Corpus overview


MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Pneumonia (406)

Fever (387)

Hypertension (314)

Cough (298)

Anxiety (194)


age categories (3444)

gender (1213)

Transmission (536)

fomite (292)

contact tracing (286)

    displaying 1401 - 1410 records in total 3444
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    Assessment of Epidemiological Determinants of COVID-19 Pandemic Related to Social and Economic Factors Globally

    Authors: Mohammad Mahmudul Hassan; Abul Kalam; Shahanaj Shano; Md. Raihan Khan Nayem; Md. Kaisar Rahman; Shahneaz Ali Khan; Ariful Islam

    id:10.20944/preprints202006.0346.v1 Date: 2020-06-28 Source:

    The COVID-19 outbreak has severely affected the social and economic conditions across this globe. Little is known about the relationship of COVID-19 with countries’ economic and socio-demographic status. Publicly available data on COVID-19 test rate, attack TRANS rate, case fatality rate, and recovery rate were analyzed in relation to country’s economic status, population density, median age TRANS, and urban population ratio. We also conducted multinomial logistic regression analysis to predict the influence of countries’ social and economic factors on COVID-19. The results revealed that the median age TRANS had significant positive correlation with attack rate TRANS (r=0.2389, p=0.003), case fatality rate (r=0.3207, p=0.000) and recovery rate (r=0.4847, p=0.000). The urbanization has positive significant correlation with recovery rate (r=0.1957, p= 0.016). The multinomial logistic regression analysis revealed low-income countries are less likely to have an increased recovery rate (p=0.000) and attack rate TRANS (p=0.016) compare to high-income countries. The lower-middle-income and upper-middle-income countries are less likely to have an increased recovery rate (p=0.000 and p=0.001, respectively) compared to high-income countries. Based on the result of this study, these economic and socio-demographic factors should consider in designing appropriate preventive measures as a next step. The low and lower-middle-income countries should invest more in health care services to lower the case fatality rate and increase test and recovery rates as part of pandemic preparation like COVID-19. As the number of COVID-19 attacks, death MESHD and recovery rates are constantly changing; however, the intensive study is required to obtain a clear picture.

    Age TRANS Associated Coronavirus Disease MESHD 2019 Incubation Period TRANS: Impact on Quarantine Policy

    Authors: Daewoo Pak; Klaus Langohr; Jing Ning; Jordi Cortés; Guadalupe Gómez; Yu Shen

    doi:10.1101/2020.06.27.20141002 Date: 2020-06-28 Source: medRxiv

    Knowledge of the incubation period TRANS of coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19), defined as the time from infection to symptom onset TRANS, is critical to effectively confine COVID-19. However, the incubation period TRANS of COVID-19 is not always observed exactly due to uncertain onsets of infection MESHD and disease symptom. In this paper, we demonstrate how to estimate the distribution of incubation and its association with patient demographic factors when the dates of infection MESHD and disease onset are not explicitly. We employ a sufficiently general parametric class, the generalized odds-rate class of regression models, which includes the log-logistic proportional odds model and the Weibull proportional hazards model as special cases. We base our analysis on publicly reported, clinically confirmed COVID-19 cases with potential exposure period information. The application indicates that an age TRANS-specific quarantine policy might be more efficient than a unified one in confining COVID-19.

    Short Communication: Vitamin D and COVID-19 infection MESHD and mortality in UK Biobank

    Authors: Claire E Hastie; Jill P Pell; Naveed Sattar

    doi:10.1101/2020.06.26.20140921 Date: 2020-06-28 Source: medRxiv

    Purpose Vitamin D has been proposed as a potential causal factor in COVID-19 risk. We aimed to establish whether blood SERO 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration was associated with COVID-19 mortality, and inpatient confirmed COVID-19 infection MESHD, in UK Biobank participants. Methods UK Biobank recruited 502,624 participants aged TRANS 37-73 years between 2006 and 2010. Baseline exposure data, including 25(OH)D concentration, were linked to COVID-19 mortality. Univariable and multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression analyses were performed for the association between 25(OH)D and COVID-19 death MESHD, and poisson regression analyses for the association between 25(OH)D and severe COVID-19 infection MESHD. Results Complete data were available for 341,484 UK Biobank participants, of which 656 had inpatient confirmed COVID-19 infection MESHD and 203 died of COVID-19 infection MESHD. Vitamin D was associated with severe COVID-19 infection MESHD and mortality univariably (mortality HR=0.99; 95% CI 0.98-0.998; p=0.016), but not after adjustment for confounders (mortality HR=0.998; 95% CI=0.99-1.01; p=0.696). Conclusions Our findings do not support a potential link between vitamin D concentrations and risk of severe COVID-19 infection MESHD and mortality. Recommendations for vitamin D supplementation to lessen COVID-19 risks may provide false reassurance.

    Time to RNA Negative Conversion in Moroccan COVID-19 Patients: A Single-Centre Experience

    Authors: Imane Smyej; Leila Jeddane; Idrissa Diawara; Jalila Rahoui; Nida Meskaouni; Rachid Benmessaoud; Khadija Arouro; Khadij Jaras; Hind Rida; Fatima Zahra Moujid; Zahra Adam; Salma Nahir; Zineb Aouzal; Hajar Elguezzar; Fadwa Ousti; Houda Benrahma; Jalila El Bakkouri

    id:10.20944/preprints202006.0334.v1 Date: 2020-06-28 Source:

    The COVID-19 global pandemic is now a public health emergency in Morocco. Reports on factors associated with prolonged viral shedding are not consistent. In this retrospective laboratory based study, time to RNA negative conversion is reported in a series of 129 patients monitored in a single laboratory in Casablanca. Risk factors associated with delayed negative conversion have been evaluated, by chi-squared test. Median delay of negative conversion was 22.5 days (IQR 17.75-29.0) from illness onset. Neither gender TRANS nor age TRANS were particularly associated with delayed viral clearance. Delayed time to hospital admission and disease severity were associated with prolonged viral shedding in this series. We recommend early diagnosis and treatment onset to reduce time to viral clearance and transmissibility TRANS of SARS-CoV-2 virus.

    The impact of SARS-CoV-2 transmission TRANS fear and COVID-19 pandemic on the mental health of patients with primary immunodeficiency disorders MESHD immunodeficiency HP disorders, severe asthma HP asthma MESHD, and other high-risk groups

    Authors: Fatih Colkesen; Oguzhan Kilincel; Mehmet Sozen; Eray Yildiz; Sengul Beyaz; Fatma Colkesen; Gokhan Aytekin; Mehmet Zahit Kocak; Yakup Alsancak; Murat Araz; Sevket Arslan

    doi:10.1101/2020.06.26.20140616 Date: 2020-06-28 Source: medRxiv

    Background: The adverse effects of COVID-19 pandemic on the mental health of high-risk group patients for morbidity and mortality and its impact on public health in the long term have not been clearly determined. Objective: To determine the level of COVID-19 related transmission TRANS fear and anxiety HP anxiety MESHD in healthcare workers and patients with primary immunodeficiency disorder MESHD immunodeficiency HP disorder ( PID MESHD), severe asthma HP asthma MESHD, and the ones with other comorbidities. Methods: The healthcare workers and patients with PID MESHD, severe asthma HP asthma MESHD (all patients receiving biological agent treatment), malignancy MESHD, cardiovascular disease MESHD, hypertension HP hypertension MESHD (90% of patients receiving ACEI or ARB therapy), diabetes mellitus HP diabetes mellitus MESHD (42 % of patients receiving DPP-4 inhibitor therapy) were included in the study. A total of 560 participants, 80 individuals in each group, were provided. The hospital anxiety HP anxiety MESHD and depression MESHD scale ( HADS ) and Fear of illness and virus evaluation (FIVE ) scales were applied to the groups with face to face interview methods. Results: The mean age TRANS was 49.30 years and 306 (55 %) were female TRANS. The FIVE Scale and HADS-A scale scores of health care workers were significantly higher than other groups' scores (p = 0.001 and 0.006). The second-highest scores belonged to patients with PID MESHD. There was no significant difference between the groups for the HADS-D score (p=0.07). The lowest score in all scales was observed in patients with hypertension HP hypertension MESHD. Conclusions: This study demonstrated that in the pandemic process, patients with primary immunodeficiency MESHD immunodeficiency HP, asthma HP asthma MESHD patients, and other comorbid patients, especially healthcare workers, should be referred to the centers for the detection and treatment of mental health conditions.

    Lung Ultrasound Findings in Patients Hospitalized with Covid-19

    Authors: Andre D Kumar; Sukyung Chung; Youyou Duanmu; Sally Graglia; Farhan Lalani; Kavita Gandhi; Viveta Lobo; Trevor Jensen; Yingjie Weng; Jeffrey Nahn; John Kugler

    doi:10.1101/2020.06.25.20140392 Date: 2020-06-28 Source: medRxiv

    Introduction: Point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) has the potential to transform healthcare delivery in the era of COVID-19 with its diagnostic and therapeutic expediency. It can be performed by clinicians already at the bedside, which permits an immediate and augmented assessment of a patient. Although lung ultrasound can be used to accurately diagnose a variety of disease states such as pneumothorax HP, pleural effusions HP pleural effusions MESHD, pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD and interstitial lung disease2, there are limited reports on the sonographic manifestations of COVID-19. There is an urgent need to identify alternative diagnostic modalities that can be immediately employed at the bedside of COVID-19 patients. Methods: This study was conducted at two medical centers in the United States from 3/21/2020-6/01/2020. Any adult TRANS who was hospitalized with COVID-19 (based on symptomatology and a confirmatory RT-PCR for SARS-CoV-2) and received a pulmonary POCUS examination was included. Providers were instructed to use a 12-zone scanning protocol for pulmonary views and save 6 second clips of each lung zone. This study utilized several POCUS devices, including Butterfly IQ, Vave, Lumify, and Sonosite. The collected images were interpreted by the study researchers based on a consensus document developed by the study authors and previously accepted definitions of lung POCUS findings. Results: A total of 22 eligible patients who received 36 lung scans were included in our study. Eleven (50%) patients experienced clinical deterioration (defined as either ICU admission, invasive mechanical ventilation, or death MESHD within 28 days from the initial symptom onset TRANS). Among the 36 lung scans collected, only 3 (8%) were classified as normal. The remaining scans had the following abnormalities: presence of B-lines (n=32, 89%), consolidations (n=20, 56%), pleural thickening HP pleural thickening MESHD (n=17, 47%), and pleural effusion HP pleural effusion MESHD (n=4, 11%). Out of 20 scans with consolidations, 14 (70%) were subpleural and 5 (25%) were translobar. A-lines were present in 26 (72%) of patients, although they were only observed in the majority of the collected lung zones in 5 (14%) of patients. Ultrasound findings were stratified by time from symptom onset TRANS to the scan based on the following time periods: early (0-6 days), middle (7-13 days), and late (14-28 days). B-lines appeared early after symptom onset TRANS and persisted well into the late disease course. In contrast, pleural thickening HP pleural thickening MESHD increased in frequency over time (early: 25%, middle: 47%, late: 67%). Subpleural consolidations also appeared in higher frequency later in the disease course (early: 13%, middle 42%, late: 56%). Discussion: certain lung ultrasound findings may be common in Covid-19, while others may appear later in the disease course or only occur in patients who experience clinical deterioration. Future efforts should investigate the predictive utility of consolidations, pleural thickening HP pleural thickening MESHD and B-lines for clinical deterioration and compare them to traditional radiological studies such as X-rays or CTs.

    Predicting the disease outcome in COVID-19 positive patients through Machine Learning: a retrospective cohort study with Brazilian data

    Authors: Fernanda Sumika Hojo Souza; Natália Satchiko Hojo-Souza; Edimilson Batista Santos; Cristiano Maciel Silva; Daniel Ludovico Guidoni

    doi:10.1101/2020.06.26.20140764 Date: 2020-06-28 Source: medRxiv

    The first officially registered case of COVID-19 in Brazil was on February 26, 2020. Since then, the situation has worsened with more than 672,000 confirmed cases TRANS and at least 36,000 reported deaths at the time of this writing. Accurate diagnosis of patients with COVID-19 is extremely important to offer adequate treatment, and avoid overloading the healthcare system. Characteristics of patients such as age TRANS, comorbidities and varied clinical symptoms can help in classifying the level of infection severity, predict the disease outcome and the need for hospitalization. Here, we present a study to predict a poor prognosis in positive COVID-19 patients and possible outcomes using machine learning. The study dataset comprises information of 13,690 patients concerning closed cases due to cure or death MESHD. Our experimental results show the disease outcome can be predicted with a ROC AUC of 0.92, Sensitivity SERO of 0.88 and Specificity of 0.82 for the best prediction model. This is a preliminary retrospective study which can be improved with the inclusion of further data. Conclusion: Machine learning techniques fed with demographic and clinical data along with comorbidities of the patients can assist in the prognostic prediction and physician decision-making, allowing a faster response and contributing to the non-overload of healthcare systems.

    Cost Benefit Analysis of Limited Reopening Relative to a Herd Immunity Strategy or Shelter in Place for SARS-CoV-2 in the United States

    Authors: Robert B Schonberger; Yair J Listokin; Ian Ayres; Reza Yaesoubi; Zachary R Shelley

    doi:10.1101/2020.06.26.20141044 Date: 2020-06-28 Source: medRxiv

    Background: Fierce debate about the health and financial tradeoffs presented by different COVID-19 pandemic mitigation strategies highlights the need for rigorous quantitative evaluation of policy options. Objective: To quantify the economic value of the costs and benefits of a policy of continued limited reopening with social distancing relative to alternative COVID-19 response strategies in the United States. Design: We estimate the number and value of quality-adjusted life-years (QALY) gained from mortality averted, with a value of $125,000 per QALY, and compare these benefits to the associated costs in terms of plausible effects on US GDP under a policy of continued limited reopening with social distancing relative to a policy of full reopening toward herd immunity. Using the same QALY value assumptions, we further evaluate cost-effectiveness of a return to Shelter-in-Place relative to a policy of limited reopening. Setting: United States Measurements: QALY and cost as percent of GDP of limited reopening with continued social distancing relative to a strategy of full reopening aimed at achieving herd immunity; a limited reopening budget measured in the number of months before this strategy fails to demonstrate cost-effectiveness relative to a full reopening; a shelter-in-place threshold measured in the number of lives saved at which a month of sheltering in place demonstrates cost effectiveness relative to the limited reopening strategy. Results: QALY benefits from mortality averted by continued social distancing and limited reopening relative to a policy of full reopening exceed projected GDP costs if an effective vaccine or therapeutic can be developed within 11.1 months from late May 2020. White House vaccine projections fall HP within this date, supporting a partial reopening strategy. One month of shelter-in-place restrictions provides QALY benefits from averted mortality that exceed the associated GDP costs relative to limited reopening if the restrictions prevent at least 154,586 additional COVID-19 deaths over the course of the pandemic. Current models of disease progression suggest that limited reopening will not cause this many additional deaths MESHD, again supporting a limited reopening strategy. Limitation: Limited horizon of COVID-19 mortality projections; infection fatality ratio stable across strategies, ignoring both the potential for ICU overload to increase mortality and the deployment of partially effective therapeutics to decrease mortality; effect on GDP modeled as constant within a given phase of the pandemic; accounts for age TRANS and sex distribution of QALYs, but not effect of comorbidities; only considers impact from QALY lost due to mortality and from changes in GDP, excluding numerous other considerations, such as non-fatal COVID-19 morbidity, reduced quality of life caused by prolonged social distancing, or educational regression associated with prolonged school closures and restrictions. Conclusions: A limited reopening to achieve partial mitigation of COVID-19 is cost effective relative to a full reopening if an effective therapeutic or vaccine can be deployed within 11.1 months of late May 2020. One additional month of shelter-in-place restrictions should only be imposed if it saves at least 154,586 lives per month before the development of an effective therapeutic or vaccine relative to limited reopening.

    Prioritizing delivery of cancer MESHD treatment during a COVID19 lockdown - the experience of a clinical oncology service in India

    Authors: Indranil Mallick; Santam Chakraborty; Shweta Baral; Saheli Saha; Vishnu H Lal; Rohit Sasidharan; Samarth Chhatbar; Subecha Bhushal; Love Goyal; Shaurav Maulik; Vezokhoto Phesao; Siddharth Arora; Anurupa Mahata; Sriram Prasath; B Arun; Samar Mandal; Tapesh Bhattacharyya; Moses Arunsingh; Rimpa Basu Achari; Sanjoy Chatterjee

    doi:10.21203/ Date: 2020-06-28 Source: ResearchSquare

    INTRODUCTION: A COVID19 lockdown in India posed significant challenges to the continuation of radiotherapy (RT) and systemic therapy services. While several COVID19 service guidelines have been promulgated, implementation data is yet unavailable. We performed a comprehensive audit of the implementation of services in a clinical oncology department.METHODS AND MATERIALS: A departmental protocol of priority-based treatment guidance was developed and a departmental staff rotation policy was implemented. Data was collected for the period of lockdown on outpatient visits, starting, and delivery of RT and systemic therapy. Adherence to protocol was audited, and factors affecting change from pre-COVID standards analyzed by multivariate logistic regression.RESULTS: Outpatient consults dropped by 58%. Planned RT starts were implemented in 90%, 100%, 92%, 90% and 75% of priority level 1-5 patients. While 17% had a deferred start, the median time to start of adjuvant RT and overall treatment times were maintained. Concurrent chemotherapy was administered in 89% of those eligible. Systemic therapy was administered to 84.5% of planned patients with 33% and 57% of curative and palliative patients receiving modified or deferred cycles. The patient’s inability to come was the commonest reason for RT or ST deviation. Factors independently associated with a change from pre-COVID practice was priority level allocation for RT and age TRANS and palliative intent for systemic therapy.CONCLUSIONS: Despite significant access limitations a planned priority-based system of delivery of treatment could be implemented.

    Spatio-temporal predictive modeling framework for infectious disease MESHD disease spread TRANS

    Authors: Sashikumaar Ganesan; Deepak Subramani

    id:2006.15336v2 Date: 2020-06-27 Source: arXiv

    A novel predictive modeling framework for the spread of infectious diseases using high dimensional partial differential equations is developed and implemented. A scalar function representing the infected population is defined on a high-dimensional space and its evolution over all directions is described by a population balance equation (PBE). New infections MESHD are introduced among the susceptible population from non-quarantined infected population based on their interaction, adherence to distancing norms, hygiene levels and any other societal interventions. Moreover, recovery, death, immunity and all aforementioned parameters are modeled on the high-dimensional space. To epitomize the capabilities and features of the above framework, prognostic estimates of Covid-19 spread using a six-dimensional (time, 2D space, infection MESHD severity, duration of infection MESHD, and population age TRANS) PBE is presented. Further, scenario analysis for different policy interventions and population behavior is presented, throwing more insights into the spatio-temporal spread of infections MESHD across disease age TRANS, intensity and age TRANS of population. These insights could be used for science-informed policy planning.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype

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