Corpus overview


Overview

MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Pneumonia (406)

Fever (387)

Hypertension (314)

Cough (298)

Anxiety (194)


Transmission

age categories (3444)

gender (1213)

Transmission (536)

fomite (292)

contact tracing (286)


Seroprevalence
    displaying 2661 - 2670 records in total 3444
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    Methods of An Open-Label Proof-Of-Concept Trial of Intravenous Valproic Acid for Severe COVID-19

    Authors: Erwin Chiquete; Liz Toapanta-Yanchapaxi; Carlos Cantu-Brito

    doi:10.1101/2020.04.26.20079988 Date: 2020-05-01 Source: medRxiv

    Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is the systemic entity caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 MESHD (SARS-CoV-2) that may cause death MESHD through severe atypical pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD and acute lung injury MESHD. Valproic acid (VPA) has shown anti-inflammatory activity and mild intrinsic antiviral effect. These properties warrant the study of VPA as a possible active treatment in persons with severe COVID-19. Methods: Consecutive adult TRANS patients needing invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) will be given intravenous (i.v.) VPA at a starting dose of 20 mg/kg/day and up to 60/kg/day (in 60 min i.v. infusions in 250 mL normal saline) as needed to reach plasma SERO VPA concentrations of 50-100 mcg/mL (measured every 72 h). These patients will be followed-up for 10 days for the primary outcome and for a further period of 30 days after treatment completion for the secondary outcome of recurrence. The primary study outcome is the reduction in the case fatality rate of at least 50% after 10 days of treatment (as compared with natural history). Secondary outcomes are the reduction of length of stay (LOS) of at least 50%, as well as COVID-19 recurrence at 30-day follow-up. The most important safety outcomes are acute liver failure MESHD, acute pancreatitis HP acute pancreatitis MESHD, and thrombocytopenia HP thrombocytopenia MESHD. Conclusion: Although long-term adverse effects and even pro-inflammatory consequences have been reported with the chronic use of VPA, given the urgent need for a drug against COVID-19 to shorten the high mortality and LOS, the study of VPA is justified from a scientific standpoint.

    Changes in CT manifestations of patients with mild to moderate coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 in a Fangcang Shelter Hospital

    Authors: Zhongbiao Jiang; Chongqing Tan; Shan Jiang; Kun Yu; Yang Wang; Weihong Zhu; Huiling Zhang; Weidan Pu; Haijun Deng; Chuan Wen; Xiao Fan; Li Jiang; Qin Ji; Li Zhu; Liang Lyu; Lei Zhang; Shi Tai; Yuzhong Cai; Yi Tian; Chuanhao Jiang; Lingjun Wen; Yushan Liu; Kui Xiao; Junmei Xu

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-26359/v1 Date: 2020-05-01 Source: ResearchSquare

    Objectives: To provide a reference for CT imaging changes for patients discharged from a Fangcang shelter hospital, a large-scale, temporary hospital for the centralized treatment of patients with mild to moderate Coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) to provide essential functions (isolation, triage, basic medical care, frequent monitoring and rapid referral, essential living and social engagement) to them..Methods: Patients with mild to moderate COVID-19 admitted to the Wuchang Fangcang Shelter Hospital who had undergone pre-discharge and previous CT scans were included. Changes in the CT imaging features were defined as progression, no change, improvement or recovery. Basic patient information was obtained, and imaging signs were compared between the two CT scans.Results: A total of 83 patients were included. The median age TRANS was 53 years old. The course of disease was 28.3±10.7 days. CT imaging changes indicated progression, no change, improvement, and recovery in 3, 12, 66, and 2 patients, respectively. Between the two CT scans, the imaging signs showed a significant reduction in consolidation, a significant increase in fibrosis MESHD, and a reduction or / and thinning of ground-glass opacities. None of the patients showed signs of deterioration on follow-up and thus did not need to return to the hospital for treatment.Conclusion: In the COVID-19 Fangcang shelter hospital, given the shortage of medical staff and lack of medical resources, CT imaging diagnostic methods can be used to accurately discharge patients who had met the discharge criteria for isolation and observation from the Fangcang Shelter Hospital.

    Clinical presentation and evolution of COVID-19 in immunosuppressed patients. Preliminary evaluation in a North Italian cohort on calcineurin-inhibitors based therapy

    Authors: Lorenzo Cavagna; Raffaele Bruno; Giovanni Zanframundo; Marilena Gregorini; Elena Seminari; Angela Di Matteo; Teresa Rampino; Carlomaurizio Montecucco; Stefano Pelenghi; Barbara Cattadori; Eleonora Francesca Pattoneri; Patrizio Vitulo; Alessandro Bertani; Gianluca Sambataro; Carlo Vancheri; Valentina Bonetto; Maria Cristina Monti; Elena Ticozzelli; Annalisa Turco; Tiberio Oggionni; Angelo Corsico; Veronica Codullo; Monica Morosini; Massimiliano Gnecchi; Carlo Pellegrini; Federica Meloni

    doi:10.1101/2020.04.26.20080663 Date: 2020-05-01 Source: medRxiv

    The clinical course of COVID-19 in patients undergoing chronic immunosuppressive therapy is yet poorly known. We performed a monocentric cross-sectional study describing the clinical course of COVID-19 in a cohort of patients from northern Italy treated with calcineurin-inhibitors for organ transplantation or rheumatic diseases MESHD. Data were collected by phone call and clinical chart review between March 27th- 31st 2020. COVID-19 related symptoms, rynopharingeal swab, therapeutic changes and outcome were assessed in 384 consecutive patients (57% males TRANS; median age TRANS 61 years, IQR 48-69). 331 patients (86%) received solid organ transplantation (kidney n=140, 36%, heart n=100, 26%, lung n=91, 24%) and 53 (14%) had a rheumatic disease MESHD. Calcineurin inhibitors were the only immunosuppressant administered in 46 patients (12%). 14 patients developed a confirmed COVID-19 (swab positivity) and 14 a clinical COVID-19 (only typical symptoms). Fever HP Fever MESHD (75%) and diarrhoea MESHD (50%) were the most common symptoms. Fourteen patients were hospitalized and 11 have already been dismissed. No patient required start/changes of the O2 therapy or developed superinfection. Only one patient, with metastatic lung cancer MESHD, died. In conclusion, COVID-19 showed a mild course in our cohort, with low mortality. Calcineurin inhibitor-based immunosuppressive regimens appear safe in this context and should not be discontinued.

    COVID-19 versus non-COVID-19 pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD: A retrospective cohort study

    Authors: Xiao-jin Li; Bing-Xing Shuai; Zhong-Wei Zhang; Yan Kang

    doi:10.1101/2020.04.28.20082784 Date: 2020-05-01 Source: medRxiv

    Background and Objective: Since the outbreak of coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) in December 2019 in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China, it has spread around the world and become a global public health emergency. It is important to distinguish COVID-19 from other viral pneumonias HP pneumonias MESHD in order to properly screen and diagnose patients, reduce nosocomial infections MESHD, and complement the inadequacy of nucleic acid testing. In this study, we retrospectively analysed the clinical data of COVID-19 versus non-COVID-19 patients treated at our hospital between January 17 and February 27, 2020 in order to summarize our clinical experience in the differential diagnosis of COVID-19. Methods: In this retrospective cohort study, 23 confirmed COVID-19 patients were consecutively enrolled from January 17 to February 27, 2020, while 29 confirmed non-COVID-19 patients were enrolled in West China Hospital of Sichuan University. We collected baseline data, epidemiological data, clinical characteristics, imaging findings, viral nucleic acid test results, and survival data. SPSS v22.0 was used for statistical analysis. Outcomes were followed up until March 25. Results: A total of 52 patients were included in this study, including 23 COVID-19 patients and 29 non-COVID-19 patients. No significant between-group difference was observed in age TRANS, sex, primary signs or symptoms, cellular immunity, or platelet count. Significant between-group differences were observed in clinical characteristics such as dry cough MESHD cough HP, contact with individuals from Wuhan, some underlying diseases, nucleated cell count, chest imaging findings, viral nucleic acid test result,28-day mortality, and 28-day survival. Conclusion: Epidemiological data, clinical symptoms, nucleic acid test results for COVID-19 and chest CT manifestation may help distinguish COVID-19 from non-COVID-19 cases, prevent imported cases and nosocomial infections MESHD.

    High frequency of SARS-CoV-2 RNAemia MESHD and association with severe disease

    Authors: Catherine A. Hogan; Bryan Stevens; Malaya K Sahoo; ChunHong Huang; Natasha Garamani; Saurabh Gombar; Fiona Yamamoto; Kanagavel Murugesan; Jason Kurzer; James Zehnder; Benjamin A. Pinsky

    doi:10.1101/2020.04.26.20080101 Date: 2020-05-01 Source: medRxiv

    Background: Detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in the blood SERO, also known as RNAemia, has been reported, but its prognostic implications are not well understood. This study aimed to determine the frequency of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in plasma SERO and its association with the clinical severity of COVID-19. Methods: An analytical cross-sectional study was performed in a single-center tertiary care institution in northern California and included consecutive inpatients and outpatients with COVID-19 confirmed by detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in nasopharyngeal swab specimens. The prevalence SERO of SARS CoV-2 RNAemia MESHD and the strength of its association with clinical severity variables were examined and included the need for transfer to an intensive care unit (ICU), mechanical ventilation and 30-day all-cause mortality. Results: Paired nasopharyngeal and plasma SERO samples were included from 85 patients. The overall median age TRANS was 55 years, and individuals with RNAemia were older than those with undetectable SARS-CoV-2 RNA in plasma SERO (63 vs 50 years; p=0.001). Comorbidities were frequent including obesity HP obesity MESHD (37.7%), hypertension HP hypertension MESHD (30.6%) and diabetes mellitus HP diabetes mellitus MESHD (22.4%). RNAemia was detected in a total of 28/85 (32.9%) individual patients, including 22/28 (78.6%) who required hospital admission. RNAemia was detected more frequently in individuals who developed severe disease including the need for ICU transfer (32.1% vs 14.0%; p=0.05), mechanical ventilation (21.4% vs 3.5%; p=0.01) and 30-day all-cause mortality (14.3% vs 0%; p=0.01). No association was detected between RNAemia and estimated levels of viral RNA in the nasopharynx. An additional 121 plasma SERO samples from 28 individuals with RNAemia were assessed longitudinally, and RNA was detected for a maximum duration of 10 days. Conclusion: This study demonstrated a high proportion of SARS-CoV-2 RNAemia MESHD, and an association between RNAemia and clinical severity suggesting the potential utility of plasma SERO viral testing as a prognostic indicator for COVID-19.

    Clinical characteristics of imported and second-generation COVID-19 cases outside Wuhan, China: A multicenter retrospective study

    Authors: Puyu Shi; Guoxia Ren; Jun Yang; Zhiqiang Li; Shujiao Deng; Miao Li; Shasha Wang; Xiaofeng Xu; Fuping Chen; Yuanjun Li; Chunyan Li; Xiaohua Yang; Zhaofeng Xie; Zhengxia Wu; Chen Mingwei

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-26416/v1 Date: 2020-05-01 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: The mortality of COVID-19 differs between countries and regions. By now, reports on COVID-19 are largely focused on first-generation cases. This study aimed to clarify the clinical characteristics of imported and second-generation cases. Methods : This retrospective, multicenter cohort study included 134 confirmed COVID-19 cases from 9 cities outside Wuhan. Epidemiological, clinical and outcome data were extracted from medical records and were compared between severe and non-severe cases. We further profiled the dynamic laboratory findings of some patients.  Results : 34.3% of the 134 patients were severe cases, and 11.2% had complications. As of March 7, 2020, 91.8% patients were discharged and one patient (0.7%) died. Age TRANS, lymphocyte count, C-reactive protein, erythrocytes edimentation rate MESHD, direct bilirubin, lactate dehydrogenase, hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase showed difference between severe and no-severe cases (all P<0.05). Baseline lymphocyte count was higher in the survived patients than in the non-survivor case, and it increased as the condition improved, but declined sharply when death MESHD occurred. The interleukin-6 level displayed a downtrend in survivors, but rose very high in the death case. Pulmonary fibrosis HP Pulmonary fibrosis MESHD was found on later chest CT images in 51.5% of the pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD cases. Conclusion : Imported and second-generation cases outside Wuhan had a better prognosis than initial cases in Wuhan. Lymphocyte count and IL-6 level could be used for evaluating prognosis. Pulmonary fibrosis HP Pulmonary fibrosis MESHD as the sequelae of COVID-19 should be taken into account.

    Nonpharmaceutical interventions for pandemic COVID-19: A cross-sectional investigation of US general public beliefs, attitudes, and actions

    Authors: Bella Nichole Kantor; Jonathan Kantor

    doi:10.1101/2020.04.26.20078618 Date: 2020-05-01 Source: medRxiv

    Nonpharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) represent the primary mitigation strategy for pandemic COVID-19. Despite this, many government agencies and members of the general public may be resistant to NPI adoption. We sought to understand public attitudes and beliefs regarding various NPIs and self-reported adoption of NPIs, and explore associations between NPI performance SERO and the baseline characteristics of respondents. We performed a cross-sectional age TRANS-, sex-, and race- stratified survey of the general US population. Of the 1,005 respondents, 37% (95% CI 34.0, 39.9) felt that NPIs were inconvenient, while only 0.9% (95% CI 0.3, 1.5) of respondents believed that NPIs would not reduce their personal risk of illness. Respondents were most uncertain regarding the efficacy of mask and eye protection use, with 30.6% and 22.1%, respectively, unsure whether their use would slow disease spread TRANS. On univariate logistic regression analyses, NPI adherence was associated with a belief that NPIs would reduce personal risk of developing COVID-19 (OR 3.06, 95% CI [1.25, 7.48], p=0.014) and with a belief that the NPIs were not difficult to perform (OR 1.79, 95% CI [1.38, 2.31], p<0.0001). Respondents were compliant with straightforward, familiar, and heavily-encouraged NPI recommendations such as hand-washing; more onerous approaches, such as avoiding face touching, disinfecting surfaces, and wearing masks or goggles, were performed less frequently. NPI non-adherence is associated with both outcome expectations (belief that NPIs are effective) and process expectations (belief that NPIs are not overly inconvenient); these findings have important implications for designing public health outreach efforts, where the feasibility, as well as the effectiveness, of NPIs should be stressed.

    COVID-19 severe pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD in Mexico City - First experience in a Mexican hospital

    Authors: Benjamin Valente-Acosta; Irma Hoyo-Ulloa; Luis Espinosa-Aguilar; Raquel Mendoza-Aguilar; Javier Garcia-Guerrero; Diego Ontanon-Zurita; Brenda Gomez-Gomez; Omar Fueyo-Rodriguez; Juan Mauricio Vera-Zertuche; Rodolfo Anzola-Arias; Jose Victor Jimenez-Ceja; Daniela Horta-Capinteyro; Claudia Olvera-Guzman; Janet Aguirre-Sanchez; Juvenal Franco-Granillo; Laura Jauregui-Camargo; Eduardo Sada-Diaz; Rafael Saavedra-Perez-Salas; Andres Palomar-Lever; Francisco Moreno-Sanchez

    doi:10.1101/2020.04.26.20080796 Date: 2020-05-01 Source: medRxiv

    Background: Coronavirus Disease MESHD 2019 (Covid-19) pandemic since its first confirmed case TRANS, has changed the world. The need for accurate and truthful information is vital. Mexico and Latin America have been widely affected, so having local epidemiological data, will be of great clinical utility. Methods: A total of 33 hospitalized patients with Covid-19 pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD (either severe or critical) were identified from electronic health record in a third level care private hospital in Mexico City from March 13rd to April 13rd, 2020. We conducted a descriptive study of patients for characterization of the clinical, laboratory and radiologic findings, as well as complications. Results: The mean age TRANS was 60.6 (12.68) years and 23 (69.7%) were males TRANS. Twenty-three patients (69.6%) were overweight HP or obese MESHD. The median duration of symptoms before admission was 7 days. All the patients required mechanical invasive ventilation. The median duration of the mechanical ventilation was 12(2.6) days and all patients were extubated except one. All patients were started on antiviral treatment in the first 24 hours after admission once the diagnosis of Covid19 pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD was made. There was no difference between the treatment option and the length of stay. The extubation rate was higher (91.6%) than in other series, with no fatalities even though they were treated with different regimens. Conclusions: This one-centre experience describes the epidemiology, treatment and outcome of 33 patients with severe or critical COVID pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP admitted to the ICU. Most patients in our series were overweight HP or obese MESHD male TRANS, which we observed were of higher risk to present critical pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD, as well as high levels of Interleukin-6. The foregoing is relevant, due to the high incidence of these comorbidities in our country.

    Association Between Ibuprofen Exposure and Severe COVID-19 Infection: A Nationwide Register-Based Study

    Authors: Kristian Kragholm; Thomas A. Gerds; Emil Fosbøl; Mikkel Porsborg Andersen; Matthew Phelps; Jawad H Butt; Lauge Østergaard; Gunnar Gislason; Morten Schou; Lars Køber; Christian Torp-Pedersen

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-26355/v1 Date: 2020-05-01 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: Initially, the World Health Organization (WHO) and national health boards issued a warning against NSAID use in corona virus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) patients and recommended that paracetamol or acetaminophen instead should be administered. However, later and current WHO and European Medicine Agency recommendations do not call for avoidance of ibuprofen in COVID-19 patients. Given the current uncertainty of drug safety for NSAID use in patients with COVID-19, we performed a nationwide register-based study on the association of recent ibuprofen exposure and COVID-19 severity. Methods: Using national administrative databases, we identified COVID-19 patients in Denmark between end of February 2020 and April 2, 2020. Patients <30 years of age TRANS and heart failure MESHD, for whom ibuprofen is not recommended, were excluded. Ibuprofen exposure was defined using the Danish National Prescription Registry, where we had information until January 31, 2020. Endpoint was a composite of severe COVID-19 diagnosis with acute respiratory syndrome MESHD, intensive care unit admission or death MESHD. Results: Among 1,872 patients, 46 (2.5%) were exposed to ibuprofen prior to COVID-19 infection MESHD. Patients with recent ibuprofen exposure tended to be older and more likely to have hypertension HP hypertension MESHD, diabetes MESHD, myocardial infarction HP myocardial infarction MESHD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease HP chronic obstructive pulmonary disease MESHD, and cancer MESHD, though all insignificant (P>0.05). When adjusting for these covariates, odds ratio was 1.57 [95% CI 0.72-3.38], with 12 ibuprofen-exposed patients meeting the endpoint (26.1% [95% CI 13.4-38.8%]) versus 272 unexposed patients (14.9% [95% CI 13.4-16.4%]), P=0.15. Conclusion: The association between ibuprofen and severe COVID-19 was insignificant, although with a trend towards increased disease severity risk.

    Development and validation of an automated radiomic CT signature for detecting COVID-19

    Authors: Julien Guiot; Akshayaa Vaidyanathan; Louis Deprez; Fadila Zerka; Denis Danthine; Anne-Noelle Frix; Marie Thys; Monique Henket; Gregory Canivet; Stephane Mathieu; Eva Eftaxia; Philippe Lambin; Nathan Tsoutzidis; Benjamin Miraglio; Sean Walsh; Michel Moutschen; Renaud Louis; Paul Meunier; Wim Vos; Ralph Leijenaar; Pierre Lovinfosse

    doi:10.1101/2020.04.28.20082966 Date: 2020-05-01 Source: medRxiv

    Background : The coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak has reached pandemic status. Drastic measures of social distancing are enforced in society and healthcare systems are being pushed to and over their limits. Objectives : To develop a fully automatic framework to detect COVID-19 by applying AI to chest CT and evaluate validation performance SERO. Methods : In this retrospective multi-site study, a fully automated AI framework was developed to extract radiomics features from volumetric chest CT exams to learn the detection pattern of COVID-19 patients. We analysed the data from 181 RT-PCR confirmed COVID-19 patients as well as 1200 other non-COVID-19 control patients to build and assess the performance SERO of the model. The datasets were collected from 2 different hospital sites of the CHU Liege, Belgium. Diagnostic performance SERO was assessed by the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC), sensitivity SERO and specificity. Results : 1381 patients were included in this study. The average age TRANS was 64.4 and 63.8 years with a gender TRANS balance of 56% and 52% male TRANS in the COVID-19 and control group, respectively. The final curated dataset used for model construction and validation consisted of chest CT scans of 892 patients. The model sensitivity SERO and specificity for detecting COVID-19 in the test set (training 80% and test 20% of patients) were 78.94% and 91.09%, respectively, with an AUC of 0.9398 (95% CI: 0.875-1). The negative predictive value SERO of the algorithm was found to be larger than 97%. Conclusions : Benchmarked against RT-PCR confirmed cases TRANS of COVID-19, our AI framework can accurately differentiate COVID-19 from routine clinical conditions in a fully automated fashion. Thus, providing rapid accurate diagnosis in patients suspected of COVID-19 infection MESHD, facilitating the timely implementation of isolation procedures and early intervention.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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