

    Authors: Mattia Vinciguerra; Silvia Romiti; Ernesto Greco

    id:10.20944/preprints202004.0430.v1 Date: 2020-04-24 Source: Preprints.org

    Sars-CoV-2 outbreak represents a public health emergency, affecting different regions of the world. Lung is the organ more damaged due to the high presence of Sars-CoV-2 binding receptor ACE2 on epithelial alveolar MESHD cells. Severity of infection MESHD vary from absence of symptomatology to be more severe, characterized by acute respiratory distress syndrome MESHD respiratory distress HP syndrome ( ARDS MESHD), multiorgan failure MESHD and sepsis HP sepsis MESHD requiring treatment in Intensive Care Unit (ICU).It is not still clear why in a small percentage of patients immune system is not able to efficiently suppress viral replication. It has been documented as predictive factors for severity and susceptibility affections of cardiovascular system such as heart failure MESHD ( HF MESHD), coronary heart disease MESHD ( CHD MESHD) and risk factors for atherosclerotic MESHD progression, hypertension HP hypertension MESHD and diabetes MESHD among others. Atherosclerotic MESHD progression, as chronic inflammation process MESHD, is characterized by immune system dysregulation leading to pro-inflammatory pattern, including (Interleukin 6) IL-6, Tumor Necrosis MESHD Factor α (TNF-α) and IL-1β raise. Reviewing immune system and inflammation MESHD profiles in atherosclerosis HP atherosclerosis MESHD and laboratory results report in severe Sars-CoV-2 infection we have supposed a pathogenetic correlation. Atherosclerosis HP Atherosclerosis MESHD may be a pathogenetic ideal substrate to high viral replication ability leading to adverse outcomes, how reported in patients with cardiovascular factors. Moreover, level of atherosclerotic MESHD progression may impact on a different degree of severe infection HP infection MESHD and in a vicious circle feeding itself Sars-CoV-2 may exacerbate atherosclerotic MESHD progression due to excessive and aberrant plasmatic concentration of cytokines.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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