Corpus overview


Overview

MeSH Disease

Infections (1114)

Disease (1039)

Death (715)

Coronavirus Infections (648)

Fever (329)


Human Phenotype

Pneumonia (331)

Fever (330)

Hypertension (262)

Cough (256)

Anxiety (135)


Transmission

age categories (2647)

gender (950)

Transmission (410)

fomite (246)

asymptotic cases (212)


Seroprevalence
    displaying 41 - 50 records in total 2671
    records per page




    Clinical Characteristics and Severity of COVID-19 Disease MESHD in Patients from Boston Area Hospitals

    Authors: Hesamaddin Torabi Dashti; David Bates; Julie M Fiskio; Elise C Roche; Samia Mora; Olga Demler

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.27.20163071 Date: 2020-08-04 Source: medRxiv

    We summarize key demographic, clinical, and medical characteristics of patients with respect to the severity of COVID-19 disease MESHD using Electronic Health Records Data of 4,140 SARS-CoV-2 positive subjects from several large Boston Area Hospitals. We found that prior use of antihypertensive medications as well as lipid lowering and other cardiovascular drugs (such as direct oral anticoagulants and antiplatelets) all track with increased severity of COVID-19 and should be further investigated with appropriate adjustment for confounders such as age TRANS and frailty MESHD. The three most common prior comorbidities are hyperlipidemia MESHD hyperlipidemia HP, hypertension MESHD hypertension HP, and prior pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP, all associated with increased severity.

    COVID-19 pandemic in Djibouti: epidemiology and the response strategy followed to contain the virus during the first two months, 17 March to 16 May 2020

    Authors: Mohamed Elhakim; Saleh Banoita Tourab; Ahmed Zouiten

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.03.20167692 Date: 2020-08-04 Source: medRxiv

    Background: First cases of COVID-19 were reported from Wuhan, China, in December 2019, and it progressed rapidly. On 30 January, WHO declared the new disease MESHD as a PHEIC, then as a Pandemic on 11 March. By mid-March, the virus spread widely; Djibouti was not spared and was hit by the pandemic with the first case detected on 17 March. Djibouti worked with WHO and other partners to develop a preparedness and response plan, and implemented a series of intervention measures. MoH together with its civilian and military partners, closely followed WHO recommended strategy based on four pillars: testing, isolating, early case management, and contact tracing TRANS. From 17 March to 16 May, Djibouti performed the highest per capita tests in Africa and isolated, treated and traced the contacts TRANS of each positive case, which allowed for a rapid control of the epidemic. Methods: COVID-19 data included in this study was collected through MoH Djibouti during the period from 17 March to 16 May 2020. Results: A total of 1,401 confirmed cases TRANS of COVID-19 were included in the study with 4 related deaths MESHD (CFR: 0.3%) and an attack rate TRANS of 0.15%. Males TRANS represented (68.4%) of the cases, with the age group TRANS 31-45 years old (34.2%) as the most affected. Djibouti conducted 17,532 tests, and was considered as a champion for COVID-19 testing in Africa with 18.2 tests per 1000 habitant. All positive cases were isolated, treated and had their contacts traced TRANS, which led to early and proactive diagnosis of cases and in turn yielded up to 95-98% asymptomatic TRANS cases. Recoveries reached 69% of the infected cases with R0 TRANS (0.91). The virus was detected in 4 regions in the country, with the highest percentage in the capital (83%). Conclusion: Djibouti responded to COVID-19 pandemic following an efficient and effective strategy, using a strong collaboration between civilian and military health assets that increased the response capacities of the country. Partnership, coordination, solidarity, proactivity and commitment were the pillars to confront COVID-19 pandemic.

    The impact of relaxing interventions on human contact patterns and SARS-CoV-2 transmission TRANS in China

    Authors: Juanjuan Zhang; Maria Litvinova; Yuxia Liang; Wen Zheng; Huilin Shi; Alessandro Vespignani; Cecile Viboud; Marco Ajelli; Hongjie Yu

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.03.20167056 Date: 2020-08-04 Source: medRxiv

    Non-pharmaceutical interventions to control COVID-19 spread have been implemented in several countries with different intensity, timing, and impact on transmission TRANS. As a result, post-lockdown COVID-19 dynamics are heterogenous and difficult to interpret. Here we describe a set of contact surveys performed in four Chinese cities (Wuhan, Shanghai, Shenzhen, and Changsha) during the pre-pandemic, lockdown, and post-lockdown period to quantify the transmission TRANS impact of relaxing interventions via changes in age TRANS-specific contact patterns. We estimate that the mean number of contacts increased 5%-17% since the end of the lockdown but are still 3-7 times lower than their pre-pandemic levels. We find that post-lockdown contact patterns in China are still sufficiently low to keep SARS-CoV-2 transmission TRANS under control. We also find that the impact of school interventions depends non-linearly on the share of other activities being resumed. When most community activities are halted, school closure leads to a 77% decrease in the reproductive number TRANS; in contrast, when social mixing outside of schools is at pre-pandemic level, school closure leads to a 5% reduction in transmission TRANS. Moving forward, to control COVID-19 spread without resorting to a lockdown, it will be key to dose relaxation in social mixing in the community and strengthen targeted interventions.

    Malawi at the crossroads: Does the fear of contracting COVID-19 affect the propensity to vote?

    Authors: Gowokani Chijere Chirwa; Boniface Dulani; Lonjezo Sithole; Joseph J. Chunga; Witness Alfonso; John Tengatenga

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-53705/v1 Date: 2020-08-04 Source: ResearchSquare

    The new coronavirus disease MESHD (COVID-19) has disrupted ways of life, including political processes. In this paper, we assess the effect of own perceived risk of catching COVID-19 on willingness to vote. The paper draws from a nationally representative survey of adult TRANS Malawians (n=1155). Our main method used instrumental variables to account for potential endogeneity. Findings show that 63% of Malawians thought that they are likely to catch COVID-19. Notwithstanding the COVID19 risk, 86% were willing to vote. The regression analysis suggests that an individual’s perceived risk of catching COVID-19 is associated with lower likelihood of voting (β=-0.096; p<0.05). The results suggest that voter turnout in Malawi’s fresh presidential election may have been highly affected by the perceived risk of catching COVID-19. The policy implication is that instituting and enforcing primary preventive measures may help reduce the perceived risk of catching COVID19 and mitigate voter apathy HP.

    Optimal lockdown strategies for SARS-CoV2 mitigation--- an Indian perspective

    Authors: Anagh Pathak; Varun Madan Mohan; Arpan Banerjee

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.31.20165662 Date: 2020-08-04 Source: medRxiv

    We sought to identify optimal temporal windows for lockdown-based mitigation strategies on infectious disease MESHD disease spreads TRANS spreads. An age TRANS-structured multi-compartmental Susceptible-Infected-Recovered (SIR) model was used to estimate infection MESHD spreads under parametric variation of lockdown intensity and duration from the data of SARS-CoV2 cases in India between January to July, 2020. The resulting parameter values were used to simulate lockdown outcomes for a wide range of start times and durations. Lockdowns were simulated as intervention strategies that modified weights assigned to social contact matrices for work, school and other places. Lockdown efficacy was assessed by the maximum number of infections MESHD recorded during a simulation run. Our analysis shows that lockdown outcomes depend sensitively on the timing of imposition and that it is possible to minimize lockdown durations while limiting case loads to numbers below the hospitalization thresholds. Such timing based effects arise naturally from the non-linear nature of SIR dynamics.

    The Writing On The Wall Intravitreal Injection Compliance During The COVID-19 Pandemic and Its Foreseeable Consequences

    Authors: Lauren M Wasser; Yishay Weill; Koby Brosh; Itay Magal; Michael Potter; Israel Strassman; Evgeny Gelman; Meni Koslowsky; David Zadok; Joel Hanhart

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-53248/v1 Date: 2020-08-04 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: Intravitreal injections (IVI) of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) agents have become the most prevalent intraocular procedure as they represent the major therapeutic modality for prevalent retinal conditions such as age TRANS-related macular degeneration MESHD macular degeneration HP (AMD) and diabetic retinopathy MESHD retinopathy HP. Effective therapy requires adherence to a schedule of iterative IVI as well as routine clinic appointments. The ongoing Coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has resulted in the reduction of attendance at scheduled clinics visits and IVI. In this study we attempted to analyze the effect of COVID-19 on compliance with anti-VEGF therapy.Methods: A total of 636 eyes received injections during a four-week period of the COVID-19 outbreak in the Retina Clinic. The number of clinic visits for IVI during one month from March 15 to April 14 of 2020 was compared to the similar time period in each of the last four years.Results: The study demonstrates a decrease in clinic visits for IVI when compared with the same four-week interval in the four previous years. Based on the trend of the previous four years, 10.2% of the year’s total was expected for this time period. Using this model, the 636 reported number of injections for the March-April, 2020 period was ~ 5%. This represents a decrease of ~50% of the expected IVI for this time period.Conclusion: The COVID-19 outbreak in Israel severely impacted compliance with anti-VEGF treatments.

    Firm-level immunity to COVID-19 induced uncertainty

    Authors: Sahil Narang; Savita Rawat; Rudra Prakash Pradhan

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-53169/v1 Date: 2020-08-04 Source: ResearchSquare

    The paper investigates the stock market response to COVID-19 induced financial uncertainty and the role of pre- shock MESHD shock HP firm-specific characteristics in shaping such stock market behaviour using a sample of S&P BSE 500 companies. Initially, the stock market experiences a significant downfall due to COVID-19 induced uncertainty; although, the market appears to rebound after a major setback. Downfall and recovery are quite surprising as downfall happened when cases were extremely small in number and there was no nation-wide lockdown announcement yet. Recovery happened when strict lockdowns were enforced and cases were rising significantly. Stock market reaction were heterogeneous among industries and various firm characteristics. On closer analysis, we find that some firms are more resilient to COVID-19 shock MESHD shock HP than others. Our analysis reveals that the most affected were small-sized, high beta, loser, and low-profitability firms as indicated by univariate analysis. The multivariate analysis finds momentum, profitability, beta, market capitalization, age TRANS, and book-to-market ratio to be the major determinants of cross-sectional CARs during downfall & recovery period. The study provides evidence of the negative reaction to COVID-19 induced uncertainty and subsequent recovery. We concludes that pre-COVID firm-specific factors play an essential role in explaining the variation in the stock market reaction to COVID-19 induced uncertainty. 

    Assessment of a Laboratory-Based SARS-CoV-2 Antibody SERO Test Among Hemodialysis Patients: A Quality Improvement Initiative

    Authors: Dena E Cohen; Gilbert Marlowe; Gabriel Contreras; Marie Ann Sosa; Jair Munoz Mendoza; Oliver Lenz; Zain Mithani; Pura Margarita Teixeiro; Nery Queija; Araceli Moneda; Jean S Jeanty; Katherine Swanzy; Misha Palecek; Mahesh Krishnan; Jeffery Giullian; Steven M Brunelli

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.03.20163642 Date: 2020-08-04 Source: medRxiv

    Abstract Introduction: The coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID -19) pandemic is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2 (SARS -CoV -2) infection MESHD. Although tests to detect anti - SARS -CoV-2 antibodies SERO have been developed, their sensitivity SERO and specificity in hemodialysis patients have not been previously assessed. Methods: As part of a quality improvement (QI) initiative, nasopharyngeal swabs and predialysis blood SERO samples were collected on the same day from adult TRANS patients receiving routine hemodialysis care at clinics managed by a large dialysis organization in the greater Miami, Florida region (23 - 30 Apr 2020). Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests for SARS -CoV -2 and chemiluminescence immunoassays SERO for anti -SARS -CoV2 antibodies SERO were performed according to manufacturer-specified protocols. Results: Of 715 participants in the QI initiative, 38 had symptomatology consistent with COVID -19 prior to or during the initiative. Among these, COVID -19 was PCR -confirmed in 14 and ruled out in 20, with the remaining 4 being inconclusive. Among the 34 patients with known COVID -19 status, the sensitivity SERO and specificity of the antibody test SERO were 57.1% and 85.0% when either antibody SERO was considered. The remaining 677 patients had no record of symptoms consistent with COVID -19, nor any known exposure. Of these, 38 patients (5.6%) tested positive for anti- SARS-CoV-2 antibodies SERO. Conclusions: The operational characteristics of the laboratory-based antibody test SERO make it sufficient to rule in, but not rule out, SARS -CoV -2 infection MESHD in the appropriate clinical circumstance. A substantial proportion of dialysis patients may have had asymptomatic TRANS SARS -CoV -2 infection MESHD.

    TClustVID: A Novel Machine Learning Classification Model to Investigate Topics and Sentiment inCOVID-19 Tweets

    Authors: Md. Shahriare Satu; Md. Imran Khan; Mufti Mahmud; Shahadat Uddin; Matthew A Summers; Julian M. W. Quinn; Mohammad Ali Moni

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.04.20167973 Date: 2020-08-04 Source: medRxiv

    COVID-19, caused by the SARS-Cov2, varies greatly in its severity but represent serious respiratory symptoms with vascular and other complications, particularly in older adults TRANS. The disease MESHD disease can be spread TRANS can be spread by both symptomatic and asymptomatic TRANS infected individuals, and remains uncertainty over key aspects of its infectivity, no effective remedy yet exists and this disease MESHD causes severe economic effects globally. For these reasons, COVID-19 is the subject of intense and widespread discussion on social media platforms including Facebook and Twitter. These public forums substantially impact on public opinions in some cases and exacerbate widespread panic and misinformation spread during the crisis. Thus, this work aimed to design an intelligent clustering-based classification and topics extracting model (named TClustVID) that analyze COVID-19-related public tweets to extract significant sentiments with high accuracy. We gathered COVID-19 Twitter datasets from the IEEE Dataport repository and employed a range of data preprocessing methods to clean the raw data, then applied tokenization and produced a word-to-index dictionary. Thereafter, different classifications were employed to Twitter datasets which enabled exploration of the performance SERO of traditional and TClustVID classification methods. TClustVID showed higher performance SERO compared to the traditional classifiers determined by clustering criteria. Finally, we extracted significant topic clusters from TClustVID, split them into positive, neutral and negative clusters and implemented latent dirichlet allocation for extraction of popular COVID-19 topics. This approach identified common prevailing public opinions and concerns related to COVID-19, as well as attitudes to infection MESHD prevention strategies held by people from different countries concerning the current pandemic situation.

    SARS-CoV-2 Infection MESHD Among Symptom-Free Healthcare Workers

    Authors: Ryan T. Demmer; Angela Ulrich; Talia Wiggen; Ali Strickland; Brianna Naumchik; Shalini Kulasingam; Steven D. Stovitz; Clarisse Marotz; Pedro Belda-Ferre; Greg Humphrey; Peter De Hoff; Louise Laurent; Susan Kline; Rob Knight

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.31.20166066 Date: 2020-08-04 Source: medRxiv

    Importance: Current evidence suggests that transmission TRANS of severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is possible among symptom-free individuals but limited data are available on this topic in healthcare workers (HCW). The quality and acceptability of self-collected nasopharyngeal swabs (NPS) is unknown. Objective: To estimate the prevalence SERO of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD and to assess the acceptability of self-collected NPS among HCW. Design: Cross-sectional convenience sample enrolled between April 20th and June 24th, 2020. We had >95% power to detect at least one positive test if the true underlying prevalence SERO of SARS-CoV2 was > 1%. Setting: The metropolitan area surrounding Minneapolis and St. Paul, Minnesota. Participants: HCW free of self-reported upper respiratory symptoms were recruited. Exposures: Participants completed questionnaires regarding demographics, household characteristics, personal protective equipment (PPE) utilization and comorbidities. Outcomes: A participant self-collected nasopharyngeal swab (NPS) was obtained. SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD was assessed via polymerase chain reaction. NPS discomfort was assessed on a scale of 1 (no discomfort) - 10 (extreme discomfort). NPS duration and depth into the nasopharynx, and willingness to perform future self-collections were assessed. Results: Among n=489 participants 80% were female TRANS and mean age TRANS+/-SD was 41+/-11. Participants reported being physicians (14%), nurse practitioners (8%), physicians assistants (4%), nurses (51%), medics (3%), or other which predominantly included laboratory technicians and administrative roles (22%). Exposure to a known/suspected COVID-19 case in the 14 days prior to enrollment was reported in 40% of participants. SARS-CoV-2 was not detected in any participant. The mean+/-SD discomfort level of the NPS was 4.5+/-2.0. 95% of participants reported that their self-swab was longer than or equal to the duration of patient swabs they had previously performed, and 89% reported the depth to be deeper than or equal to the depth of previous patient swabs. Over 95% of participants reported a willingness to repeat a self-collected NP swab in the future. Conclusions and Relevance: The point prevalence SERO of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD was likely very low in symptom-free Minnesota healthcare workers from April 20th and June 24th, 2020. Self-collected NP swabs are well-tolerated and a viable alternative to provider-collected swabs to preserve PPE.

The ZB MED preprint Viewer preVIEW includes all COVID-19 related preprints from medRxiv and bioRxiv, from ChemRxiv, from ResearchSquare, from arXiv and from Preprints.org and is updated on a daily basis (7am CET/CEST).

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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