Corpus overview


MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Pneumonia (435)

Fever (427)

Hypertension (347)

Cough (332)

Anxiety (222)


age categories (3900)

gender (1364)

Transmission (599)

contact tracing (322)

fomite (312)

    displaying 1 - 10 records in total 3900
    records per page

    Prevalence SERO of COVID-19 in Adolescents and Youth Compared with Older Adults TRANS in States Experiencing Surges

    Authors: Barbara T Rumain; Moshe Schneiderman; Allan Geliebter; Janini Cristina Paiz Jr.; Gabriel Dickin Caldana Jr.; Carem Luana Machado Lessa Jr.; Amanda de Menezes Mayer Jr.; Julia Goncalves Kuchle Jr.; Paulo Ricardo Gazzola Zen Sr.; Alvaro Vigo Sr.; Ana Trindade Winck Sr.; Liane Nanci Rotta Sr.; Claudia Elizabeth Thompson Sr.; Andres F. Henao-Martinez; Leland Shapiro

    doi:10.1101/2020.10.20.20215541 Date: 2020-10-22 Source: medRxiv

    PURPOSE: There has been considerable controversy regarding susceptibility of adolescents (10-19 years) and youth (15-24 years) to COVID-19. A number of studies have reported that adolescents are significantly less susceptible than older adults TRANS. Summer 2020 provided an opportunity to examine data on prevalence SERO since after months of lockdowns, with the easing of restrictions, people were mingling, leading to surges in cases. METHODS: We examined data from six U.S. states experiencing surges in the number of cases to determine prevalence SERO of COVID-19, and two other measures, related to prevalence SERO in adolescents and youth as compared to older adults TRANS. The two other measures were: Percentage of cases observed in a given age group TRANS / by the percentage of cases expected based on population demographics; and percentage deviation, or [(% observed- % expected)/ % expected] x100. RESULTS: Prevalence SERO of COVID-19 for adolescents and for youth was significantly greater than for older adults TRANS (p

    COVID-19's unfortunate events in schools: mitigating classroom clusters in the context of variable transmission TRANS

    Authors: Paul Tupper; Caroline Colijn; Andressa Barreto Glaeser Jr.; Janini Cristina Paiz Jr.; Gabriel Dickin Caldana Jr.; Carem Luana Machado Lessa Jr.; Amanda de Menezes Mayer Jr.; Julia Goncalves Kuchle Jr.; Paulo Ricardo Gazzola Zen Sr.; Alvaro Vigo Sr.; Ana Trindade Winck Sr.; Liane Nanci Rotta Sr.; Claudia Elizabeth Thompson Sr.; Andres F. Henao-Martinez; Leland Shapiro

    doi:10.1101/2020.10.20.20216267 Date: 2020-10-22 Source: medRxiv

    Widespread school closures occurred during the COVID-19 pandemic. Because closures are costly and damaging, many jurisdictions have since reopened schools with control measures in place. Early evidence indicated that schools were low risk and children TRANS were unlikely to be very infectious, but it is becoming clear that children TRANS and youth can acquire and transmit COVID-19 in school settings and that transmission TRANS clusters and outbreaks can be large. We describe the contrasting literature on school transmission TRANS, and argue that the apparent discrepancy can be reconciled by heterogeneity, or ``overdispersion'' in transmission TRANS, with many exposures yielding little to no risk of onward transmission TRANS, but some unfortunate exposures causing sizeable onward transmission TRANS. In addition, respiratory viral loads are as high in children TRANS and youth as in adults TRANS, pre- and asymptomatic TRANS transmission TRANS occur, and the possibility of aerosol transmission TRANS has been established. We use a stochastic individual-based model to find the implications of these combined observations for cluster sizes and control measures. We consider both individual and environment/activity contributions to the transmission TRANS rate, as both are known to contribute to variability in transmission TRANS. We find that even small heterogeneities in these contributions result in highly variable transmission TRANS cluster sizes in the classroom setting, with clusters ranging from 1 to 20 individuals in a class of 25. None of the mitigation protocols we modeled, initiated by a positive test in a symptomatic individual, are able to prevent large transmission TRANS clusters unless the transmission TRANS rate is low (in which case large clusters do not occur in any case). Among the measures we modeled, only rapid universal monitoring (for example by regular, onsite, pooled testing) accomplished this prevention. We suggest approaches and the rationale for mitigating these ``unfortunate events'', even if they are expected to be rare.

    Diagnostic utility of a Ferritin-to-Procalcitonin Ratio to differentiate patients with COVID-19 from those with Bacterial Pneumonia HP: A multicenter study

    Authors: Amal A. Gharamti; Fei Mei; Katherine C. Jankousky; Jin Huang; Peter Hyson; Daniel B. Chastain; Jiawei Fan; Sharmon Osae; Wayne W. Zhang; Jose G. Montoya; Kristine M. Erlandson; Sias J. Scherger; Carlos Franco-Paredes; Andres F. Henao-Martinez; Leland Shapiro

    doi:10.1101/2020.10.20.20216309 Date: 2020-10-22 Source: medRxiv

    Importance: There is a need to develop tools to differentiate COVID-19 from bacterial pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD at the time of clinical presentation before diagnostic testing is available. Objective: To determine if the Ferritin-to-Procalcitonin ratio (F/P) can be used to differentiate COVID-19 from bacterial pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP. Design: This case-control study compared patients with either COVID-19 or bacterial pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP, admitted between March 1 and May 31, 2020. Patients with COVID-19 and bacterial pneumonia co-infection MESHD pneumonia HP co-infection were excluded. Setting: A multicenter study conducted at three hospitals that included UCHealth and Phoebe Putney Memorial Hospital in the United States, and Yichang Central People Hospital in China. Participants: A total of 242 cases with COVID-19 infection MESHD and 34 controls with bacterial pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP. Main Outcomes and Measures: The F/P in patients with COVID-19 or with bacterial pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD were compared. Receiver operating characteristic analysis determined the sensitivity SERO and specificity of various cut-off F/P values for the diagnosis of COVID-19 versus bacterial pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD. Results: Patients with COVID-19 pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD had a lower mean age TRANS (57.11 vs 64.4 years, p=0.02) and a higher BMI (30.74 vs 27.15 kg/m2, p=0.02) compared to patients with bacterial pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP. Cases and controls had a similar proportion of women (47% vs 53%, p=0.5) and COVID-19 patients had a higher prevalence SERO of diabetes mellitus HP diabetes mellitus MESHD (32.6% vs 12%, p=0.01). The median F/P was significantly higher in patients with COVID-19 (4037.5) compared to the F/P in bacterial pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD (802, p<0.001). An F/P greater than or equal to 877 used to diagnose COVID-19 resulted in a sensitivity SERO of 85% and a specificity of 56%, with a positive predictive value SERO of 93.2%, and a likelihood ratio of 1.92. In multivariable analyses, an F/P greater than or equal to 877 was associated with greater odds of identifying a COVID-19 case (OR: 11.27, CI: 4-31.2, p<0.001). Conclusions and Relevance: An F/P greater than or equal to 877 increases the likelihood of COVID-19 pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD compared to bacterial pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP. Further research is needed to determine if obtaining ferritin and procalcitonin simultaneously at the time of clinical presentation has improved diagnostic value. Additional questions include whether an increased F/P and/or serial F/P associates with COVID-19 disease severity or outcomes.

    Basrah experience among 6404 patients with COVID-19

    Authors: Saad S. Hamadi Al-Taher; Abbas K AlKanan; Mohammad N. Fares; Nihad Q. Mohammed; Ali Raheem Al-Jabery; Awatif A. Habeeb; Abbas Ali Mansour; Kerstin Klaser; Michela Antonelli; Liane S Canas; Erika Molteni; Marc Modat; M. Jorge Cardoso; Anna May; Sajaysurya Ganesh; Richard Davies; Long H Nguyen; David Alden Drew; Christina M Astley; Amit D. Joshi; Jordi Merino; Neli Tsereteli; Tove Fall; Maria F Gomez; Emma Duncan; Christina Menni; Frances MK Williams; Paul W Franks; Andrew T Chan; Jonathan Wolf; Sebastien Ourselin; Timothy Spector; Claire J Steves

    doi:10.1101/2020.10.19.20215384 Date: 2020-10-21 Source: medRxiv

    Background: The first case of COVID-19 report in Basrah was in early March 2020. This study aimed to assess some of the characteristics of patients with COVID-19 in Basrah for the period from March ,4th to September ,8th 2020. Methods: Retrospective database analysis of the University of Basrah database. All RT-PCR positive patients during the study period were enrolled. Results: Of 6404 patients included , male TRANS constituted 54.8%. Healthcare workers constituted 11.4% of the infected people. Of health care workers 16.1% were physicians . The mean age TRANS for the whole cohort was 39{+/-}16.7 years; adolescents and children TRANS younger than 20 years constituted 12.4%. The peak age TRANS was 31-40 years, those aged TRANS 61 years or more constituted 9.8% only. The case fatality rate was 3% ( males TRANS 55.2% and females TRANS 44.8%) . No death MESHD was reported in adolescents or children TRANS. The highest death rate was among those age TRANS 61 years or more. Conclusion: The situation of COVID-19 infection MESHD in Basrah is evolving like other countries. Furthers studies are needed to assess associated comorbidities, treatment lines, outcomes and variables associated with mortality.

    Prevalence SERO of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies SERO in France: results from nationwide serological surveillance

    Authors: Stephane Le Vu; Gabrielle Jones; Francois Anna; Thierry Rose; Jean-Baptiste Richard; Sibylle Bernard-Stoecklin; Sophie Goyard; Caroline Demeret; Olivier Helynck; Corinne Robin; Virgile Monnet; Louise Perrin de Facci; Marie-Noelle Ungeheuer; Lucie Leon; Yvonnick Guillois; Laurent Filleul; Pierre Charneau; Daniel Levy-Bruhl; Sylvie van der Werf; Harold Noel; Eran Friedler; Yael Gilboa; Sara Sabach; Yuval Alfiya; Uta Cheruti; Nadav Davidovitch; Natalya Bilenko; Jacob Moran-Gilad; Yakir Berchenko; Itay Bar-Or; Ariel Kushmaro; Timothy Spector; Claire J Steves

    doi:10.1101/2020.10.20.20213116 Date: 2020-10-21 Source: medRxiv

    Background Assessment of cumulative incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infections MESHD is critical for monitoring the course and the extent of the epidemic. As asymptomatic TRANS or mild cases were typically not captured by surveillance data in France, we implemented nationwide serological surveillance. We present estimates for prevalence SERO of anti- SARS-CoV-2 antibodies SERO in the French population and the proportion of infected individuals who developed potentially protective neutralizing antibodies SERO throughout the first epidemic wave. Methods We performed serial cross-sectional sampling of residual sera over three periods: prior to (9-15 March), during (6-12 April) and following (11-17 May) a nationwide lockdown. Each sample was tested for anti-SARS-CoV-2 SERO IgG antibodies SERO targeting the Nucleoprotein and Spike using two Luciferase-Linked ImmunoSorbent Assays, and for neutralising antibodies SERO using a pseudo-neutralisation assay. We fitted a general linear mixed model of seropositivity in a Bayesian framework to derive prevalence SERO estimates stratified by age TRANS, sex and region. Findings In total, sera from 11 021 individuals were analysed. Nationwide seroprevalence SERO of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies SERO was estimated at 0.41% [0.05;0.88] mid-March, 4.14% [3.31;4.99] mid-April and 4.93% [4.02;5.89] mid-May. Approximately 70% of seropositive individuals had detectable neutralising antibodies SERO. Seroprevalence SERO was higher in regions where circulation occurred earlier and was more intense. Seroprevalence SERO was lowest in children TRANS under 10 years of age TRANS (2.72% [1.10;4.87]). Interpretation Seroprevalence SERO estimates confirm that the nationwide lockdown substantially curbed transmission TRANS and that the vast majority of the French population remains susceptible to SARS-CoV-2. Low seroprevalence SERO in school age TRANS children TRANS suggests limited susceptibility and/or transmissibility TRANS in this age group TRANS. Our results show a clear picture of the progression of the first epidemic wave and provide a framework to inform the ongoing public health response as viral transmission TRANS is picking up again in France and globally.

    A placebo-controlled double blind trial of hydroxychloroquine in mild-to-moderate COVID-19

    Authors: Vincent Dubee; Pierre-Marie Roy; Bruno Vielle; Elsa Parot-Schinkel; Odile Blanchet; Astrid Darsonval; Caroline Lefeuvre; Chadi Abbara; Sophie Boucher; Edouard Devaud; Olivier Robineau; Patrick Rispal; Thomas Guimard; Emma D'Anglejan; Sylvain Diamantis; Marc-Antoine Custaud; Isabelle Pellier; Alain Mercat

    doi:10.1101/2020.10.19.20214940 Date: 2020-10-21 Source: medRxiv

    Background The efficacy of hydroxychloroquine in coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) remains controversial. Methods We conducted a multicentre randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial evaluating hydroxychloroquine in COVID-19 patients with at least one of the following risk factors for worsening: age TRANS 75 years or more, age TRANS between 60 and 74 years, and presence of at least one comorbidity, or need for supplemental oxygen (3 L/min or more). Eligible patients were randomized in a 1:1 ratio to receive either 800 mg hydroxychloroquine on Day 0 followed by 400 mg per day for 8 days or a placebo. The primary endpoint was a composite of death MESHD or tracheal intubation within 14 days following randomization. Secondary endpoints included mortality and clinical evolution at Day 14 and 28, viral shedding at Day 5 and 10. Results The trial was stopped after 250 patients were included due to a slowdown of the pandemic in France. The intention-to-treat population comprised 123 and 124 patients in the placebo and hydroxychloroquine groups, respectively. The median age TRANS was 77 years and 151 patients required oxygen therapy. The primary endpoint occurred in nine patients in the hydroxychloroquine group and eight patients in the placebo group (relative risk 1.12; 95% confidence interval 0.45-2.80; P=0.82). No difference was observed between the two groups in any of the secondary endpoints. Conclusion In this trial involving mainly older patients with mild-to-moderate COVID-19, patients treated with hydroxychloroquine did not experience better clinical or virological outcomes than those receiving the placebo.

    Modelling the dispersion of SARS-CoV-2 on a dynamic network graph

    Authors: Patrick Bryant; Arne Elofsson; Theresa Hippchen; Sylvia Olberg; Monique van Straaten; Hedda Wardemann; Erec Stebbins; Hans-Georg Kraeusslich; Ralf Bartenschlager; Hermann Brenner; Vibor Laketa; Ben Schoettker; Barbara Mueller; Uta Merle; Tim Waterboer; James Watmough; Jude Dzevela Kong; Iain Moyles; Huaiping Zhu

    doi:10.1101/2020.10.19.20215046 Date: 2020-10-21 Source: medRxiv

    Background When modelling the dispersion of an epidemic using R0 TRANS, one only considers the average number of individuals each infected individual will infect MESHD. However, we know from extensive studies of social networks that there is significant variation in the number of connections and thus social contacts each individual has. Individuals with more social contacts are more likely to attract and spread infection MESHD. These individuals are likely the drivers of the epidemic, so-called superspreaders. When many superspreaders are immune, it becomes more difficult for the disease to spread TRANS, as the connectedness of the social network dramatically decreases. If one assumes all individuals being equally connected and thus as likely to spread disease TRANS as in a SIR model, this is not true. Methods To account for the impact of social network structure on epidemic development, we model the dispersion of SARS-CoV-2 on a dynamic preferential attachment graph which changes appearance proportional to observed mobility changes. We sample a serial interval TRANS distribution that determines the probability of dispersion for all infected MESHD nodes each day. We model the dispersion in different age groups TRANS using age TRANS-specific infection MESHD fatality rates. We vary the infection probabilities in different age groups TRANS and analyse the outcome. Results The impact of movement on network dynamics plays a crucial role in the spread of infections. We find that higher movement results in higher spread due to an increased probability of new connections being made within a social network. We show that saturation in the dispersion can be reached much earlier on a preferential attachment graph compared to spread on a random graph, which is more similar to estimations using R0 TRANS. Conclusions We provide a novel method for modelling epidemics by using a dynamic network structure related to observed mobility changes. The social network structure plays a crucial role in epidemic development, something that is often overlooked.

    Early prognostication of COVID-19 to guide hospitalisation versus outpatient monitoring using a point-of-test risk prediction score

    Authors: Felix Chua; Rama Vancheeswaran; Adrian Draper; Tejal Vaghela; Matthew Knight; Rahul Moghal; Jaswinder Singh; Lisa G Spencer; Erica Thwaite; Harry Mitchell; Sam Calmonson; Noor Mahdi; Shershah Assadullah; Matthew Leung; Aisling O'Neill; Chhaya Popat; Radhika Kumar; Thomas J Humphries; Rebecca Talbutt; Sarika Raghunath; Philip L Molyneaux; Miriam Schechter; Jeremy Lowe; Andrew Barlow

    doi:10.1101/2020.10.19.20215426 Date: 2020-10-21 Source: medRxiv

    Introduction Risk factors of adverse outcomes in COVID-19 are defined but stratification of mortality using non-laboratory measured scores, particularly at the time of pre-hospital SARS-CoV-2 testing, is lacking. Methods Multivariate regression with bootstrapping was used to identify independent mortality predictors in a derivation cohort of COVID-19 patients. Predictions were externally validated in a large random sample of the ISARIC cohort (N=14,231) and a smaller cohort from Aintree (N=290). Results 983 patients (median age TRANS 70, IQR 53-83; in-hospital mortality 29.9%) were recruited over an 11-week study period. Through sequential modelling, a 5-predictor score termed SOARS (SpO2, Obesity HP, Age TRANS, Respiratory rate, Stroke HP Stroke MESHD history) was developed to correlate COVID-19 severity across low, moderate and high strata of mortality risk. The score discriminated well for in-hospital death, with area under the receiver operating characteristic values of 0.82, 0.80 and 0.74 in the derivation, Aintree and ISARIC validation cohorts respectively. Its predictive accuracy (calibration) in both external cohorts was consistently higher in patients with milder disease (SOARS 0-1), the same individuals who could be identified for safe outpatient monitoring. Prediction of a non-fatal outcome in this group was accompanied by high score sensitivity SERO (99.2%) and negative predictive value SERO (95.9%). Conclusion The SOARS score uses constitutive and readily assessed individual characteristics to predict the risk of COVID-19 death MESHD. Deployment of the score could potentially inform clinical triage in pre-admission settings where expedient and reliable decision-making is key. The resurgence of SARS-CoV-2 transmission TRANS provides an opportunity to further validate and update its performance SERO.


    Authors: Nathalie Van der Moeren; Vivian Zwart; Esther Lodder; Wouter Van den Bijllaardt; Harald Van Esch; Joep Stohr; Joost Pot; Ineke Welschen; Petra Van Mechelen; Suzan Pas; Jan Kluytmans; Patrick Daugherty; Shershah Assadullah; Matthew Leung; Aisling O'Neill; Chhaya Popat; Radhika Kumar; Thomas J Humphries; Rebecca Talbutt; Sarika Raghunath; Philip L Molyneaux; Miriam Schechter; Jeremy Lowe; Andrew Barlow

    doi:10.1101/2020.10.19.20215202 Date: 2020-10-21 Source: medRxiv

    Objectives: This study was primarily conducted to evaluate clinical sensitivity SERO and specificity of the SARS-CoV-2 rapid antigen test BD Veritor System for Rapid Detection of SARS-CoV-2 (VRD) compared to real time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Furthermore, the VRD sensitivity SERO for different Ct-value groups (Ct <20; Ct 20-25, Ct 25-30 and Ct > 30) and different intervals since symptom onset TRANS (< 7 days; > 7 days) were examined. Design: Prospective performance SERO evaluation study. Setting: Municipal Health Service (GGD) COVID-19 test centres in West-Brabant, the Netherlands Participants: In order to evaluate clinical specificity, 352 symptomatic adults TRANS (> 18 years) who presented at a participating GGD test centre for a COVID- 19 test between September 28 and October 7 2020 were included. In order to evaluate clinical sensitivity SERO, 123 symptomatic adults TRANS (> 18 years) who were tested positive with qRT-PCR in a participating GGD test centre between September 26 and October 6 were included. Results: An overall clinical specificity of 100% (95%CI : 98.9%-100%) and sensitivity SERO of 80.7% (95% CI: 73,2%-86,9%) was found for the VRD compared to qRT-PCR. Sensitivity SERO was the highest for low Ct-value categories and for specimen obtained within the first days after disease onset. For specimen obtained within 7 days after onset of symptoms TRANS, the overall sensitivity SERO was 91.0% (95%: CI 82,4%-96,3%) and 98,6% (95%: CI 92,3%-100%) for samples with qRT-PCR Ct-value beneath 30. Conclusion: The VRD is a promising diagnostic test for COVID-19 community screening for symptomatic individuals within 7 days after symptom onset TRANS in function of disease control. The clinical sensitivity SERO was highest when viral load was high, which correlated with the duration of symptoms. Further research on practical applicability and the optimal position of the test within the current testing landscape is needed.

    What predicts adherence to COVID-19 government guidelines? Longitudinal analyses of 51,000 UK adults TRANS.

    Authors: Liam Wright; Andrew Steptoe; Daisy Fancourt; Victoria Indenbaum; Merav Weil; Michal Elul; Oran Erster; Alin Sela Brown; Ella Mendelson; Batya Mannasse; Rachel Shirazi; Satish Lakkakula; Oren Miron; Ehud Rinott; Ricardo Gilead Baibich; Iris Bigler; Matan Malul; Rotem Rishti; Asher Brenner; Yair E. Lewis; Eran Friedler; Yael Gilboa; Sara Sabach; Yuval Alfiya; Uta Cheruti; Nadav Davidovitch; Natalya Bilenko; Jacob Moran-Gilad; Yakir Berchenko; Itay Bar-Or; Ariel Kushmaro; Timothy Spector; Claire J Steves

    doi:10.1101/2020.10.19.20215376 Date: 2020-10-21 Source: medRxiv

    In the absence of a vaccine, governments have focused on social distancing, self-isolation, and increased hygiene procedures to reduce the transmission TRANS of SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19). Compliance with these measures requires voluntary cooperation from citizens. Yet, compliance is not complete, and existing studies provide limited understanding of what factors influence compliance; in particular modifiable factors. We use weekly panel data from 51,000 adults TRANS across the first three months of lockdown in the UK to identify factors that are related to compliance with COVID-19 guidelines. We find evidence that increased confidence in government to tackle the pandemic is longitudinally related to higher compliance, but little evidence that factors such as mental health and wellbeing, worries about future adversities, and social isolation and loneliness are related to changes in compliance. Our results suggest that to effectively manage the pandemic, governments should ensure that confidence is maintained, something which has not occurred in all countries.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype

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