Corpus overview


MeSH Disease

Infections (629)

Disease (534)

Death (435)

Coronavirus Infections (310)

Fever (148)

Human Phenotype

Pneumonia (152)

Fever (149)

Hypertension (143)

Cough (122)

Obesity (69)


age categories (1419)

gender (481)

Transmission (237)

fomite (133)

asymptotic cases (116)

    displaying 1 - 10 records in total 1430
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    Serology in Children TRANS with Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome MESHD (MIS-C) associated with COVID-19

    Authors: Christina A. Rostad; Ann Chahroudi; Grace Mantus; Stacey A. Lapp; Mehgan Teherani; Lisa Macoy; Bradley S. Rostad; Sarah S. Milla; Keiko M. Tarquinio; Rajit K. Basu; Carol Kao; W. Matthew Linam; Matthew G. Zimmerman; Pei-Yong Shi; Vineet D. Menachery; Matthew E. Oster; Sri Edupuganti; Evan J. Anderson; Mehul S Suthar; Jens Wrammert; Preeti Jaggi

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.10.20150755 Date: 2020-07-11

    Objectives: We aimed to measure SARS-CoV-2 serologic responses in children TRANS hospitalized with multisystem inflammatory syndrome MESHD (MIS-C) compared to COVID-19, Kawasaki Disease MESHD (KD) and other hospitalized pediatric controls. Methods: From March 17, 2020 - May 26, 2020, we prospectively identified hospitalized children TRANS at Children TRANS's Healthcare of Atlanta with MIS-C (n=10), symptomatic PCR-confirmed COVID-19 (n=10), KD (n=5), and hospitalized controls (n=4). With IRB approval, we obtained prospective and residual blood SERO samples from these children TRANS and measured SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) receptor binding domain (RBD) IgM and IgG binding antibodies SERO by quantitative ELISA SERO and SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies SERO by live-virus focus reduction neutralization assay. We statistically compared the log-transformed antibody SERO titers among groups and performed correlation analyses using linear regression. Results: All children TRANS with MIS-C had high titers of SARS-CoV-2 RBD IgG antibodies SERO, which correlated strongly with neutralizing antibodies SERO (R2=0.667, P<0.001). Children TRANS with MIS-C had significantly higher SARS-CoV-2 RBD IgG antibody SERO titers (geometric mean titer [GMT] 6800, 95%CI 3495-13231) than children TRANS with COVID-19 (GMT 626, 95%CI 251-1563, P<0.001), children TRANS with KD (GMT 124, 95%CI 91-170, P<0.001) and other hospitalized pediatric controls (GMT 85 [all below assay limit of detection], P<0.001). All children TRANS with MIS-C also had detectable RBD IgM antibodies SERO, indicating recent SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD. RBD IgG titers correlated with erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) (R2=0.512, P<0.046) and with hospital and ICU lengths of stay (R2=0.590, P=0.010). Conclusion: Quantitative SARS-CoV-2 RBD antibody SERO titers may have a role in establishing the diagnosis of MIS-C, distinguishing it from other similar clinical entities, and stratifying risk for adverse outcomes.

    COVID-19 severity is predicted by earlier evidence of accelerated aging

    Authors: Chia-Ling Kuo; Luke C Pilling; Janice C Atkins; Jane Masoli; Joao Delgado; Christopher Tignanelli; George Kuchel; David Melzer; Kenneth B Beckman; Morgan Levine

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.10.20147777 Date: 2020-07-11

    With no known treatments or vaccine, COVID-19 presents a major threat, particularly to older adults TRANS, who account for the majority of severe illness and deaths MESHD. The age TRANS-related susceptibility is partly explained by increased comorbidities including dementia MESHD dementia HP and type II diabetes. While it is unclear why these diseases MESHD predispose risk, we hypothesize that increased biological age TRANS, rather than chronological age TRANS, may be driving disease MESHD-related trends in COVID-19 severity with age TRANS. To test this hypothesis, we applied our previously validated biological age TRANS measure (PhenoAge) composed of chronological age TRANS and nine clinical chemistry biomarkers to data of 347,751 participants from a large community cohort in the United Kingdom (UK Biobank), recruited between 2006 and 2010. Other data included disease MESHD diagnoses (to 2017), mortality data (to 2020), and the UK national COVID-19 test results (to May 31, 2020). Accelerated aging 10-14 years prior to the start of the COVID-19 pandemic was associated with test positivity (OR=1.15 per 5-year acceleration, 95% CI: 1.08 to 1.21, p=3.2x10-6) and all-cause mortality with test-confirmed COVID-19 (OR=1.25, per 5-year acceleration, 95% CI: 1.09 to 1.44, p=0.002) after adjustment for demographics including current chronological age TRANS and pre-existing diseases MESHD or conditions. The corresponding areas under the curves were 0.669 and 0.803, respectively. Biological aging, as captured by PhenoAge, is a better predictor of COVID-19 severity than chronological age TRANS, and may inform risk stratification initiatives, while also elucidating possible underlying mechanisms, particularly those related to inflammaging.

    Clinical utility of targeted SARS-CoV-2 serology testing to aid the diagnosis and management of suspected missed, late or post-COVID-19 infection MESHD syndromes MESHD: results from a pilot service

    Authors: Nicola Sweeney; Blair Merrick; Suzanne Pickering; Rui Pedro Galao; Alina Botgros; Harry D. Wilson; Adrian W. Signell; Gilberto Betancor; Mark Kia Ik Tan; John Ramble; Neophytos Kouphou; Sam Acors; Carl Graham; Jeffrey Seow; Eithne MacMahon; Stuart J. D. Neil; Michael H. Malim; Katie Doores; Sam Douthwaite; Rahul Batra; Gaia Nebbia; Jonathan D. Edgeworth

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.10.20150540 Date: 2020-07-11

    Objectives: Determine indications and clinical utility of SARS-CoV-2 serology testing in adults TRANS and children TRANS. Design: Prospective evaluation of initial three weeks of a daily Monday to Friday pilot SARS-CoV-2 serology service for patients. Setting: Early post 'first-wave' SARS-CoV-2 transmission TRANS period at single centre London teaching hospital that provides care to the local community, as well as regional and national referral pathways for specialist services. Participants: 110 (72 adults TRANS, 38 children TRANS, age TRANS range 0-83 years, 52.7% female TRANS (n=58)). Interventions: Patient serum SERO from vetted referrals tested on CE marked and internally validated lateral flow immunoassay SERO (LFIA) (SureScreen Diagnostics) detecting antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 SERO spike proteins, with result and clinical interpretation provided to the direct care team. Main outcome measures: Performance SERO characteristics, source and nature of referrals, feasibility and clinical utility of the service, particularly the benefit for clinical decision-making. Results: The LFIA was deemed suitable for clinical advice and decision making following evaluation with 310 serum samples SERO from SARS-CoV-2 PCR positive patients and 300 pre-pandemic samples, giving a sensitivity SERO and specificity of 96.1% and 99.3% respectively. For the pilot, 115 referrals were received leading to 113 tests performed on 108 participants (sample not available for two participants); paediatrics (n=35), medicine (n=69), surgery (n=2) and general practice (n=2). 43.4% participants (n=49) had detectable antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 SERO. There were three main indications for serology; new acute presentations potentially triggered by recent COVID-19 infection MESHD e.g. PIMS-TS (n=26) and pulmonary embolism MESHD pulmonary embolism HP (n=5), potential missed diagnoses in context of a recent compatible illness (n=40), and making infection MESHD control and immunosuppression treatment decisions in persistently SARS-CoV-2 RNA PCR positive individuals (n=6). Conclusions: This study shows acceptable performance SERO characteristics, feasibility and clinical utility of a SARS-CoV-2 serology service using a rapid, inexpensive and portable assay for adults TRANS and children TRANS presenting with a range of clinical indications. Results correlated closely with a confirmatory in-house ELISA SERO. The study showed the benefit of introducing a serology service where there is a reasonable pre-test probability, and the result can be linked with clinical advice or intervention. Experience thus far is that the volume of requests from hospital referral routes are manageable within existing clinical and laboratory services; however, the demand from community referrals has not yet been assessed. Given recent evidence for a rapid decline in antibodies SERO, particularly following mild infection MESHD, there is likely a limited window of opportunity to realise the benefit of serology testing for individuals infected during the 'first-wave' before they potentially fall HP below a measurable threshold. Rapidly expanding availability of serology services for NHS patients will also help understand the long-term implications of serostatus and prior infection MESHD in different patient groups, particularly before emergence of any 'second-wave' outbreak or introduction of a vaccination programme.

    Clinical and epidemiological characteristics of children TRANS with SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD: case series in Sinaloa

    Authors: Giordano Perez Gaxiola; Rosalino Flores Rocha; Julio Cesar Valadez Vidarte; Melissa Hernandez Alcaraz; Gilberto Herrera Mendoza; Miguel Alejandro Del Real Lugo

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.07.20146332 Date: 2020-07-11

    Background: The SARS-CoV-2 virus may affect both adults TRANS and children TRANS. Although the disease MESHD, named COVID-19, has a lower prevalence SERO in infancy and has been described as mild, the clinical characteristics may vary and there is a possibility of complications. Objectives: To describe the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of pediatric cases confirmed TRANS in the state of Sinaloa, Mexico, during the first three months of the pandemic, and of children TRANS admitted with COVID-19 to a secondary hospital. Methods: This case series includes all patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD infection confirmed TRANS confirmed by PCR testing, identified in the state epidemiological surveillance system between March 1 and May 31, 2020. Confirmed patients admitted to the Sinaloa Pediatric Hospital (HPS) during the same dates are also described. Results: Fifty one children TRANS with SARS-CoV-2 were included, 10 of the admitted to HPS. The median age TRANS was 10 years. The more frequent symptoms were fever MESHD fever HP (78%), cough MESHD cough HP (67%) and headache MESHD headache HP (57%). Most cases were mild or asymptomatic TRANS. Three patients with comorbidities died. Only 4 of 10 patients identified in HPS had been admitted with the diagnosis of possible COVID-19. Conclusions: SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD in children TRANS was mostly mild or asymptomatic TRANS, but with a wide range of clinical presentations.

    The Age TRANS Pattern of the Male TRANS- to- Female TRANS Ratio in Mortality from COVID-19 Mirrors that of Cardiovascular Disease MESHD but not Cancer in the General Population

    Authors: Ila Nimgaonkar; Linda Valeri; Ezra S. Susser; Sabiha Hussain; Jag Sunderram; Abraham Aviv

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.10.20149013 Date: 2020-07-11

    Background: Males TRANS are at a higher risk of dying from COVID-19. Older age TRANS and cardiovascular disease MESHD are also associated with COVID-19 mortality. We compared the male TRANS-to- female TRANS (sex) ratios in mortality by age TRANS for COVID-19 with cardiovascular mortality and cancer mortality in the general population. Methods: We obtained data from official government sources in the US and five European countries: Italy, Spain, France, Germany, and the Netherlands. We analyzed COVID-19 deaths MESHD by sex and age TRANS in these countries and similarly analyzed their deaths MESHD from cardiovascular disease MESHD (coronary heart disease MESHD or stroke MESHD stroke HP) and cancer, the two leading age TRANS-related causes of death MESHD in middle-to-high income countries. Findings: In both the US and European countries, the sex ratio of deaths MESHD from COVID-19 exceeded one throughout adult TRANS life. The sex ratio increased up to a peak in midlife, and then declined markedly in later life. This pattern was also observed for the sex ratio of deaths MESHD from cardiovascular disease MESHD, but not cancer, in the general populations of the US and European countries. Interpretation: The sex ratios of deaths MESHD from COVID-19 and from cardiovascular disease MESHD exhibit similar patterns across the adult TRANS life course. The underlying mechanisms are poorly understood, but could stem partially from sex-related biological differences that underlie the similar pattern for cardiovascular disease MESHD. These include, we propose, comparatively longer telomeres in females TRANS, ovarian hormones, and X chromosome mosaicism.

    Genetic associations for two biological age TRANS measures point to distinct aging phenotypes

    Authors: Chia-Ling Kuo; Luke C Pilling; Zuyun Liu; Janice L Atkins; Morgan Levine

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.10.20150797 Date: 2020-07-11

    Biological age TRANS measures outperform chronological age TRANS in predicting various aging outcomes, yet little is known regarding genetic predisposition. We performed genome-wide association scans of two age TRANS-adjusted biological age TRANS measures (PhenoAgeAcceleration and BioAgeAcceleration), estimated from clinical biochemistry markers1,2 in European-descent participants from UK Biobank. The strongest signals were found in the APOE gene, tagged by the two major protein-coding SNPs, PhenoAgeAccel-rs429358 (APOE e4 determinant) (p=1.50 x 10-72); BioAgeAccel-rs7412 (APOE e2 determinant) (p=3.16 x 10-60). Interestingly, we observed inverse APOE e2 and e4 associations and unique pathway enrichments when comparing the two biological age TRANS measures. Genes associated with BioAgeAccel were enriched in lipid related pathways, while genes associated with PhenoAgeAccel showed enrichment for immune system, cell function, and carbohydrate homeostasis pathways, suggesting the two measures capture different aging domains. Our study reaffirms that aging patterns are heterogenous across individuals, and the manner in which a person ages TRANS may be partly attributed to genetic predisposition.

    Decreased serum SERO levels of inflammaging marker miR-146a are associated with clinical response to tocilizumab in COVID-19 patients

    Authors: Jacopo Sabbatinelli; Angelica Giuliani; Giulia Matacchione; Silvia Latini; Noemi Laprovitera; Giovanni Pomponio; Alessia Ferrarini; Silvia Svegliati Baroni; Marianna Pavani; Marco Moretti; Armando Gabrielli; Antonio Domenico Procopio; Manuela Ferracin; Massimiliano Bonafè; Fabiola Olivieri

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.11.20151365 Date: 2020-07-11

    Background. Current COVID-19 pandemic poses an unprecedented threat to global health and healthcare systems. At least in western countries, the most amount of the death MESHD toll is accounted by old people affected by age TRANS-related diseases MESHD. In this regard, we proposed that COVID-19 severity may be tightly related to inflammaging, i.e. the age TRANS-related onset of inflammation MESHD, which is responsible for age TRANS-related diseases MESHD. It has been reported that systemic hyper- inflammation MESHD may turn to be detrimental in COVID-19 patients. Objective. Here, we exploited a recently closed clinical trial (NCT04315480) on the anti-IL-6 drug tocilizumab to assess whether microRNAs regulating inflammaging can be assessed as biomarkers of drug response and outcome. Methods. Serum SERO levels of miR-146a-5p, -21-5p, and -126-3p were quantified by RT-PCR and Droplet Digital PCR by two independent laboratories on 30 patients with virologically confirmed COVID-19, characterized by multifocal interstitial pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP confirmed by CT-scan and requiring oxygen therapy, and 29 age TRANS- and gender TRANS-matched healthy control subjects. COVID-19 patients were treated with a single-dose intravenous infusion of 8 mg/kg tocilizumab and categorized into responders and non-responders. Results. We showed that COVID-19 patients who did not respond to tocilizumab have lower serum SERO levels of miR-146a-5p after the treatment (p=0.007). Moreover, among non-responders, those with the lowest serum SERO levels of miR-146a-5p experienced the most adverse outcome (p=0.008). Conclusion. Our data show that blood SERO-based biomarkers, such as miR-146a-5p, can provide a molecular link between inflammaging and COVID-19 clinical course, thus allowing to enlarge the drug armory against this worldwide health threat.

    ACE2-expressing endothelial cells in aging mouse brain

    Authors: SU Bin Lim; Valina L. Dawson; Ted M. Dawson; Sung-Ung Kang

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.11.198770 Date: 2020-07-11

    Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is a key receptor mediating the entry of SARS-CoV-2 into the host cell. Through a systematic analysis of publicly available mouse brain sc/snRNA-seq data, we found that ACE2 is specifically expressed in small sub-populations of endothelial cells and mural cells, namely pericytes and vascular smooth muscle cells. Further, functional changes in viral mRNA transcription and replication, and impaired blood SERO-brain barrier regulation were most prominently implicated in the aged TRANS, ACE2-expressing endothelial cells, when compared to the young adult TRANS mouse brains. Concordant EC transcriptomic changes were further found in normal aged TRANS human brains. Overall, this work reveals an outline of ACE2 distribution in the mouse brain and identify putative brain host cells that may underlie the selective susceptibility of the aging brain to viral infection MESHD.Competing Interest StatementThe authors have declared no competing interest.

    Epidemiological characteristics of COVID-19 patients in Samarinda, East Kalimantan, Indonesia

    Authors: Swandari Paramita; Ronny Isnuwardana; Anton Rahmadi; Osa Rafshodia; Ismid Kusasih

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.10.20151175 Date: 2020-07-11

    Introduction. Coronavirus Disease MESHD (COVID-19) is caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD. Indonesia announced the first COVID-19 case on 2 March 2020. East Kalimantan has been determined as the new capital of Indonesia since 2019. This makes Samarinda as the capital of East Kalimantan has been focused for its capability of handling COVID-19 patients. We report the epidemiological characteristics and immunofluorescence assay results of these patients. Methods. All patients with positive confirmed COVID-19 by RT-PCR were admitted to hospitals and quarantine center in Samarinda. We retrospectively analyzed data from the daily report of the Samarinda City and East Kalimantan Health Office information system. Results. By June 25, 2020, 64 patients had been identified as having positive confirmed COVID-19. The mean age TRANS of the patients was 37.3 {+/-} 13.8 years. Most of the patients were men (57 [90.6%] patients). Thirty-nine COVID-19 patients were imported cases with a history of traveling TRANS from South Sulawesi. Most of the patients were admitted to the Quarantine Center of Samarinda City. The mean duration from the first hospital admission for isolation to discharge was 25.6 {+/-} 13.1 days. There was only one death MESHD case of COVID-19 patients in Samarinda. There were the highest confirmed cases TRANS of COVID-19 in Samarinda in early June 2020. There was a declining trend in the age TRANS of COVID-19 patients and the duration of isolation time in the hospital. Discussion. Imported cases still contributed to the increase of COVID-19 cases in Samarinda. Younger age TRANS of COVID-19 patients was more involved in frequent mobility which makes them cause the spread of the disease TRANS disease MESHD. Activation of the national reference laboratory for the COVID-19 examination in Samarinda has reduced the length of time patients treated in hospitals. Conclusion. The epidemiological characteristics of COVID-19 patients show the ability of local governments to deal with this pandemic. This can be seen from the low case fatality rate in Samarinda.

    Community prevalence SERO of SARS-CoV-2 virus in England during May 2020: REACT study

    Authors: Steven Riley; Kylie E. C. Ainslie; Oliver Eales; Benjamin Jeffrey; Caroline E. Walters; Christina J Atchison; Peter J. Diggle; Deborah Ashby; Christl A. Donnelly; Graham Cooke; Wendy Barclay; Helen Ward; Graham Taylor; Ara Darzi; Paul Elliott

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.10.20150524 Date: 2020-07-11

    Background England has experienced one of the highest rates of confirmed COVID-19 mortality in the world. SARS-CoV-2 virus has circulated in hospitals, care homes and the community since January 2020. Our current epidemiological knowledge is largely informed by clinical cases with far less understanding of community transmission TRANS. Methods The REal-time Assessment of Community Transmission TRANS (REACT) study is a nationally representative prevalence SERO survey of SARS-CoV-2 virus swab-positivity in the community in England. We recruited participants regardless of symptom status. Results We found 159 positives from 120,610 swabs giving an average prevalence SERO of 0.13% (95% CI: 0.11%,0.15%) from 1st May to 1st June 2020. We showed decreasing prevalence SERO with a halving time of 8.6 (6.2, 13.6) days, implying an overall reproduction number TRANS R of 0.57 (0.45, 0.72). Adults TRANS aged TRANS 18 to 24 yrs had the highest swab-positivity rates, while those >64 yrs had the lowest. Of the 126 participants who tested positive with known symptom status in the week prior to their swab, 39 reported symptoms while 87 did not, giving an estimate that 69% (61%,76%) of people were symptom-free for the 7 days prior testing positive in our community sample. Symptoms strongly associated with swab-positivity were: nausea MESHD nausea and/or vomiting HP and/or vomiting MESHD, diarrhoea, blocked nose, loss of smell, loss of taste, headache MESHD headache HP, chills MESHD chills HP and severe fatigue MESHD fatigue HP. Recent contact with a known COVID-19 case was associated with odds of 24 (16, 38) for swab-positivity. Compared with non-key workers, odds of swab-positivity were 7.7 (2.4, 25) among care home (long-term care facilities) workers and 5.2 (2.9, 9.3) among health care workers. However, some of the excess risk associated with key worker status was explained by recent contact with COVID-19 cases. We found no strong evidence for geographical variability in positive swab results. Conclusion Our results provide a reliable baseline against which the impact of subsequent relaxation of lockdown can be assessed to inform future public health efforts to control transmission TRANS.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype

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