Corpus overview


Overview

MeSH Disease

Infections (1129)

Disease (1050)

Death (725)

Coronavirus Infections (654)

Fever (330)


Human Phenotype

Pneumonia (333)

Fever (331)

Hypertension (263)

Cough (258)

Anxiety (139)


Transmission

age categories (2683)

gender (961)

Transmission (416)

fomite (249)

asymptotic cases (216)


Seroprevalence
    displaying 1411 - 1420 records in total 2707
    records per page




    The misleading illusion MESHD of COVID-19 confirmed case TRANS data: alternative estimates and a monitoring tool

    Authors: Rogelio Macías-Ordóñez; Damián Villaseñor-Amador

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.20.20107516 Date: 2020-05-25 Source: medRxiv

    Confirmed Case TRANS Data have been widely cited during the current COVID-19 pandemic as an estimate of the spread of the SARS-CoV-2 virus. However, their central role in media, official reports and decision-making may be undeserved and misleading. Previously published Infection MESHD Fatality Rates were weighted by age TRANS structure in the 50 countries with more reported deaths MESHD to obtain country-specific rates. For each country, the number of infections MESHD up to the Infection MESHD Date (23 days ago = Incubation Period TRANS + Onset to Death MESHD period) and the present percentage of immune population were estimated using Infection MESHD Fatality Rate, the number of reported deaths MESHD (which is less prone to undersampling), and projecting back to Infection MESHD Date. We then estimated a Detection Index for each country as the percentage of estimated infections MESHD infections that confirmed TRANS that confirmed cases represent. Assuming that detection remains constant after Infection MESHD Date, we estimated the number of deaths MESHD and the estimated percentage of the population of each country expected to be immune up to 23 days into the future. Estimated Infection MESHD Fatality Rates are higher in Europe. In most countries, confirmed cases TRANS currently represent less than 30% of estimated infections MESHD on Infection MESHD Date, and this value decreases with time. Countries with flat curves throughout the pandemic show the lowest immunity percentages and these values seem unlikely to change in the near future, suggesting that they remain vulnerable to new outbreaks. Estimates for some countries with low Infection MESHD Fatality Rates suggest a still steep increase in the number of casualties in the next three weeks. Countries that did not control initial outbreaks seem to have reached higher immunity percentages, although mostly still under 5%. We provide the code to monitor the trajectories of these estimates in 178 countries throughout the COVID-19 pandemic.

    Susceptibility to and transmission TRANS of COVID-19 amongst children TRANS and adolescents compared with adults TRANS: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Authors: Russell M Viner; Oliver T Mytton; Chris Bonell; G.J. Melendez-Torres; Joseph L Ward; Lee Hudson; Claire Waddington; James Thomas; Simon Russell; Fiona van der Klis; Jasmina Panovska-Griffiths; Nicholas G Davies; Robert Booy; Rosalind Eggo

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.20.20108126 Date: 2020-05-24 Source: medRxiv

    Background The degree to which children TRANS and young people are infected by and transmit the SARS-CoV-2 virus is unclear. Clinical series and testing cohorts based upon screening of symptomatic cases provide biased estimates of susceptibility in children TRANS. The role of children TRANS and young people in transmission TRANS of SARS-CoV-2 is dependent on susceptibility, symptoms, viral load, social contact patterns and behaviour. Methods We undertook a rapid systematic review of contact-tracing TRANS studies and population-screening studies to address the question What is the susceptibility to and transmission TRANS of SARS-CoV-2 by children TRANS and adolescents compared with adults TRANS? We searched PubMed and medRxiv on 16 May 2020 and identified 6327 studies, with additional studies identified through handsearching of cited references (2) and professional contacts (4). We assessed quality, summarized findings and undertook a random effects meta-analysis of contact-tracing TRANS studies. Results 18 studies met inclusion criteria; 9 contact-tracing TRANS, 8 population-screening and 1 systematic-review. Meta-analysis of contact tracing TRANS studies showed that the pooled odds ratio of being an infected contact in children TRANS compared with adults TRANS for all contact tracing TRANS studies was 0.44 (0.29, 0.69) with substantial heterogeneity (63%). Findings from a systematic review of household clusters of COVID-19 found 3/31 (10%) were due to a child TRANS index case and a population-based school contact tracing TRANS study found minimal transmission TRANS by child TRANS or teacher index cases. Findings from population-screening studies were heterogenous and not suitable for meta-analysis. Large studies from Iceland, the Netherlands and Spain and an Italian municipal study showed markedly lower SARS-CoV-2 prevalence SERO amongst children TRANS and young people, however studies from Stockholm, England and municipalities in Switzerland and Germany showed showed no difference in infection MESHD prevalence SERO between adults TRANS and children TRANS. Conclusions There is preliminary evidence that children TRANS and young people have lower susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2, with a 56% lower odds of being an infected contact. There is weak evidence that children TRANS and young people play a lesser role in transmission TRANS of SARS-CoV-2 at a population level. Our study provides no information on the infectivity of children TRANS.

    SARS-CoV-2 lethality decreased over time in two Italian Provinces

    Authors: Maria Elena Flacco; Cecilia Acuti Martellucci; Francesca Bravi; Giustino Parruti; Alfonso Mascitelli; Lorenzo Mantovani; Stefania Boccia; Lamberto Manzoli

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.23.20110882 Date: 2020-05-24 Source: medRxiv

    Background Some experts recently reported that SARS-CoV-2 lethality decreased considerably, but no evidence is yet available. This retrospective cohort study aimed to evaluate whether SARS-CoV-2 case-fatality rate decreased with time, adjusting for several potential confounders. Methods We included all subjects diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD in Ferrara and Pescara provinces, Italy. Information were collected from local registries, clinical charts, and electronic health records. We compared the case-fatality rate (after >=28 days of follow-up) of the subjects diagnosed during April and March, 2020. We used Cox proportional hazards analysis and random-effect logistic regression, adjusting for age TRANS, gender TRANS, hypertension MESHD hypertension HP, type II diabetes, major cardiovascular diseases MESHD (CVD), chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases MESHD chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases HP (COPD), cancer and renal disease MESHD. Results The sample included 2493 subjects (mean age TRANS 58.6y; 47.7% males TRANS). 258 persons deceased, after a mean of 16.1 days of follow-up. The mean age TRANS of those who died substantially increased from March (78.1+/-11.0y) to April (84.3+/-10.2y). From March to April, the case-fatality rate did not decrease in the total sample (9.5% versus 12.1%; adjusted hazard ratio 0.93; 95% Confidence Interval: 0.71-1.21; p=0.6), and in any age TRANS-class. Conclusions In this sample, SARS-CoV-2 case-fatality rate did not decrease over time, in contrast with recent claims of a substantial improvement of SARS-CoV-2 clinical management. The findings require confirmation from larger datasets.

    COVID-19 pandemic brings a sedentary lifestyle: a cross-sectional and longitudinal study

    Authors: Chen ZHENG; Wendy Yajun HUANG; Sinead SHERIDAN; Cindy Hui-Ping SIT; Xiang-Ke CHEN; Stephen Heung-Sang WONG

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.22.20110825 Date: 2020-05-24 Source: medRxiv

    Objectives: The coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic continues to pose profound challenges on society. Governments around the world have managed to mitigate its spread through strategies including social distancing; however, this may result in the adoption of sedentary lifestyle. This study aimed to investigate: 1) physical activity (PA) levels, sedentary behavior (SB) and sleep among young adults TRANS during COVID-19 epidemic, and 2) the change in these behaviors before and during the pandemic. Methods: A total of 631 young adults TRANS (38.8% males TRANS) participated in the cross-sectional study and completed an online survey that included five components: general information, COVID-19 related issues, PA, SB, and sleep. For longitudinal study, PA, SB, and sleep data collected from 70 participants before and during COVID-19 pandemic were analyzed. Results: Participants reported engaging in low PA, high SB and long sleep duration during COVID-19 pandemic. Females TRANS had greater concern for COVID-19 related issues and engaged in more prevention strategies than males TRANS. Moreover, a significant decline in PA while increase in both times spent in SB and sleep were determined after COVID-19 outbreak. Conclusion: The results of this study demonstrated a sedentary lifestyle in young adults TRANS in responses to social distancing during the COVID-19 pandemic, which will assist health policy makers and practitioners in the development of population specific health education and behavior interventions during this pandemic and for other future events.

    Predictors of misconceptions, knowledge, attitudes, and practices of COVID-19 pandemic among a sample of Saudi population and its impact: a cross-sectional study

    Authors: Mukhtiar Baig; Tahir Jameel; Sami H Alzahrani; Ahmad A Mirza; Zohair J Gazzaz; Tauseef Ahmad; Fizzah Baig; Saleh H Almurashi

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.22.20110627 Date: 2020-05-24 Source: medRxiv

    Objectives: To explore the predictors of misconceptions, knowledge, attitudes, and practices of the COVID-19 pandemic among a sample of the Saudi population and its impact. Design: An online cross-sectional study. Setting: Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Participants: A total of 2006 participants [953(47.5%) females TRANS, and 1053(52.5%) males TRANS], and more than 18 years of age TRANS were included in the study. Data collection and analysis: This cross-sectional survey was conducted at the Faculty of Medicine, Rabigh, King Abdulaziz University (KAU). The participants were approached by social media (SM). An online questionnaire was administered, and the data were analyzed on SPSS-26. Results: The SM was the leading source of information 889(43.9%). Two-thirds of the participants, 1250(66.9%) had various misconceptions, and about one-third of the study participants 637(31.7%) had disturbed social, mental, and psychological wellbeing, and many participants became more religious. Two-thirds of the study participants, 1292(68.1%) had good knowledge score. The attitude was highly positive in 1867(93.1%) participants, and the practice score was adequate in 1939(97.7%). The participants educational status was the predictor of good knowledge. Male TRANS gender TRANS and divorced ones were the predictor of poor practice scores and age TRANS 51-60 years, private jobholders, and students were the predictors of the good practice scores. The Saudi nationality was the predictor of participants positive attitude, while the male TRANS gender TRANS and divorced ones were predictors of a negative attitude. The male TRANS gender TRANS and higher education status were the predictors of good concepts, while the older age TRANS and job (own business) were the predictors of misconceptions. Conclusion: Our study observed several predictors of misconceptions, knowledge, attitudes, and practices among the Saudi population. Our participants had a good realization of the impact of this pandemic.

    Determinants of COVID-19 Vaccine Acceptance in the U.S.

    Authors: Amyn A. Malik; SarahAnn M. McFadden; Jad Elharake; Saad B. Omer

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.22.20110700 Date: 2020-05-24 Source: medRxiv

    Background:The COVID-19 pandemic continues to adversely affect the U.S., which leads globally in total cases and deaths MESHD. As COVID-19 vaccines are under development, public health officials and policymakers need to create strategic vaccine-acceptance messaging to effectively control the pandemic and prevent thousands of additional deaths MESHD. Methods: Using an online platform, we surveyed the U.S. adult TRANS population in May 2020 to understand risk perceptions about the COVID-19 pandemic, acceptance of a COVID-19 vaccine, and trust in sources of information. These factors were compared across basic demographics. Findings: Of the 672 participants surveyed, 450 (67%) said they would accept a COVID-19 vaccine if it is recommended for them. Males TRANS (72%), older adults TRANS ([≥]55 years; 78%), Asians (81%), and college and/or graduate degree holders (75%) were more likely to accept the vaccine. When comparing reported influenza vaccine uptake to reported acceptance of the COVID-19 vaccine: 1) participants who did not complete high school had a very low influenza vaccine uptake (10%), while 60% of the same group said they would accept the COVID-19 vaccine; 2) unemployed participants reported lower influenza uptake and lower COVID-19 vaccine acceptance when compared to those employed or retired; and, 3) black Americans reported lower influenza vaccine uptake and lower COVID-19 vaccine acceptance than nearly all other racial groups. Lastly, we identified geographic differences with Department of Health and Human Services regions 2 (New York) and 5 (Chicago) reporting less than 50 percent COVID-19 vaccine acceptance. Interpretation: Although our study found a 67% acceptance of a COVID-19 vaccine, there were noticeable demographic and geographical disparities in vaccine acceptance. Before a COVID-19 vaccine is introduced to the U.S., public health officials and policymakers must prioritize effective COVID-19 vaccine-acceptance messaging for all Americans, especially those who are most vulnerable.

    Outcomes from COVID-19 across the range of frailty MESHD: excess mortality in fitter older people

    Authors: Amy Miles; Thomas E Webb; Benjamin Mcloughlin; Imran Mannan; Arshad Rather; Paul Knopp; Daniel Davis

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.22.20110486 Date: 2020-05-24 Source: medRxiv

    Purpose Our aim was to quantify the mortality from COVID-19 and identify any interactions with frailty MESHD and other demographic factors. Methods Hospitalised patients aged TRANS [≥]70 were included, comparing COVID-19 cases with non-COVID-19 controls admitted over the same period. Frailty MESHD was prospectively measured and mortality ascertained through linkage with national and local statutory reports. Results In 217 COVID-19 cases and 160 controls, older age TRANS and South Asian ethnicity, though not socioeconomic position, were associated with higher mortality. For frailty MESHD, differences in effect size were evident between cases (HR 1.02, 95%CI 0.93-1.12) and controls (HR 1.99, 95%CI 1.46-2.72), with an interaction term (HR 0.51, 95%CI 0.37-0.71) in multivariable models. Conclusions Our findings suggest that (i) frailty MESHD is not a good discriminator of prognosis in COVID-19 and (ii) pathways to mortality may differ in fitter compared with frailer older patients.

    Succumbing to the COVID-19 Pandemic: Healthcare Workers not Satisfied and Intend to Leave Their Jobs

    Authors: Stephen X. Zhang; Jiyao Chen; Asghar Afshar Jahanshahi; Aldo Alvarez-Risco; Huiyang Dai; Jizhen Li; Ross Patty-Tito

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.22.20110809 Date: 2020-05-24 Source: medRxiv

    Background: Healthcare workers are under such a tremendous amount of pressure during the COVID-19 pandemic that many have become concerned about their jobs and even intend to leave them. It is paramount for healthcare workers to feel satisfied with their jobs and lives during a pandemic. Methods: Between 10 to 30 April, 2020, 240 healthcare workers in Bolivia completed a cross-sectional online survey, which assessed their job satisfaction, life satisfaction, and turnover intention in the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. Results: The results revealed that their number of office days predicted job satisfaction, life satisfaction, and turnover intention, but the relationships varied by their age TRANS. For example, office days of healthcare workers negatively predicted job satisfaction for the young (e.g. at 25 years old: b=-0.21; 95% CI: -0.36 to -0.60) but positively predicted job satisfaction for the old (e.g. at 65 years old: b=0.25; 95% CI: 0.06 to 0.44). Conclusions: These findings provide evidence to enable healthcare organizations to identify staff concerned about job satisfaction, life satisfaction, and turnover intention to enable early actions so that these staff can remain motivated to fight the prolonged COVID-19 pandemic. Keywords: healthcare staff; office days; Latin America; occupational well-being; risk factors; COVID-19

    Epidemiological monitoring and control perspectives: application of a parsimonious modelling framework to the COVID-19 dynamics in France

    Authors: Mircea T. Sofonea; Bastien Reyné; Baptiste Elie; Ramsès Djidjou-Demasse; Christian Selinger; Yannis Michalakis; Samuel Alizon

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.22.20110593 Date: 2020-05-24 Source: medRxiv

    SARS-Cov-2 virus has spread over the world creating one of the fastest pandemics ever. The absence of immunity, asymptomatic TRANS transmission TRANS, and the relatively high level of virulence of the COVID-19 infection MESHD it causes led to a massive flow of patients in intensive care units (ICU). This unprecedented situation calls for rapid and accurate mathematical models to best inform public health policies. We develop an original parsimonious model that accounts for the effect of the age TRANS of infection MESHD on the natural history of the disease MESHD. Analysing the ongoing COVID-19 in France, we estimate the value of the key epidemiological parameters, such as the basic reproduction number TRANS ( R0 TRANS), and the efficiency of the national control strategy. We then use our deterministic model to explore several scenarios posterior to lock-down lifting and compare the efficiency of non pharmaceutical interventions (NPI) described in the literature.

    C-Reactive protein and SOFA score as early predictors of critical care requirement in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP in Spain.

    Authors: Luis Mario Vaquero Sr.; Maria Elisa Sanchez Barrado; Daniel Escobar Jr.; Pilar Arribas; Jose Ramon Gonzalez Sr.; Jesus Francisco Bermejo; Cristina Doncel; JM Bastida; Azucena Hernandez; Carolina Jambrina; Miguel Vicente Sanchez

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.22.20110429 Date: 2020-05-24 Source: medRxiv

    Background: Some patients infected by SARS-CoV-2 in the recent pandemic have required critical care, becoming one of the main limitations of the health systems. Our objective has been to identify potential markers at admission predicting the need for critical care in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP Methods: We retrospectively collected and analyzed data from electronic medical records of patients with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-19 infection MESHD by real-time RT-PCR. A comparison was made between patients staying in the hospitalization ward with those who required critical care. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression methods were used to identify risk factors predicting critical care need Findings: Between March 15 and April 15, 2020, 150 patients under the age TRANS of 75 were selected (all with laboratory confirmed SARS-CoV-19 infection MESHD), 75 patients requiring intensive care assistance and 75 remaining the regular hospitalization ward. Most patients requiring critical care were males TRANS, 76% compared with 60% in the non-critical care group (p<0,05). Multivariable regression showed increasing odds of in-hospital critical care associated with increased C-reactive protein (CRP) (odds ratio 1,052 (1,009-1,101); p=0,0043) and higher Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score (1,968 (1,389-2,590) p<0,0001) both at the time of hospital admission. The AUC-ROC for the combined model was 0,83 (0,76-0,90) (vs AUC-ROC SOFA p<0,05) Interpretation: Patients COVID-19 positive presenting at admission with high SOFA score [≥]2 combined with CRP [≥] 9,1 mg/mL could help clinicians to identify them as a group that will more likely require critical care so further actions might be implemented to improve their prognosis

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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