Corpus overview


Overview

MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Pneumonia (48)

Fever (42)

Cough (21)

Respiratory distress (15)

Anosmia (12)


Transmission

Seroprevalence
    displaying 11 - 20 records in total 866
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    Rapid Detection of SARS-CoV-2 Antibodies SERO Using Electrochemical Impedance-Based Detector

    Authors: Mohamed Z. Rashed; Jonathan A. Kopecheck; Mariah C. Priddy; Krystal T. Hamorsky; Kenneth E. Palmer; Nikhil Mittal; Joseph Valdez; Joseph Flynn; Stuart Williams

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.10.20171652 Date: 2020-08-11 Source: medRxiv

    Emerging novel human contagious viruses and pathogens put humans at risk of hospitalization and possibly death MESHD due to the unavailability of vaccines and drugs which may take years to develop. Coronavirus disease MESHD (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was classified as a pandemic by the World Health Organization and has caused over 550,000 deaths MESHD worldwide as of July 2020. Accurate and scalable point-of-care devices would increase screening, diagnosis, and monitoring of COVID-19 patients. Here, we demonstrate rapid label-free electrochemical detection of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies SERO using a commercially available impedance sensing platform. A 16-well plate containing sensing electrodes was pre-coated with receptor binding domain (RBD) of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, and subsequently tested with samples of anti-SARS-CoV-2 monoclonal antibody SERO CR3022 (0.1 g/ml, 1.0 g/ml, 10 g/ml). Subsequent blinded testing was performed on six serum SERO specimens taken from COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 patients (1:100 dilution factor). The platform was able to differentiate spikes in impedance measurements from a negative control (1% milk solution) for all CR3022 samples. Further, successful differentiation and detection of all positive clinical samples from negative control was achieved. Measured impedance values were consistent when compared to standard ELISA SERO test results showing a strong correlation between them (R2 = 0:9). Detection occurs in less than five minutes and the well-based platform provides a simplified and familiar testing interface that can be readily adaptable for use in clinical settings.

    A diagnostic decision-making protocol combines a new-generation of serological assay SERO and PCR to fully resolve ambiguity in COVID-19 diagnosis

    Authors: Hu Cheng; Hao Chen; Yiting Li; Peiyan Zheng; Dayong Gu; Shiping He; Dongli Ma; Ruifang Wang; Jun Han; Zhongxin Lu; Xinyi Xia; Yi Deng; Lan Yang; Wenwen Xu; Shanhui Wu; Cuiying Liang; Hui Wang; Baoqing Sun; Nanshan Zhong; Hongwei Ma

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.11.20172452 Date: 2020-08-11 Source: medRxiv

    The capacity to accurately diagnosis COVID-19 is essential for effective public health measures to manage the ongoing global pandemic, yet no presently available diagnostic technologies or clinical protocols can achieve full positive predictive value SERO (PPV) and negative predictive value SERO (NPV) performance SERO. Two factors prevent accurate diagnosis: the failure of sampling methods (e.g., 40% false negatives from PCR testing of nasopharyngeal swabs) and sampling-time-dependent failures reflecting individual humoral responses of patients (e.g., serological testing SERO outside of the sero-positive stage). Here, we report development of a diagnostic protocol that achieves full PPV and NPV based on a cohort of 500 confirmed COVID-19 cases, and present several discoveries about the sero-conversion dynamics throughout the disease MESHD course of COVID-19. The fundamental enabling technology for our study and diagnostic protocol-termed SANE, for Symptom (dpo)- Antibody SERO-Nucleic acid-Epidemiological history-is our development of a peptide-protein hybrid microarray (PPHM) for COVID-19. The peptides comprising PPHMCOVID-19 were selected based on clinical sample data, and give our technology the unique capacity to monitor a patient's humoral response throughout the disease MESHD course. Among other assay-development related and clinically relevant findings, our use of PPHMCOVID-19 revealed that 5% of COVID-19 patients are from an "early sero-reversion" subpopulation, thus explaining many of the mis-diagnoses we found in our comparative testing using PCR, CLIA, and PPHMCOVID-19. Accordingly, the full SANE protocol incorporates orthogonal technologies to account for these patient variations, and successfully overcomes both the sampling method and sampling time limitations that have previously prevented doctors from achieving unambiguous, accurate diagnosis of COVID-19

    Comparative analyses of SARS-CoV-2 binding (IgG, IgM, IgA) and neutralizing antibodies SERO from human serum samples SERO

    Authors: Livia Mazzini; Donata Martinuzzi; Inesa Hyseni; Giulia Lapini; Linda Benincasa; Pietro Piu; Claudia Maria Trombetta; Serena Marchi; Ilaria Razzano; Alessandro Manenti; Emanuele Montomoli

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.10.243717 Date: 2020-08-10 Source: bioRxiv

    A newly identified coronavirus, named SARS-CoV-2, emerged in December 2019 in Hubei Province, China, and quickly spread throughout the world; so far, it has caused more than 18 million cases of disease MESHD and 700,000 deaths MESHD. The diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD is currently based on the detection of viral RNA in nasopharyngeal swabs by means of molecular-based assays, such as real-time RT-PCR. Furthermore, serological assays SERO aimed at detecting different classes of antibodies SERO constitute the best surveillance strategy for gathering information on the humoral immune response to infection MESHD and the spread of the virus through the population, in order to evaluate the immunogenicity of novel future vaccines and medicines for the treatment and prevention of COVID-19 disease MESHD. The aim of this study was to determine SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies SERO in human serum samples SERO by means of different commercial and in-house ELISA SERO kits, in order to evaluate and compare their results first with one another and then with those yielded by functional assays using wild-type virus. It is important to know the level of SARS-CoV-2-specific IgM, IgG and IgA antibodies SERO in order to predict population immunity and possible cross-reactivity with other coronaviruses and to identify potentially infectious subjects. In addition, in a small sub-group of samples, we performed a subtyping Immunoglobulin G ELISA SERO. Our data showed an excellent statistical correlation between the neutralization titer and the IgG, IgM and IgA ELISA SERO response against the receptor-binding domain of the spike protein, confirming that antibodies SERO against this portion of the virus spike protein are highly neutralizing and that the ELISA SERO Receptor-Binding Domain-based assay can be used as a valid surrogate for the neutralization assay in laboratories which do not have Biosecurity level-3 facilities.

    An ultra-high affinity synthetic nanobody blocks SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD by locking Spike into an inactive conformation

    Authors: Michael Schoof; Bryan Faust; Reuben A Saunders; Smriti Sangwan; Veronica V Rezelj; Nick Hoppe; Morgane Boone; Christian Billesboelle; Marcell Zimanyi; Ishan Deshpande; Jiahao Liang; Aditya A Anand; Niv Dobzinski; Beth Shoshana Zha; Benjamin Barsi-Rhyne; Vladislav Bleyy; Andrew W Barile-Hill; Sayan Gupta; Camille R. Simoneau; Kristoffer Leon; Kris M. White; Silke Nock; Yuwei Liu; Nevan J. Krogan; Corie Y Ralston; Danielle L Swaney; Adolfo Garcia-Sastre; Melanie Ott; Marco Vignuzzi; - Quantitative Biosciences Institute (QBI) Coronavirus Research Group Structural Biology Consortium; Peter Walter; Aashish Manglik

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.08.238469 Date: 2020-08-10 Source: bioRxiv

    Without an effective prophylactic solution, infections MESHD from SARS-CoV-2 continue to rise worldwide with devastating health and economic costs. SARS-CoV-2 gains entry into host cells via an interaction between its Spike protein and the host cell receptor angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). Disruption of this interaction confers potent neutralization of viral entry, providing an avenue for vaccine design and for therapeutic antibodies SERO. Here, we develop single-domain antibodies SERO (nanobodies) that potently disrupt the interaction between the SARS-CoV-2 Spike and ACE2. By screening a yeast surface-displayed library of synthetic nanobody sequences, we identified a panel of nanobodies that bind to multiple epitopes on Spike and block ACE2 interaction via two distinct mechanisms. Cryogenic electron microscopy (cryo-EM) revealed that one exceptionally stable nanobody, Nb6, binds Spike in a fully inactive conformation with its receptor binding domains (RBDs) locked into their inaccessible down-state, incapable of binding ACE2. Affinity maturation and structure-guided design of multivalency yielded a trivalent nanobody, mNb6-tri, with femtomolar affinity for SARS-CoV-2 Spike and picomolar neutralization of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD. mNb6-tri retains stability and function after aerosolization, lyophilization, and heat treatment. These properties may enable aerosol-mediated delivery of this potent neutralizer directly to the airway epithelia, promising to yield a widely deployable, patient-friendly prophylactic and/or early infection MESHD therapeutic agent to stem the worst pandemic in a century.

    Immunogenicity and Safety of a SARS-CoV-2 Inactivated Vaccine in Healthy Adults TRANS Aged TRANS 18-59 years: Report of the Randomized, Double-blind, and Placebo-controlled Phase 2 Clinical Trial

    Authors: Yan-Jun Zhang; Gang Zeng; Hong-Xing Pan; Chang-Gui Li; Biao Kan; Ya-Ling Hu; Hai-Yan Mao; Qian-Qian Xin; Kai Chu; Wei-Xiao Han; Zhen Chen; Rong Tang; Wei-Dong Yin; Xin Chen; Xue-Jie Gong; Chuan Qin; Yuan-Sheng Hu; Xiao-Yong Liu; Guo-Liang Cui; Cong-Bing Jiang; Heng-Ming Zhang; Jing-Xin Li; Min-Nan Yang; Xiao-Juan Lian; Yan Song; Jin-Xing Lu; Xiang-Xi Wang; Miao Xu; Qiang Gao; Feng-Cai Zhu

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.31.20161216 Date: 2020-08-10 Source: medRxiv

    BACKGROUND The top priority for the control of COVID-19 pandemic currently is the development of a vaccine. A phase 2 trial conducted to further evaluate the immunogenicity and safety of a SARS-CoV-2 inactivated vaccine (CoronaVac). METHODS We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the optimal dose, immunogenicity and safety of the CoronaVac. A total of 600 healthy adults TRANS aged TRANS 18-59 years were randomly assigned to receive 2 injections of the trial vaccine at a dose of 3 g/0.5 mL or 6 g /0.5mL, or placebo on Day 0,14 schedule or Day 0,28 schedule. For safety evaluation, solicited and unsolicited adverse events were collected after each vaccination within 7 days and 28 days, respectively. Blood SERO samples were taken for antibody SERO assay. RESULTS CoronaVac was well tolerated, and no dose-related safety concerns were observed. Most of the adverse reactions fell HP in the solicited category and were mild in severity. Pain MESHD Pain HP at injection site was the most frequently reported symptoms. No Grade 3 adverse reaction or vaccine related SAEs were reported. CoronaVac showed good immunogenicity with the lower 3 g dose eliciting 92.4% seroconversion under Day 0,14 schedule and 97.4% under Day 0,28 schedule. 28 days after two-dose vaccination, the Nab levels of individual schedules range from 23.8 to 65.4 among different dosage and vaccination schedules. CONCLUSIONS Favorable safety and immunogenicity of CoronaVac was demonstrated on both schedules and both dosages, which support the conduction of phase 3 trial with optimum schedule/dosage per different scenarios.

    Neutralizing antibody SERO response in non-hospitalized SARS-CoV-2 patients

    Authors: Natalia Ruetalo; Ramona Businger; Karina Althaus; Simon Fink; Felix Ruoff; Klaus Hamprecht; Bertram Flehmig; Tamam Bakchould; Markus F Templin; Michael Schindler

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.07.20169961 Date: 2020-08-07 Source: medRxiv

    The majority of infections MESHD with SARS-CoV-2 (SCoV2) are asymptomatic TRANS or mild without the necessity of hospitalization. It is of outmost importance to reveal if these patients develop an antibody SERO response against SCoV2 and to define which antibodies SERO confer virus neutralization. We hence conducted a comprehensive serological survey of 49 patients with a mild course of disease MESHD and quantified neutralizing antibody SERO responses against authentic SCoV2 employing human cells as targets. Four patients (8%), even though symptomatic, did not develop antibodies SERO against SCoV2 and two other sera (4%) were only positive in one of the serological assays SERO employed. For the remainder, antibody SERO response against the S-protein correlated with serum SERO neutralization whereas antibodies SERO against the nucleocapsid were poor predictors of virus neutralization. Only six sera (12%) could be classified as highly neutralizing. Furthermore, sera from several individuals with fairly high antibody SERO levels had only poor neutralizing activity. In addition, our data suggest that antibodies SERO against the seasonal coronavirus 229E contribute to SCoV2 neutralization. Altogether, we show that there is a wide breadth of antibody SERO responses against SCoV2 in patients that differentially correlate with virus neutralization. This highlights the difficulty to define reliable surrogate markers for immunity against SCoV2.

    Kinetics of viral clearance and antibody SERO production across age groups TRANS in SARS-CoV-2 infected children TRANS

    Authors: Burak Bahar; Cyril Jacquot; Yunchuan Delores Mo; Roberta DeBiasi; Meghan Delaney

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.06.20162446 Date: 2020-08-07 Source: medRxiv

    Objectives: To improve understanding of transition from viral infection MESHD to viral clearance, and antibody SERO response in pediatric patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD. Study design: This retrospective analysis of children TRANS tested for SARS-CoV-2 by RT-PCR and IgG antibody SERO at a quaternary-care, free-standing pediatric hospital between March 13th, 2020 to June 21st, 2020 included 6369 patients who underwent PCR testing and 215 patients who underwent antibody testing SERO. During the initial study period, testing focused primarily on symptomatic children TRANS; the later study period included asymptomatic TRANS patients who underwent testing as preadmission or preprocedural screening. We report the proportion of positive and negative tests, time to viral clearance, and time to seropositivity. Results: The rate of positivity varied over time due to viral circulation in the community and transition from targeted testing of symptomatic patients to more universal screening of hospitalized patients. Median duration of viral shedding (RT-PCR positivity) was 19.5 days and RT-PCR negativity from positivity was 25 days. Of note, patients aged TRANS 6 to 15 years demonstrated a longer period of RT-PCR negativity from positivity, compared to patients aged TRANS 16 to 22 years (median=32 versus 18 days, p=0.015). Median time to seropositivity from RT-PCR positivity was 18 days while median time to reach adequate levels of neutralizing antibodies SERO (defined as equivalent to 160 titer) was 36 days. Conclusions: The majority of patients demonstrated a prolonged period of viral shedding after infection MESHD with SARS CoV-2. Whether this correlates with persistent infectivity is unknown. Only 17 of 33 patients demonstrated neutralizing antibodies SERO, suggesting that some patients may not mount significant immune responses to infection MESHD. It remains unknown if IgG antibody SERO production correlates with immunity and how long measurable antibodies SERO persist and protect against future infection MESHD.

    Dynamics of neutralizing antibody SERO titers in the months after SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD

    Authors: Katharine HD Crawford; Adam S Dingens; Rachel Eguia; Caitlin R Wolf; Naomi Wilcox; Jennifer K Logue; Kiel Shuey; Amanda M Casto; Brooke Fiala; Samuel Wrenn; Deleah Pettie; Neil P King; Helen Y Chu; Jesse D Bloom

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.06.20169367 Date: 2020-08-07 Source: medRxiv

    Most individuals infected with SARS-CoV-2 develop neutralizing antibodies SERO that target the viral spike protein. Here we quantify how levels of these antibodies SERO change in the months following SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD by examining longitudinal samples collected between {approx}30 and 152 days post- symptom onset TRANS from a prospective cohort of 34 recovered individuals with asymptomatic TRANS, mild, or moderate-severe disease MESHD. Neutralizing antibody SERO titers declined an average of about four-fold from one to four months post- symptom onset TRANS. Importantly, our data are consistent with the expected early immune response to viral infection MESHD, where an initial peak in antibody SERO levels is followed by a decline to a lower plateau. Additional studies of long-lived B-cells and antibody SERO titers over longer time frames are necessary to determine the durability of immunity to SARS-CoV-2.

    Specificity and Performance SERO of Nucleocapsid and Spike-based SARS-CoV-2 Serologic Assays

    Authors: Zahra Rikhtegaran Tehrani; Saman Saadat; Ebtehal Saleh; Xin Ouyang; Niel Constantine; Anthony L. DeVico; Anthony D. Harris; George K. Lewis; Shyam Kottilil; Mohammad M. Sajadi

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.05.20168476 Date: 2020-08-07 Source: medRxiv

    There is an urgent need for an accurate antibody test SERO for severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). In this paper, we have developed 3 ELISA SERO methods, trimer spike IgA, trimer spike IgG, and nucleocapsid IgG, for detecting anti- SARS-CoV-2 antibodies SERO. We evaluated their performance SERO in comparison with four commercial ELISAs SERO, EDI Novel Coronavirus COVID-19 ELISA IgG SERO and IgM, Euroimmun Anti-SARS-CoV-2 ELISA IgG SERO and IgA, and one lateral flow assay, DPP COVID-19 IgM/IgG System (Chembio). Both sensitivity SERO and specificity were evaluated and the causes of false-positive reactions were determined. The assays were compared using 300 pre-epidemic samples and 100 PCR-confirmed COVID-19 samples. The sensitivities SERO and specificities of the assays were as follows: 90%/100% (in-house trimer spike IgA), 90%/99.3% (in-house trimer spike IgG), 89%/98.3% (in-house nucleocapsid IgG), 73.7%/100% (EDI nucleocapsid IgM), 84.5%/95.1% (EDI nucleocapsid IgG), 95%/93.7% (Euroimmun S1 IgA), 82.8%/99.7% (Euroimmun S1 IgG), 82.0%/91.7% (Chembio nucleocapsid IgM), 92%/93.3% (Chembio nucleocapsid IgG). The presumed causes of positive signals from pre-epidemic samples in commercial and in-house assays were mixed. In some cases, positivity varied with assay repetition. In other cases, reactivity was abrogated by competitive inhibition (spiking the sample with analyte prior to performing the assay). In other cases, reactivity was consistently detected but not abrogated by analyte spiking. Overall, there was wide variability in assay performance SERO using our samples, with in-house tests exhibiting the highest combined sensitivity SERO and specificity. The causes of false positivity in pre-epidemic samples may be due to plasma SERO antibodies SERO apparently reacting with the analyte, or spurious reactivity may be directed against non-specific components in the assay system. Identification of these targets will be essential to improving assay performance SERO.

    Performance SERO of an automated anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunoassay SERO in prepandemic cohorts

    Authors: Elena Riester; Beda Krieter; Peter Findeisen; Michael Laimighofer; Kathrin Schoenfeld; Tina Laengin; Christoph Niederhauser

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.07.20169987 Date: 2020-08-07 Source: medRxiv

    Background: The Elecsys(R) Anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunoassay SERO (Roche Diagnostics) was developed to provide an accurate and reliable method for the detection of antibodies SERO to severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). We evaluated the specificity of the Elecsys Anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunoassay SERO in prepandemic sample cohorts across five sites in Germany, Austria and Switzerland. Methods: Specificity of the immunoassay SERO was evaluated using anonymised, frozen, residual serum SERO and/or plasma SERO samples from blood SERO donors or routine diagnostic testing. All samples were collected before September 2019 and therefore presumed negative for SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies SERO. Cohorts included samples from blood SERO donors, pregnant women and paediatric patients. Point estimates and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. Results: Overall specificities for the Elecsys Anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunoassay SERO in 9575 samples from blood SERO donors (n = 6714) and diagnostic specimens (n = 2861) were 99.82% (95% CI 99.69-99.91) and 99.93% (95% CI 99.75-99.99), respectively. Among 2256 samples from pregnant women, specificity was 99.91% (95% CI 99.68-99.99). Among 205 paediatric samples, specificity was 100% (95% CI 98.22-100). Conclusion: The Elecsys Anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunoassay SERO demonstrated a very high specificity across blood SERO donor samples and diagnostic specimens from Germany, Austria and Switzerland. Our findings support the use of the Elecsys Anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunoassay SERO as a potential tool for determination of an immune response following previous exposure to SARS-CoV-2 in the general population, including in blood SERO donors, pregnant women and paediatric populations.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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