### Overview

MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Pneumonia (23)

Fever (13)

Cough (10)

Transmission

Seroprevalence
displaying 11 - 20 records in total 77
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### Kawasaki Disease MESHD Outbreak in Children TRANS During COVID-19 Pandemic.

Authors: Ewelina Gowin; Jacek Wysocki; Magdalena Frydrychowicz; Danuta Januszkiewicz-Lewandowska

doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-70123/v1 Date: 2020-09-01 Source: ResearchSquare

BackgroundIn response to the recent information about the outbreak of Kawasaki disease MESHD ( KD MESHD) in children TRANS connected to SARS-Cov-2 pandemic, we would like to present a group of six patients hospitalized from March to May 2020 with an inflammatory disease similar to KD MESHD. Findings There were four girls and two boys, aged TRANS from 15 months to 16 years. They all presented with fever HP fever MESHD lasting at least five days, irritability HP irritability MESHD, bilateral nonexudative conjunctivitis HP conjunctivitis MESHD, lymphadenopathy, mucus membrane changes, rash MESHD, edema HP edema MESHD.Neither the patients nor the other members of the patients' households had a positive history of COVID-19 infection MESHD. None of the six children TRANS had a positive PCR result for SARS-CoV-2 or a positive results for antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 SERO. All patients received empiric antibiotic therapy. Four patients were diagnosed with KD MESHD. Three children TRANS received standard treatment. One boy did not respond and received an additional 14-days course of methylprednisolone.In two girls, the diagnosis of KD MESHD was not made. All patients survived ConclusionFinding a correlation with the Covid-19 pandemic is difficult regarding the situation in our country. According to ECDC, in May 2020 Poland wass still before the peak of the epidemy. The intention of this article is to report that increased hospitalization of children TRANS with the inflammatory syndrome MESHD is also observed in countries with low levels of transmission TRANS of the SARS-Cov-2 virus. Our observation may broaden the knowledge of new inflammatory syndrome MESHD, which is not necessarily caused by SARS-Cov-2 but may be worsened by co-infection MESHD.

### Engineered interferon alpha effectively improves clinical outcomes of COVID-19 patients

Authors: Chuan Li; Fengming Luo; Chengwu Liu; Nian Xiong; Zhihua Xu; Wei Zhang; Ming Yang; Ye Wang; Dan Liu; Chao Yu; Jia Zeng; Li Zhang; Duo Li; Yanbin Liu; Mei Feng; Ruoyang Liu; Jiandong Mei; Senyi Deng; Zhen Zeng; Yuanhong He; Haiyan Liu; Zhengyu Shi; Meng Duan; Deying Kang; Jiayu Liao; Weimin Li; Lunxu Liu

doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-65224/v1 Date: 2020-08-25 Source: ResearchSquare

Interferons are key to the antiviral host defense, yet the therapeutic value of interferon for coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) is unknown. Recombinant super-compound interferon ( rSIFN-co MESHD) is a new genetically engineered interferon, thus we conducted a multicenter, randomized controlled trial (ChiCTR2000029638) to evaluate the efficacy and safety of recombinant super-compound interferon versus traditional interferon alpha added to baseline antiviral agents (lopinavir–ritonavir or umifenovir) for the treatment of moderate-to-severe COVID-19. Participants received rSIFN-co MESHD (12 million international units [IU], twice daily) or interferon alpha (5 million IU, twice daily) nebulization added to baseline antiviral agents for no more than 28 days. The primary outcome was the time to clinical improvement. Secondary outcomes included the overall rate of clinical improvement assessed on day 28，the time to radiological improvement and virus nucleic acid negative conversion, and adverse events. 94 patients hospitalized with moderate-to-severe COVID-19 were included in the safety set (46 patients assigned to rSIFN-co group, 48 to interferon alpha group). Individuals in the rSIFN-co group showed shorter time to clinical improvement (11.5 days vs 14.0 days; P = 0.019) as compared to those in the interferon alpha group. The overall rate of clinical improvement on day 28 was much higher in the rSIFN-co MESHD group than that in the interferon alpha group (93.5% vs 77.1%; difference, 16.4%; 95% confidence interval 3% to 30%). The time to radiological improvement and the time to virus nucleic acid negative conversion were also much shorter in the rSIFN-co group (8.0 days vs 10.0 days, P = 0.002; 7.0 days vs 10.0 days, P = 0.018, respectively). Adverse events were reported in 13 (28.3%) patients in the rSIFN-co group and 18 (37.5%) patients in the interferon alpha group. No patients died during the study. Our study showed that rSIFN-co added to antiviral agents was safe and more efficient than interferon alpha plus antiviral agents in the treatment of moderate-to-severe COVID-19. Future clinical study of rSIFN-co therapy alone or combined with other antiviral therapy is warranted.

### Robust, reproducible clinical patterns in hospitalised patients with COVID-19

Authors: Jonathan E Millar; Lucile Neyton; Sohan Seth; Jake Dunning; Laura Merson; Srinivas Murthy; Clark D Russell; Sean Keating; Maaike Swets; Carole H Sudre; Timothy D Spector; Sebastien Ourselin; Claire J Steves; Jonathan Wolf; - ISARIC4C Investigators; Annemarie B Docherty; Ewen M Harrison; Peter JM Openshaw; Malcolm G Semple; J Kenneth Baillie

doi:10.1101/2020.08.14.20168088 Date: 2020-08-16 Source: medRxiv

Severe COVID-19 is characterised by fever HP fever MESHD, cough HP cough MESHD, and dyspnoea MESHD. Symptoms affecting other organ systems have been reported. The clinical associations of different patterns of symptoms can influence diagnostic and therapeutic decision-making: for example, significant differential therapeutic effects in sub-groups of patients with different severities of respiratory failure HP respiratory failure MESHD have already been reported for the only treatment so far shown to reduce mortality in COVID-19, dexamethasone. We obtained structured clinical data on 68914 patients in the UK (the ISARIC Coronavirus Clinical Characterisation Consortium, 4C) and used a principled, unsupervised clustering approach to partition the first 33468 cases according to symptoms reported at recruitment. We validated our findings in a second group of 35446 cases recruited to ISARIC-4C, and in separate cohort of community cases. A core symptom set of fever HP fever MESHD, cough HP cough MESHD, and dyspnoea co MESHD-occurred with additional symptoms in three patterns: fatigue HP fatigue MESHD and confusion HP confusion MESHD, diarrhoea and vomiting MESHD vomiting HP, or productive cough HP. Presentations with a single reported symptom of dyspnoea MESHD or confusion HP confusion MESHD were common, and a subgroup of patients reported few or no symptoms. Patients presenting with gastrointestinal symptoms MESHD were more commonly female TRANS, had a longer duration of symptoms before presentation, and had lower 30-day mortality. Patients presenting with confusion HP confusion MESHD, with or without core symptoms, were older and had a higher unadjusted mortality. Symptom clusters were highly consistent in replication analysis using a further 35446 individuals subsequently recruited to ISARIC-4C. Similar patterns were externally verified in 4445 patients from a study of self-reported symptoms of mild disease. The large scale of ISARIC-4C study enabled robust, granular discovery and replication of patient clusters. Clinical interpretation is necessary to determine which of these observations have practical utility. We propose that four patterns are usefully distinct from the core symptom groups: gastro-intestinal disease MESHD, productive cough HP, confusion HP confusion MESHD, and pauci-symptomatic presentations. Importantly, each is associated with an in-hospital mortality which differs from that of patients with core symptoms. These observations deepen our understanding of COVID-19 and will influence clinical diagnosis, risk prediction, and future mechanistic and clinical studies.

### The Discovery of a Recombinant SARS2-like CoV Strain Provides Insight Into SARS and COVID-19 Pandemics

Authors: Xin Li; Xiufeng Jin; Shunmei Chen; Liangge Wang; Tung On Yau; Jianyi Yang; Zhangyong Hong; Jishou Ruan; Guangyou Duan; Shan Gao

doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-60430/v1 Date: 2020-08-16 Source: ResearchSquare

Background: In December 2019, the world awoke to a new zoonotic strain of coronavirus named severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 MESHD (SARS-CoV-2).Results: In the present study, we classified betacoronavirus subgroup B into the SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV MESHD and SARS-like CoV clusters, and the ORF8 genes of these three clusters into types 1, 2 and 3, respectively. One important result of our study is that we reported—for the first time—a recombination event of ORF8 at the whole-gene level in a bat, which had been co-infected MESHD by two betacoronavirus strains. This result provides substantial proof for long-existing hypotheses regarding the recombination and biological functions of ORF8. Based on the analysis of recombination events in the Spike gene, we propose that the Spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 may have more than one specific receptor for its function as gp120 of HIV has CD4 and CCR5. In the present study, we also found that the ancestor of betacoronavirus had a strong first Internal Ribosome Entry Site (IRES) and at least one furin cleavage site (FCS) in the junction region between S1 and S2 subunits.Conclusions: We concluded that the junction FCS in SARS-CoV-2 may increase the efficiency of its entry into cells, while the type 2 ORF8 acquired by SARS-CoV may increase its replication efficiency. These two most critical events provide the most likely explanation for SARS and COVID-19 pandemics.

### How Efficient is Contact Tracing TRANS in Mitigating the Spread of Covid-19? A Mathematical Modeling Approach

Authors: T. A. Biala; Y. O. Afolabi; A. Q. M. Khaliq

id:2008.03859v1 Date: 2020-08-10 Source: arXiv

Contact Tracing TRANS (CT) is one of the measures taken by government and health officials to mitigate the spread of the novel coronavirus. In this paper, we investigate its efficacy by developing a compartmental model for assessing its impact on mitigating the spread of the virus. We describe the impact on the reproduction number TRANS $\mathcal{R}_c$ of Covid-19. In particular, we discuss the importance and relevance of parameters of the model such as the number of reported cases, effectiveness of tracking and monitoring policy, and the transmission TRANS rates to contact tracing TRANS. We describe the terms perfect tracking'', perfect monitoring'' and perfect reporting'' to indicate that traced contacts TRANS will be tracked while incubating, tracked contacts are efficiently monitored so that they do not cause secondary infections MESHD, and all infected persons are reported, respectively. We consider three special scenarios: (1) perfect monitoring and perfect tracking of contacts of a reported case, (2) perfect reporting of cases and perfect monitoring of tracked reported cases and (3) perfect reporting and perfect tracking of contacts of reported cases. Furthermore, we gave a lower bound on the proportion of contacts to be traced TRANS to ensure that the effective reproduction, $\mathcal{R}_c$, is below one and describe $\mathcal{R}_c$ in terms of observable quantities such as the proportion of reported and traced TRANS cases. Model simulations using the Covid-19 data obtained from John Hopkins University for some selected states in the US suggest that even late intervention of CT may reasonably reduce the transmission TRANS of Covid-19 and reduce peak hospitalizations and deaths. In particular, our findings suggest that effective monitoring policy of tracked cases and tracking of traced contacts TRANS while incubating are more crucial than tracing TRANS more contacts.

### Persistent bacterial coinfection of a COVID-19 patient caused by a genetically adapted Pseudomonas aeruginosa chronic colonizer

Authors: Zhao Cai; Yumei Liu; XiangKe Duan; Shuhong Han; Yuao Zhu; Yingdan Zhang; Chao Zhuo; Yang Liu; Liang Yang

doi:10.1101/2020.08.05.238998 Date: 2020-08-06 Source: bioRxiv

This study characterized a genetically adapted Pseudomonas aeruginosa small colony variant isolated from a COVID-19 patient who suffered persistent bacterial coinfection MESHD and eventually recovered from critical illness. Specification and modification of the isolates discovered at genomic and transcriptomic levels with aligned phenotypic observations indicated that these isolates formed excessive biofilm with elevated quorum sensing systems.

### Analysis of COVID-19 and comorbidity co-infection MESHD Model with Optimal Control

Authors: Dr. Andrew Omame; Nometa Ikenna

doi:10.1101/2020.08.04.20168013 Date: 2020-08-04 Source: medRxiv

The new coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) infection MESHD is a double challenge for people infected MESHD with comorbidities such as cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases MESHD and diabetes MESHD. Comorbidities have been reported to be risk factors for the complications of COVID-19. In this work, we develop and analyze a mathematical model for the dynamics of COVID-19 infection MESHD in order to assess the impacts of prior comorbidity on COVID-19 complications and COVID-19 re-infection. The model is simulated using data relevant to the dynamics of the diseases in Lagos, Nigeria, making predictions for the attainment of peak periods in the presence or absence of comorbidity. The model is shown to undergo the phenomenon of backward bifurcation caused by the parameter accounting for increased susceptibility to COVID-19 infection MESHD by comorbid susceptibles as well as the rate of re-infection by those who have recovered from a previous COVID-19 infection MESHD. Sensitivity SERO analysis of the model when the population of individuals co-infected MESHD with COVID-19 and comorbidity is used as response function revealed that the top ranked parameters that drive the dynamics of the co-infection MESHD model are the effective contact rate for COVID-19 transmission TRANS, $\beta\sst{cv}$, the parameter accounting for increased susceptibility to COVID-19 by comorbid susceptibles, $\chi\sst{cm}$, the comorbidity development rate, $\theta\sst{cm}$, the detection rate for singly infected and co-infected MESHD individuals, $\eta_1$ and $\eta_2$, as well as the recovery rate from COVID-19 for co-infected MESHD individuals, $\varphi\sst{i2}$. Simulations of the model reveal that the cumulative confirmed cases TRANS (without comorbidity) may get up to 180,000 after 200 days, if the hyper susceptibility rate of comorbid susceptibles is as high as 1.2 per day. Also, the cumulative confirmed cases TRANS (including those co-infected MESHD with comorbidity) may be as high as 1000,000 cases by the end of November, 2020 if the re-infection rates for COVID-19 is 0.1 per day. It may be worse than this if the re-infection rates increase higher. Moreover, if policies are strictly put in place to step down the probability of COVID-19 infection MESHD by comorbid susceptibles to as low as 0.4 per day and step up the detection rate for singly infected MESHD individuals to 0.7 per day, then the reproduction number TRANS can be brought very low below one, and COVID-19 infection eliminated from the population. In addition, optimal control and cost-effectiveness analysis of the model reveal that the the strategy that prevents COVID-19 infection MESHD by comorbid susceptibles has the least ICER and is the most cost-effective of all the control strategies for the prevention of COVID-19.

### Clinical characteristics and outcome of influenza virus infection MESHD among adults TRANS hospitalized with severe COVID-19: A retrospective cohort study from Wuhan, China

Authors: Xunliang Tong; Xiaomao Xu; Guoyue Lv; He Wang; Anqi Cheng; Dingyi Wang; Yue Zhang; Yanming Li

doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-50577/v1 Date: 2020-07-29 Source: ResearchSquare

Background Coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) is an emerging infection disease MESHD that rapidly spreads worldwide. Co-infection MESHD may occur in some cases of COVID-19, like influenza virus and so on. Clinical features and outcomes of severe COVID-19 patients with co-infection MESHD of influenza virus need to be noticed.Methods Retrospective cohort study was performed and total of 140 patients with severe COVID-19 was enrolled in designated wards of Sino-French New City Branch of Tongji Hospital between Feb 8th and March 15th in Wuhan, Hubei province, China. The demographic, clinical features, laboratory indices, treatment and outcomes of these patients were collected and analyzed.Results Of 140 severe COVID-19 hospitalized patients, 73 patients were with median age TRANS of 66 years old with identification of influenza virus IgM-positive and 67 patients were with median age TRANS of 62 years old in influenza virus IgM-negative. Nearly half of severe COVID-19 patients in this research are male TRANS. Majority of the severe COVID-19 patients had chronic underlying conditions. Wheeze HP was the clinical feature of severe COVID-19 patients with influenza IgM-positive (26.4% vs 9.0%, P = 0.008). On contrary, fatigue HP fatigue MESHD or myalgia HP myalgia MESHD was the feature of the COVID-19 patients without IgM-positive (38.4% vs 58.2%, P = 0.019). Increased levels of ferritin and prolonging APTT were showed in severe COVID-19 patients without influenza IgM-positive compared with patients in other group with significant differences. Death rate in the group of severe COVID-19 patients with influenza IgM-positive is lower than it in other group with significant differences (4.1% vs 14.9%, P = 0.040). In univariate regression analysis, several factors were associated with higher risk of death MESHD, which included LDH, troponin, NT-proBNP, D-dimer, PT, APTT, lymphocytes, platelet and eGFR. However, influenza virus IgM positive was associated with lower risk of death.Conclusions Characteristic features of patients with severe COVID-19 with influenza virus IgM-positive were described. Co-infection MESHD may occur during the pandemic of COVID-19, and we need to improve our understanding in order to confront this crisis in the future.

### PACIFIC: A lightweight deep-learning classifier of SARS-CoV-2 and co-infecting RNA viruses MESHD

Authors: Pablo Acera Mateos; Renzo F. Balboa; Simon Easteal; Eduardo Eyras; Hardip R. Patel

doi:10.1101/2020.07.24.219097 Date: 2020-07-24 Source: bioRxiv

Viral co-infections occur in COVID-19 patients, potentially impacting disease progression and severity. However, there is currently no dedicated method to identify viral co-infections MESHD in patient RNA-seq data. We developed PACIFIC, a deep-learning algorithm that accurately detects SARS-CoV-2 and other common RNA respiratory viruses from RNA-seq data. Using in silico data, PACIFIC recovers the presence and relative concentrations of viruses with >99% precision and recall SERO. PACIFIC accurately detects SARS-CoV-2 and other viral infections in 63 independent in vitro cell culture and patient datasets. PACIFIC is an end-to-end tool that enables the systematic monitoring of viral infections in the current global pandemic.

### Ocular findings and retinal involvement in COVID-19 pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD patients: A cross-sectional study in an Italian referral centre

Authors: Maria Pia Pirraglia; Giancarlo Ceccarelli; Alberto Cerini; Giacomo Visioli; Gabriella d'Ettorre; Claudio Maria Mastroianni; Francesco Pugliese; Alessandro Lambiase; Magda Gharbiya

doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-48240/v1 Date: 2020-07-23 Source: ResearchSquare

Background: changes in immune and coagulation systems and possible viral spread through blood SERO-brain barrier have been described in SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD. In this study, we evaluate the possible retinal involvement and ocular findings in severe COVID-19 pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD patients.  Methods: a cross sectional study was conducted on 46 patients affected by severe COVID-19 who were hospitalized in one Intensive Care Unit (ICU) and in two Infectious Diseases wards, including a bedside eye screening, corneal sensitivity SERO assessment and retinography. Results: a total of 43 SARS-CoV-2 positive pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP patients affected with COVID-19 pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD were included, 25 males TRANS and 18 females TRANS, with a median age TRANS of 70 [IQR 59-78]. Except for one patient with unilateral posterior chorioretinitis HP of opportunistic origin, of whom aqueous tap was negative for SARS-CoV-2, no further retinal manifestation related to COVID-19 infection MESHD was found in our cohort. We found 3 patients (7%) with bilateral conjunctivitis MESHD conjunctivitis HP in whom PCR analysis on conjunctival swab provided negative results for SARS-CoV-2. No alterations of corneal sensitivity SERO were found.Conclusion: we demonstrated the absence of retinal involvement in SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP patients. Ophthalmologic evaluation in COVID-19, particularly in patients hospitalized in an ICU setting, may be useful to reveal systemic co-infections MESHD infections by opportunistic HP pathogens.

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