Corpus overview


MeSH Disease


age categories (4197)

gender (1443)

Transmission (645)

contact tracing (357)

fomite (326)

    displaying 11 - 20 records in total 4197
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    Diabetes MESHD and Mortality Among 1.6 Million Adult TRANS Patients Screened for SARS-CoV-2 in Mexico

    Authors: Orison O Woolcott; Juan P Castilla-Bancayan; Xutao Wang; William Evan Johnson; Anna Coussens

    doi:10.1101/2020.11.25.20238345 Date: 2020-11-26 Source: medRxiv

    Background: Whether diabetes MESHD is associated with COVID-19 MESHD-related mortality remains unclear. Methods: In this retrospective case-series study we examined the risk of death MESHD associated with self-reported diabetes MESHD in symptomatic adult TRANS patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 MESHD who were identified through the System of Epidemiological Surveillance of Viral Respiratory Disease MESHD in Mexico from January 1 through November 4, 2020. Survival time was right-censored at 28 days of follow-up. Results: Among 757,210 patients with COVID-19 MESHD included in the study, 120,476 (16%) had diabetes MESHD and 80,616 died. Patients with diabetes had a 49% higher relative risk of death than those without diabetes (Cox proportional-hazard ratio; 1.49 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.47-1.52), adjusting for age TRANS, sex, smoking habit, obesity HP, hypertension HP, immunodeficiency HP, and cardiovascular, pulmonary, and chronic renal disease. The relative risk of death associated with diabetes decreased with age TRANS (P=0.004). The hazard ratios were 1.66 (1.58-1.74) in outpatients and 1.14 (1.12-1.16) in hospitalized patients. The 28-day survival for inpatients with and without diabetes was, respectively, 73.5% and 85.2% for patients 20-39 years of age TRANS; 66.6% and 75.9% for patients 40-49 years of age TRANS; 59.4% and 66.5% for patients 50-59 years of age TRANS; 50.1% and 54.6% for patients 60-69 years of age TRANS; 42.7% and 44.6% for patients 70-79 years of age TRANS; and 38.4% and 39.0% for patients 80 years of age TRANS or older. In patients without COVID-19 MESHD (878,840), the adjusted hazard ratio for mortality was 1.78 (1.73-1.84). Conclusion: In symptomatic adult TRANS patients with COVID-19 MESHD in Mexico, diabetes was associated with higher mortality. This association decreased with age TRANS.

    Exploring Risks of Human Challenge Trials for COVID-19 MESHD

    Authors: David Manheim; Witold Wiecek; Virginia Schmit; Josh Morrison; Melissa Campbell; Arnau Casanovas-Massana; Patrick S Daugherty; Charles S Dela Cruz; Abhilash Dhal; Shelli F Farhadian; Lynn Fitzgibbons; John Fournier; Michael Jhatro; Gregory Jordan; Debra Kessler; Jon Klein; Carolina Lucas; Larry L Luchsinger; Brian Martinez; Mary C Muenker; Lauren Pischel; Jack Reifert; Jaymie R Sawyer; Rebecca Waitz; Elsio A Wunder Jr.; Minlu Zhang; - Yale IMPACT Team; Akiko Iwasaki; Albert I Ko; John C Shon

    doi:10.1101/2020.11.19.20234658 Date: 2020-11-26 Source: medRxiv

    Human Challenge Trials (HCTs) are a potential method to accelerate development of vaccines and therapeutics. However, HCTs for COVID-19 MESHD pose ethical and practical challenges, in part due to the unclear and developing risks. In this paper, we introduce an interactive model for exploring some risks of a SARS-COV-2 dosing study, a prerequisite for any COVID-19 MESHD challenge trials. The risk estimates we use are based on a Bayesian evidence synthesis model which can incorporate new data on infection fatality MESHD rates (IFRs) to patients, and infer rates of hospitalization. We have also created a web tool to explore risk under different study design parameters and participant scenarios. Finally, we use our model to estimate individual risk, as well as the overall mortality and hospitalization risk in a dosing study. Based on the Bayesian model we expect IFR for someone between 20 and 30 years of age TRANS to be 17.5 in 100,000, with 95% uncertainty interval from 12.8 to 23.6. Using this estimate, we find that a simple 50-person dosing trial using younger individuals has a 99.1% (95% CI: 98.8% to 99.4%) probability of no fatalities, and a 92.8% (95% CI: 90.3% to 94.6%) probability of no cases requiring hospitalization. However, this IFR will be reduced in an HCT via screening for comorbidities, as well as providing medical care and aggressive treatment for any cases which occur, so that with stronger assumptions, we project the risk to be as low as 3.1 per 100,000, with a 99.85% (95% CI: 99.7% to 99.9%) chance of no fatalities, and a 98.7% (95% CI: 97.4% to 99.3%) probability of no cases requiring hospitalization.

    Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic MESHD on Clinical Incidents and Complaints at a UK Teaching Hospital

    Authors: William Atiomo; Peter Weir; Lucy Kean

    id:10.20944/preprints202011.0645.v1 Date: 2020-11-25 Source:

    Background: To investigate any associations between new clinical policies implemented because of the COVID-19 pandemic MESHD and harm to patients. Methods: Retrospective data collection of incidents and complaints reported through Datix®, and the Patient Liaison Service respectively. The setting was the Family Health division in a University teaching hospital in the UK. Primary and secondary outcome measures included; Proportion of incidents reported on Datix from 23/3/20 to 25/5/20, compared to the period from 23/3/19 to 29/5/19. COVID-19 MESHD related incidents and complaints and association with newly published guidelines or pathways from 23/3/20 to 29/5/20. Results: There was no significant difference in the proportion of overall patient activity resulting in incidents reported on Datix in 2020 (2.08%) compared to 2019 (2.09%), with 98% resulting in no/low harm in 2020. Three incident categories had increases in relative proportions of incidents including terms “COVID” or “Corona” compared to incidents that did not; “Child death”, “delay/failure to treatment and procedure” and “information governance”. One of the child TRANS deaths was a miscarriage and we were unable to link the second child TRANS death to a change in clinical policy at this stage. We were only able to link 2 COVID-19 MESHD associated incidents with a pathway or procedural change (one to the Children TRANS's Emergency Department admission pathway and the second to the introduction of virtual antenatal clinics). Eighteen complaints related to COVID-19 MESHD were logged. However, at this stage, we are unable to link any of these to a published change in clinical policy. Conclusions: Practice in the division was overall deemed to be safe in the designated period, with only 2 COVID-19 MESHD related incidents clearly related to a change in pathways and procedures. Continued surveillance and improved metrics for monitoring the impact of changes to pathways and procedures should be sought with the sustained presence of COVID-19 MESHD in clinical areas.

    Nurses' burnout and associated risk factors during the COVID-19 pandemic MESHD: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Authors: Petros A Galanis; Irene Vraka; Despoina Fragkou; Angeliki Bilali; Daphne Kaitelidou

    doi:10.1101/2020.11.24.20237750 Date: 2020-11-25 Source: medRxiv

    Background: During the COVID-19 pandemic MESHD, physical and mental health of the nurses is greatly challenged since they work under unprecedented pressure and they are more vulnerable to the harmful effects of the disease. Aim: To examine the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic MESHD on nurses' burnout and to identify associated risk factors. Methods: We followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis guidelines for this systematic review and meta-analysis. PubMed, Scopus, ProQuest, and pre-print services (medRxiv and PsyArXiv) were searched from January 1, 2020 to November 15, 2020 and we removed duplicates. We applied a random effect model to estimate pooled effects since the heterogeneity between results was very high. Findings: Fourteen studies, including 17,390 nurses met the inclusion criteria. Five standardized and valid questionnaires were used to measure burnout among nurses; Maslach Burnout Inventory, Copenhagen Burnout Inventory, Professional Quality of Life Scale version 5, Mini-Z, and Spanish Burnout Inventory. The overall prevalence SERO of emotional exhaustion was 34.1% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 22.5-46.6%), of depersonalization was 12.6% (95% CI: 6.9-19.7%), and of lack of personal accomplishment was 15.2% (95% CI: 1.4-39.8%). The following factors were associated with increased nurses' burnout: younger age TRANS, higher educational level, higher degree, decreased social support, having a relative/ friend TRANS diagnosed with COVID-19 MESHD, low family and colleagues readiness to cope with COVID-19 MESHD outbreak, increased perceived threat of Covid-19 MESHD, longer working time in quarantine areas, working in a high-risk environment (a COVID-19 MESHD designated hospital, a COVID-19 MESHD unit, etc.), working in hospitals with inadequate and insufficient material and human resources, decreased working safety while caring for COVID-19 MESHD patients, increased workload, decreased self-confidence in self-protection, and lower levels of specialized training regarding COVID-19 MESHD, job experience, and self-confidence in caring for COVID-19 MESHD. Conclusion: Nurses experience high levels of burnout during the COVID-19 pandemic MESHD, while several sociodemographic, social, and occupational factors affect this burnout. Several interventions need to be implemented to mitigate mental health impact of the COVID-19 pandemic MESHD on nurses, e.g. screening for mental health illness and early supportive interventions for high-risk nurses, immediate access to mental health care services, social support to reduce feelings of isolation, sufficient personal protective equipment for all nurses to provide security, etc. Governments, health care organizations, and policy makers should act in this direction to prepare health care systems, individuals, and nurses for a better response against the COVID-19 pandemic MESHD.

    Comparing COVID-19 MESHD vaccine allocation strategies in India: a mathematical modelling study

    Authors: Brody H Foy; Brian Wahl; Kayur Mehta; Anita Shet; Gautam I Menon; Carl D Britto; Johan Holgersson; Niklas Nielsen; Peter Bentzer; Areti Angeliki Veroniki; Lehana Thabane; Fanlong Bu; Sarah Klingenberg; Christian Gluud; Janus Christian Jakobsen; Willem Hanekom; Bernadett I Gosnell; COMMIT-KZN Team; Emily Wong; Tulio de Oliveira; Mahomed-Yunus S Moosa; Alasdair Leslie; Henrik Kloverpris; Alex Sigal

    doi:10.1101/2020.11.22.20236091 Date: 2020-11-24 Source: medRxiv

    Background: The development and widespread use of an effective SARS-CoV-2 vaccine could help prevent substantial morbidity and mortality associated with COVID-19 MESHD infection and mitigate many of the secondary effects associated with non-pharmaceutical interventions. The limited availability of an effective and licensed vaccine will task policymakers around the world, including in India, with decisions regarding optimal vaccine allocation strategies. Using mathematical modelling we aimed to assess the impact of different age TRANS-specific COVID-19 MESHD vaccine allocation strategies within India on SARS CoV-2-related mortality and infection. Methods: We used an age TRANS-structured, expanded SEIR model with social contact matrices to assess different age TRANS-specific vaccine allocation strategies in India. We used state-specific age TRANS structures and disease transmission TRANS coefficients estimated from confirmed Indian incident cases of COVID-19 MESHD between 28 January and 31 August 2020. Simulations were used to investigate the relative reduction in mortality and morbidity of vaccinate allocation strategies based on prioritizing different age groups TRANS, and the interactions of these strategies with several concurrent non-pharmacologic interventions (i.e., social distancing, mandated masks, lockdowns). Given the uncertainty associated with current COVID-19 MESHD vaccine development, we also varied several vaccine characteristics (i.e., efficacy, type of immunity conferred, and rollout speed) in the modelling simulations. Results: In nearly all scenarios, prioritizing COVID-19 MESHD vaccine allocation for older populations (i.e., >60yrs old) led to the greatest relative reduction in deaths, regardless of vaccine efficacy, control measures, rollout speed, or immunity dynamics. However, preferential vaccination of this target group often produced higher total symptomatic infection counts and more pronounced estimates of peak incidence than strategies which targeted younger adults TRANS (i.e., 20-40yrs or 40-60yrs) or the general population irrespective of age TRANS. Vaccine efficacy, immunity type, target coverage and rollout speed all significantly influenced overall strategy effectiveness, with the time taken to reach target coverage significantly affecting the relative mortality benefit comparative to no vaccination. Conclusions: Our findings support global recommendations to prioritize COVID-19 MESHD vaccine allocation for older age groups TRANS. Including younger adults TRANS in the prioritisation group can reduce overall infection rates, although this benefit was countered by the larger mortality rates in older populations. Ultimately an optimal vaccine allocation strategy will depend on vaccine characteristics, strength of concurrent non-pharmaceutical interventions, and region-specific goals such as reducing mortality, morbidity, or peak incidence.

    Loneliness among older adults TRANS in the community during COVID-19 MESHD

    Authors: Rachel D Savage; Wei Wu; Joyce Li; Andrea Lawson; Susan E Bronskill; Stephanie A. Chamberlain; Jim Grieve; Andrea Gruneir; Christina Reppas-Rindlisbacher; Nathan M. Stall; Paula A Rochon; Fanlong Bu; Sarah Klingenberg; Christian Gluud; Janus Christian Jakobsen; Willem Hanekom; Bernadett I Gosnell; COMMIT-KZN Team; Emily Wong; Tulio de Oliveira; Mahomed-Yunus S Moosa; Alasdair Leslie; Henrik Kloverpris; Alex Sigal

    doi:10.1101/2020.11.23.20237289 Date: 2020-11-24 Source: medRxiv

    Objective: Physical distancing and stay-at-home measures implemented to slow transmission TRANS of novel coronavirus disease MESHD ( COVID-19 MESHD) may intensify feelings of loneliness in older adults TRANS, especially those living alone. Our aim was to characterize the extent of loneliness in a sample of older adults TRANS living in the community and assess characteristics associated with loneliness. Design: Online cross-sectional survey between May 6 and May 19, 2020 Setting: Ontario, Canada Participants: Convenience sample of the members of a national retired educators' organization. Primary outcome measures: Self-reported loneliness, including differences between women and men. Results: 4879 respondents (71.0% women; 67.4% 65-79 years) reported that in the preceding week, 43.1% felt lonely at least some of the time, including 8.3% that felt lonely always or often. Women had increased odds of loneliness compared to men, whether living alone (adjusted Odds Ratio (aOR) 1.52 [95% Confidence Interval (CI) 1.13-2.04]) or with others (2.44 [95% CI 2.04-2.92]). Increasing age group TRANS decreased the odds of loneliness (aOR 0.69 [95% CI 0.59-0.81] 65-79 years and 0.50 [95% CI 0.39-0.65] 80+ years compared to <65 years). Living alone was associated with loneliness, with a greater association in men (aOR 4.26 [95% CI 3.15-5.76]) than women (aOR 2.65 [95% CI 2.26-3.11]). Other factors associated with loneliness included: fair or poor health (aOR 1.93 [95% CI 1.54-2.41]), being a caregiver (aOR 1.18 [95% CI 1.02-1.37]), receiving care (aOR 1.47 [95% CI 1.19-1.81]), high concern for the pandemic (aOR 1.55 [95% CI 1.31-1.84]), not experiencing positive effects of pandemic distancing measures (aOR 1.94 [95% CI 1.62-2.32]), and changes to daily routine (aOR 2.81 [95% CI 1.96-4.03]). Conclusions: While many older adults TRANS reported feeling lonely during COVID-19 MESHD, several characteristics - such as being female TRANS and living alone - increased the odds of loneliness. These characteristics may help identify priorities for targeting interventions to reduce loneliness.

    The Contrasting Role of Nasopharyngeal Angiotensin Converting Enzyme 2 (ACE2) Expression in SARS-CoV-2 Infection MESHD: A Cross-Sectional Study of People Tested for COVID-19 MESHD in British Columbia

    Authors: Aidan M Nikiforuk; Kevin S Kuchinski; David D W Twa; Christine D Lukac; Hind Sbihi; C Andrew Basham; Christian Steidl; Natalie A Prystajecky; Agatha N Jassem; Mel Krajden; David M Patrick; Inna Sekirov; Alka Chaubey; Madhuri Hegde; Amyn M Rojiani; Ravindra Kolhe; Makoto Suematsu; Kenjiro Kosaki; Jonathan Wolf; Sebastien Ourselin; Claire Steves; Albert Loeliger; Henrik Kloverpris; Alex Sigal

    doi:10.1101/2020.11.23.20237206 Date: 2020-11-24 Source: medRxiv

    Summary Background Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) serves as the host receptor for SARS-CoV-2, with a critical role in viral infection MESHD. We aim to understand population level variation of nasopharyngeal ACE2 expression in people tested for COVID-19 MESHD and the relationship between ACE2 expression and SARS-CoV-2 viral RNA load, while adjusting for expression of the complementary protease, Transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2), soluble ACE2, age TRANS, and biological sex. Methods A cross-sectional study of n=424 participants aged TRANS 1-104 years referred for COVID-19 MESHD testing was performed in British Columbia, Canada. Participants who tested negative or positive for COVID-19 MESHD were matched by age TRANS and biological sex. Viral and host gene expression was measured by quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Bivariate analysis and multiple linear regression were performed to understand the role of nasopharyngeal ACE2 expression in SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD. The ACE2 gene was targeted to measure expression of transmembrane and soluble transcripts. Findings Analysis shows no association between age TRANS and nasopharyngeal ACE2 expression in those who tested negative for COVID-19 MESHD (P=0[middot]092). Mean expression of transmembrane (P=1[middot]2e-4), soluble ACE2 (P<0[middot]0001) and TMPRSS2 (P<0[middot]0001) differed between COVID-19 MESHD-negative and -positive groups. In bivariate analysis of COVID-19 MESHD-positive participants, expression of transmembrane ACE2 positively correlated with SARS-CoV-2 RNA viral load (P<0[middot]0001), expression of soluble ACE2 negatively correlated (P<0[middot]0001), and no correlation was found with TMPRSS2 (P=0[middot]694). Multivariable analysis showed that the greatest viral RNA loads were observed in participants with high transmembrane ACE2 expression (B=0[middot]886, 95%CI:[0[middot]596 to 1[middot]18]), while expression of soluble ACE2 may protect against high viral RNA load in the upper respiratory tract (B= -0[middot]0990, 95%CI:[-0[middot]176 to -0[middot]0224]). Interpretation Nasopharyngeal ACE2 expression plays a dual, contrasting role in SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD of the upper respiratory tract. Transmembrane ACE2 positively correlates, while soluble ACE2 negatively correlates with viral RNA load after adjusting for age TRANS, biological sex and expression of TMPRSS2. Funding This project (COV-55) was funded by Genome British Columbia as part of their COVID-19 MESHD rapid response initiative.

    The experience of distress during the COVID-19 MESHD outbreak: a cross-country examination on the fear of COVID-19 MESHD and the sense of loneliness

    Authors: Gianluca Lo Coco; Ambra Gentile; Ksenija Bosnar; Ivana Milovanovic; Antonino Bianco; Patrik Drid; Sasa Pisot; Maria Flamm; Nahid Mostafa; Mohamed Sahl; Jinan Suliman; Elias Tayar; Hasan Ali Kasem; Meynard J. A. Agsalog; Bassam K. Akkarathodiyil; Ayat A. Alkhalaf; Mohamed Morhaf M. H. Alakshar; Abdulsalam Ali A. H. Al-Qahtani; Monther H. A. Al-Shedifat; Anas Ansari; Ahmad Ali Ataalla; Sandeep Chougule; Abhilash K. K. V. Gopinathan; Feroz J. Poolakundan; Sanjay U. Ranbhise; Saed M. A. Saefan; Mohamed M. Thaivalappil; Abubacker S. Thoyalil; Inayath M. Umar; Zaina Al Kanaani; Abdullatif Al Khal; Einas Al Kuwari; Adeel A. Butt; Peter Coyle; Andrew Jeremijenko; Anvar Hassan Kaleeckal; Ali Nizar Latif; Riyazuddin Mohammad Shaik; Hanan F. Abdul Rahim; Hadi M. Yassine; Gheyath K. Nasrallah; Mohamed G. Al Kuwari; Odette Chaghoury; Hiam Chemaitelly; Laith J Abu-Raddad

    doi:10.1101/2020.11.24.20237586 Date: 2020-11-24 Source: medRxiv

    Objectives To examine gender TRANS, age TRANS and cross-country differences in fear of COVID-19 MESHD and sense of loneliness during the lockdown, by comparing people from countries with a high rate of infections and deaths MESHD (i.e. Spain and Italy) and from countries with a mild spread of infection (i.e. Croatia, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Bosnia and Herzegovina). Methods A total of 3876 participants (63% female TRANS) completed an online survey on Everyday life practices in COVID-19 MESHD time in April 2020, including measures of fear of COVID-19 MESHD and loneliness. Results Males TRANS and females TRANS of all age groups TRANS in countries suffering from a strong impact of the COVID-19 pandemic MESHD reported higher fear of COVID-19 MESHD and sense of loneliness. In less endangered countries females TRANS and elder stated more symptoms than males TRANS and younger; in Spanish and Italian sample the pattern of differences is considerably more complex. Conclusion Future research should thoroughly examine different age TRANS and gender TRANS groups. The analysis of emotional well-being in groups at risk of mental health issues can help to lessen the long term social and economic costs due to the COVID-19 MESHD outbreak.

    Healthcare workers hospitalized due to COVID-19 MESHD have no higher risk of death MESHD than general population. Data from the Spanish SEMI- COVID-19 MESHD Registry.

    Authors: Jesus Diez-Manglano; Nataya Solis Marquinez; Andrea Alvarez Garcia; Nicolas Alcala Rivera; Irene Maderuelo Riesco; Martin Gerico Aseguinolaza; Jose Luis Beato Perez; Manuel Mendez Bailon; Ane Elbire Laburua-Iturburu Ruiz; Miriam Garcia Gomez; Carmen Martinez Cilleros; Paula Maria Pesqueira Fontan; Lucy Abella Vazquez; Julio Cesar Blazquez Encinar; Ramon Boixeda; Ricardo Gil Sanchez; Andres de la Pena Fernandez; Jose Loureiro Amigo; Joaquin Escobar Sevilla; Marcos Guzman Garcia; Maria Dolores Martin Escalante; Jeffrey Oskar Magallanes Gamboa; Angel Luis Martinez Gonzalez; Carlos Lumbreras Bermejo; Juan Miguel Anton Santos; Saed M. A. Saefan; Mohamed M. Thaivalappil; Abubacker S. Thoyalil; Inayath M. Umar; Zaina Al Kanaani; Abdullatif Al Khal; Einas Al Kuwari; Adeel A. Butt; Peter Coyle; Andrew Jeremijenko; Anvar Hassan Kaleeckal; Ali Nizar Latif; Riyazuddin Mohammad Shaik; Hanan F. Abdul Rahim; Hadi M. Yassine; Gheyath K. Nasrallah; Mohamed G. Al Kuwari; Odette Chaghoury; Hiam Chemaitelly; Laith J Abu-Raddad

    doi:10.1101/2020.11.23.20236810 Date: 2020-11-24 Source: medRxiv

    Aim: To determine whether healthcare workers (HCW) hospitalized in Spain due to COVID-19 MESHD have a worse prognosis than non-healthcare workers (NHCW). Methods: Observational cohort study based on the SEMI- COVID-19 MESHD Registry, a nationwide registry that collects sociodemographic, clinical, laboratory, and treatment data on patients hospitalised with COVID-19 MESHD in Spain. Patients aged TRANS 20-65 years were selected. A multivariate logistic regression model was performed to identify factors associated with mortality. Results: As of 22 May 2020, 4393 patients were included, of whom 419 (9.5%) were HCW. Median (interquartile range) age TRANS of HCW was 52 (15) years and 62.4% were women. Prevalence SERO of comorbidities and severe radiological findings upon admission were less frequent in HCW. There were no difference in need of respiratory support and admission to intensive care unit, but occurrence of sepsis HP sepsis MESHD and in-hospital mortality was lower in HCW (1.7% vs. 3.9%; p=0.024 and 0.7% vs. 4.8%; p<0.001 respectively). Age TRANS, male TRANS sex and comorbidity, were independently associated with higher in-hospital mortality and healthcare working with lower mortality (OR 0.219, 95%CI 0.069-0.693, p=0.01). 30-days survival was higher in HCW (0.968 vs. 0.851 p<0.001). Conclusions: Hospitalized COVID-19 MESHD HCW had fewer comorbidities and a better prognosis than NHCW. Our results suggest that professional exposure to COVID-19 MESHD in HCW does not carry more clinical severity nor mortality.

    Long-Term Downwind Exposure to Air Pollution from Power Plants and Adult TRANS Mortality: Evidence from COVID-19 MESHD

    Authors: Shinsuke Tanaka; Valerie Petrushenko; Karin Mirzaev; Sherzod Abdullaev; Igor Gorin; Denis Chernevskiy; Anastasiya Agdzhoyan; Elena Balanovska; Alexander Kryukov; Dmitriy Sychev

    doi:10.1101/2020.11.23.20237107 Date: 2020-11-24 Source: medRxiv

    We estimate the causal effects of long-term exposure to air pollution emitted from fossil fuel power plants on adult TRANS mortality. We leverage quasi-experimental variation in daily wind patterns, which is further instrumented by the county orientation from the nearest power plant. We find that the average county's fraction of days spent downwind of plants within 20 miles in the last 10 years is associated with a 27.6 percent increase in mortality from COVID-19 MESHD. This effect is more pronounced in fence line communities with high poverty rates and a large proportion of Black population.

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