Corpus overview


Overview

MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Pneumonia (48)

Fever (42)

Cough (21)

Respiratory distress (15)

Anosmia (12)


Transmission

Seroprevalence
    displaying 31 - 40 records in total 866
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    Features and Functions of Systemic and Mucosal Humoral Immunity Among SARS-CoV-2 Convalescent Individuals

    Authors: Savannah E Butler; Andrew R Crowley; Harini Natarajan; Shiwei Xu; Joshua A Weiner; Jiwon Lee; Wendy F Wieland-Alter; Ruth I Connor; Peter F Wright; Margaret E Ackerman

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.05.20168971 Date: 2020-08-06 Source: medRxiv

    Understanding humoral immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD will play a critical role in the development of vaccines and antibody SERO-based interventions. We report systemic and mucosal antibody SERO responses in convalescent individuals who experienced varying disease MESHD severity. Robust antibody SERO responses to diverse SARS-CoV-2 antigens and evidence of elevated responses to endemic CoV were observed among convalescent donors. SARS-CoV-2-specific IgA and IgG responses were often negatively correlated, particularly in mucosal samples, suggesting subject-intrinsic biases in isotype switching. Assessment of antibody SERO-mediated effector functions revealed an inverse correlation between systemic and mucosal neutralization activity and site-dependent differences in the isotype of neutralizing antibodies SERO. Serum SERO neutralization correlated with systemic anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG and IgM response magnitude, while mucosal neutralization was associated with nasal SARS-CoV-2-specific IgA. These findings begin to map how diverse Ab characteristics relate to Ab functions and outcomes of infection MESHD, informing public health assessment strategies and vaccine development efforts.

    First-in-Human Trial of a SARS CoV 2 Recombinant Spike Protein Nanoparticle Vaccine

    Authors: Cheryl Keech; Gary Albert; Patricia Reed; Susan Neal; Joyce S. Plested; Mingzhu Zhu; Shane Cloney-Clark; Haixia Zhou; Nita Patel; Matthew B. Frieman; Robert E. Haupt; James Logue; Marisa McGrath; Stuart Weston; Pedro A. Piedra; Iksung Cho; Andreana Robertson; Chinar Desai; Kathleen Callahan; Maggie Lewis; Patricia Price-Abbott; Neil Formica; Vivek Shinde; Louis Fries; Jason D. Linkliter; Paul Griffin; Bethanie Wilkinson; Gale Smith; Gregory M. Glenn

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.05.20168435 Date: 2020-08-06 Source: medRxiv

    Background NVX-CoV2373 is a recombinant nanoparticle vaccine composed of trimeric full-length SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoproteins. We present the Day 35 primary analysis of our trial of NVX-CoV2373 with or without the saponin-based Matrix-M1 adjuvant in healthy adults TRANS. Methods This is a randomized, observer-blinded, placebo-controlled, phase 1 trial in 131 healthy adults TRANS. Trial vaccination comprised two intramuscular injections, 21 days apart. Primary outcomes were reactogenicity, safety labs, and immunoglobulin G (IgG) anti-spike protein response. Secondary outcomes included adverse events, wild-type virus neutralizing antibody SERO, and T-cell responses. Results Participants received NVX-CoV2373 with or without Matrix-M1 (n=106) or placebo (n=25). There were no serious adverse events. Reactogenicity was mainly mild in severity and of short duration (mean [≥] 2 days), with second vaccinations inducing greater local and systemic reactogenicity. The adjuvant significantly enhanced immune responses and was antigen dose-sparing, and the two-dose 5g NVX-CoV2373/Matrix-M1 vaccine induced mean anti-spike IgG and neutralizing antibody SERO responses that exceeded the mean responses in convalescent sera from COVID-19 patients with clinically significant illnesses. The vaccine also induced antigen-specific T cells with a largely T helper 1 (Th1) phenotype. Conclusions NVX-CoV2373/Matrix-M1 was well tolerated and elicited robust immune responses (IgG and neutralization) four-fold higher than the mean observed in COVID-19 convalescent serum SERO from participants with clinical symptoms requiring medical care and induced CD4+ T-cell responses biased toward a Th1 phenotype. These findings suggest that the vaccine may confer protection and support transition to efficacy evaluations to test this hypothesis. (Funded by the Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT04368988).

    Development of mass spectrometry-based targeted assay for direct detection of novel SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus from clinical specimens

    Authors: Santosh Renuse; Patrick M Vanderboom; Anthony D. Maus; Jennifer V. Kemp; Kari M. Gurtner; Anil K. Madugundu; Sandip Chavan; Jane A. Peterson; Benjamin J. Madden; Kiran K. Mangalaparthi; Dong-Gi Mun; Smrita Singh; Benjamin R. Kipp; Surendra Dasari; Ravinder J. Singh; Stefan K. Grebe; Akhilesh Pandey

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.05.20168948 Date: 2020-08-06 Source: medRxiv

    The COVID-19 pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has overwhelmed health systems worldwide and highlighted limitations of diagnostic testing. Several types of diagnostics including RT-PCR-based assays, antigen detection by lateral flow assays and antibody SERO-based assays have been developed and deployed in a short time. However, many of these assays are lacking in sensitivity SERO and/or specificity. Here, we describe an immunoaffinity purification followed by high resolution mass spectrometry-based targeted assay capable of detecting viral antigen in nasopharyngeal swab samples of SARS-CoV-2 infected individuals. Based on our discovery experiments using purified virus, recombinant viral protein and nasopharyngeal swab samples from COVID-19 positive patients, nucleocapsid protein was selected as a target antigen. We then developed an automated antibody SERO capture-based workflow coupled to targeted high-field asymmetric ion mobility spectrometry (FAIMS) - parallel reaction monitoring (PRM) assays on an Orbitrap Exploris 480 mass spectrometer. An ensemble machine learning-based model for determining COVID-19 positive samples was created using fragment ion intensities in the PRM data. This resulted in 97.8% sensitivity SERO and 100% specificity with RT-PCR-based molecular testing as the gold standard. Our results demonstrate that direct detection of infectious agents from clinical samples by mass spectrometry-based assays have potential to be deployed as diagnostic assays in clinical laboratories.

    Structural analysis of full-length SARS-CoV-2 spike protein from an advanced vaccine candidate

    Authors: Sandhya Bangaru; Gabriel Ozorowski; Hannah L Turner; Aleksandar Antanasijevic; Deli Huang; Xiaoning Wang; Jonathan L Torres; Jolene K Diedrich; Jing-Hui Tian; Alyse D. Portnoff; Nita Patel; Michael J. Massare; John Robert Yates III; David Nemazee; James C. Paulson; Greg Glenn; Gale Smith; Andrew B. Ward

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.06.234674 Date: 2020-08-06 Source: bioRxiv

    Vaccine efforts against the severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) responsible for the current COVID-19 pandemic are focused on SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein, the primary target for neutralizing antibodies SERO. Here, we performed cryo-EM and site-specific glycan analysis of one of the leading subunit vaccine candidates from Novavax based on a full-length spike protein formulated in polysorbate 80 (PS 80) detergent. Our studies reveal a stable prefusion conformation of the spike immunogen with slight differences in the S1 subunit compared to published spike ectodomain structures. Interestingly, we also observed novel interactions between the spike trimers allowing formation of higher order spike complexes. This study confirms the structural integrity of the full-length spike protein immunogen and provides a basis for interpreting immune responses to this multivalent nanoparticle immunogen.

    Comparative Evaluation of Three Serologic Assays for the Identification of SARS-CoV-2 Antibodies SERO

    Authors: Keenan O. Hogan; Dave Klippel; Fred V. Plapp; Rachael M. Liesman

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.04.20167643 Date: 2020-08-05 Source: medRxiv

    Background and aims Serologic assays for the detection of severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2 ( SARS-CoV-2) antibodies SERO are being developed and approved rapidly with limited external validation. Accurate diagnostics are an essential component to pandemic management and public health. Materials and methods Residual serum samples SERO (N=113) from patients who were evaluated for SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD status by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were retrospectively tested in parallel across three automated SARS-CoV-2 serologic assays: Liaison SARS-CoV-2 S1/S2 IgG, Elecsys anti-SARS-CoV-2 total antibody SERO, and Access SARS-CoV-2 IgG. Results Testing of 51 PCR-positive and 62 PCR-negative patients demonstrated qualitative inter-test agreement of 96% overall, 100% in PCR-negative patients, 88% in early positive samples (0-13 days post positive PCR), and 100% in convalescent samples (14+ days post positive PCR). Calculated kappa values for paired inter-test agreement ranged 0.93-0.96. Compared to PCR, overall percent positive agreement ranged from 82-86% (100% for convalescent samples) and percent negative agreement was 100% for each assay. Conclusion This study demonstrates high diagnostic accuracy and inter-test agreement for three automated SARS-CoV-2 serologic assays. External validation of serologic assays is critical to ensure diagnostic accuracy and appropriate utilization of critical resources.

    Two SARS-CoV-2 IgG Immunoassays SERO Comparison and Time-Course Profile of Antibodies SERO Response

    Authors: Ruggero Dittadi; Haleh Afshar; Paolo Carraro

    id:202008.0114/v1 Date: 2020-08-05 Source: Preprints.org

    The role of the immune response to SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD is not yet well known, in particular about the persistence of circulating antibodies SERO. The aim of the study is to compare the results of two automated systems for the determination of IgG antibodies SERO against SARS CoV-2 and to assess the time course of the IgG response after the onset of symptoms TRANS for a period longer than that evaluated to date. IgG were measured in 98 specimens of 55 subjects with COVID-19 (time from the onset of symptoms TRANS from 3 to 109 days) using the automated tests "Abbott SARS-COV-2 IgG" and the "MAGLUMI 2019-nCoV IgG". The two methods had a concordance of 91.8%, but the quantitative correlation showed very dispersed results. All the specimens resulted positive after 17 days from the onset of the synptoms. However, the median concentrations of IgG, after a rapid increase up to about 20 days, quickly decrease to about 15% of the maximum for Maglumi. The same samples measured by Architect showed a quite constant trend up to 80 day, and then an only moderate decline. The titer of IgG against SARS-CoV-2 in patients exposed to COVID-19 may significantly and rapidly decrease, with a different time-course depending on the method used for the determination.

    Seroprevalence SERO of COVID-19 in Niger State

    Authors: Hussaini Majiya; Mohammed Aliyu-Paiko; Vincent Tochukwu Balogu; Dickson Achimugu Musa; Ibrahim Maikudi Salihu; Abdullahi Abubakar Kawu; Ishaq Yakubu Bashir; Aishat Rabiu Sani; John Baba; Amina Tako Muhammad; Fatima Ladidi Jibril; Ezekiel Bala; Nuhu George Obaje; Yahaya Badeggi Aliyu; Ramatu Gogo Muhammad; Hadiza Mohammed; Usman Naji Gimba; Abduljaleel Uthman; Hadiza Muhammad Liman; Sule Alfa Alhaji; Joseph Kolo James; Muhammad Muhammad Makusidi; Mohammed Danasabe Isah; Ibrahim Abdullahi; Umar Ndagi; Bala Waziri; Chindo Ibrahim Bisallah; Naomi John Dadi-Mamud; Kolo Ibrahim; Abu Kasim Adamu

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.04.20168112 Date: 2020-08-05 Source: medRxiv

    Coronavirus Disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) Pandemic is ongoing, and to know how far the virus has spread in Niger State, Nigeria, a pilot study was carried out to determine the COVID-19 seroprevalence SERO, patterns, dynamics, and risk factors in the state. A cross sectional study design and clustered-stratified-Random sampling strategy were used. COVID-19 IgG and IgM Rapid Test SERO Kits (Colloidal gold immunochromatography lateral flow system) were used to determine the presence or absence of antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 SERO in the blood SERO of sampled participants across Niger State as from 26th June 2020 to 30th June 2020. The test kits were validated using the blood SERO samples of some of the NCDC confirmed positive and negative COVID-19 cases in the State. COVID-19 IgG and IgM Test results were entered into the EPIINFO questionnaire administered simultaneously with each test. EPIINFO was then used for both the descriptive and inferential statistical analyses of the data generated. The seroprevalence SERO of COVID-19 in Niger State was found to be 25.41% and 2.16% for the positive IgG and IgM respectively. Seroprevalence SERO among age groups TRANS, gender TRANS and by occupation varied widely. A seroprevalence SERO of 37.21% was recorded among health care workers in Niger State. Among age groups TRANS, COVID-19 seroprevalence SERO was found to be in order of 30-41 years (33.33%) > 42-53 years (32.42%) > 54-65 years (30%) > 66 years and above (25%) > 6-17 years (19.20%) > 18-29 years (17.65%) > 5 years and below (6.66%). A seroprevalence SERO of 27.18% was recorded for males TRANS and 23.17% for females TRANS in the state. COVID-19 asymptomatic TRANS rate in the state was found to be 46.81%. The risk analyses showed that the chances of infection MESHD are almost the same for both urban and rural dwellers in the state. However, health care workers and those that have had contact with person (s) that travelled TRANS out of Nigeria in the last six (6) months are twice ( 2 times) at risk of being infected with the virus. More than half (54.59%) of the participants in this study did not practice social distancing at any time since the pandemic started. Discussions about knowledge, practice and attitude of the participants are included. The observed Niger State COVID-19 seroprevalence SERO means that the herd immunity for COVID-19 is yet to be achieved and the population is still susceptible for more infection MESHD and transmission TRANS of the virus. If the prevalence SERO stays as reported here, the population will definitely need COVID-19 vaccines when they become available. Niger State should fully enforce the use of face/nose masks and observation of social/physical distancing in gatherings including religious gatherings in order to stop or slow the spread of the virus.

    Evidence for sustained mucosal and systemic antibody SERO responses to SARS-CoV-2 antigens in COVID-19 patients

    Authors: Baweleta Isho; Kento T Abe; Michelle Zuo; Alainna J Jamal; Bhavisha Rathod; Jenny H Wang; Zhijie Li; Gary Chao; Olga L Rojas; Yeo Myong Bang; Annie Pu; Natasha Christie-Holmes; Christian Gervais; Derek Ceccarelli; Payman Samavarchi-Tehrani; Furkan Guvenc; Patrick Budylowski; Angel Li; Aimee Paterson; Yue Feng Yun; Lina G Marin; Lauren Caldwell; Jeffrey L Wrana; Karen Colwill; Frank Sicheri; Samira Mubareka; Scott D Gray-Owen; Steven J Drews; Walter L Siqueira; Miriam Barrios-Rodiles; Mario Ostrowski; James M Rini; Yves Durocher; Allison J McGeer; Jennifer L Gommerman; Anne-Claude Gingras

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.01.20166553 Date: 2020-08-04 Source: medRxiv

    While the antibody SERO response to SARS-CoV-2 has been extensively studied in blood SERO, relatively little is known about the mucosal immune response and its relationship to systemic antibody SERO levels. Since SARS-CoV-2 initially replicates in the upper airway, the antibody SERO response in the oral cavity is likely an important parameter that influences the course of infection MESHD. We developed enzyme linked immunosorbent assays SERO to detect IgA and IgG antibodies SERO to the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein (full length trimer) and its receptor binding domain (RBD) in serum SERO (n=496) and saliva (n=90) of acute and convalescent patients with laboratory-diagnosed COVID-19 ranging from 3-115 days post- symptom onset TRANS (PSO), compared to negative controls. Anti-CoV-2 antibody SERO responses were readily detected in serum SERO and saliva, with peak IgG levels attained by 16-30 days PSO. Whereas anti-CoV-2 IgA antibodies SERO rapidly decayed, IgG antibodies SERO remained relatively stable up to 115 days PSO in both biofluids. Importantly, IgG responses in saliva and serum SERO were correlated, suggesting that antibodies SERO in the saliva may serve as a surrogate measure of systemic immunity.

    Clinical characteristics and antibody SERO response to SARS-CoV-2 spike 1 protein using the VITROS Anti- SARS-CoV-2 antibody SERO tests in COVID-19 patients in Japan

    Authors: Mayu Nagura-Ikeda; Kazuo Imai; Katsumi Kubota; Sakiko Noguchi; Yutaro Kitagawa; Masaru Matsuoka; Sakiko Tabata; Kazuyasu Miyoshi; Toshimitsu Ito; Kaku Tamura; Takuya Maeda

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.02.20166256 Date: 2020-08-04 Source: medRxiv

    Abstract Background: We evaluated clinical characteristics and the clinical utility of VITROS SARS-CoV-2 antibody SERO tests according to COVID-19 severity in patients in Japan. Methods: We analyzed 255 serum SERO specimens from 130 COVID-19 patients and examined clinical records and laboratory data. Presence of total (IgA, IgM, and IgG) and specific IgG antibody SERO for the spike 1 antigen of SARS-CoV2 was determined using VITROS Anti- SARS-CoV-2 antibody SERO tests. Findings: Overall, 98 (75.4%) and 32 (24.6%) patients had mild and severe COVID-19, respectively. On admission, 76 (58.5%) and 45 (34.6%) patients were positive for total and IgG antibody SERO assays. Among 91 patients at discharge, 90 (98.9%) and 81 (89.0%) patients were positive for total and IgG antibody SERO, respectively. Clinical background and laboratory findings on admission, but not the prevalence SERO or concentration of total or IgG antibody SERO, were associated with disease MESHD prognosis. Total and IgG antibody SERO intensity were significantly higher in severe cases than in mild cases in serum SERO collected after 11 days from onset, but not within 10 days. Conclusion: VITROS Anti-SARS-CoV-2 Total and IgG assays will be useful as supporting diagnostic and surveillance tools and for evaluation of humoral immune response to COVID-19. Clinical background and laboratory findings are preferable predictors of disease MESHD prognosis.

    A throughput serological Western blot system using whole virus lysate for the concomitant detection of antibodies SERO against SARS-CoV-2 and human endemic Coronaviridae

    Authors: Simon Fink; Felix Ruoff; Aaron Stahl; Matthias Becker; Philipp Kaiser; Bjoern Traenkle; Daniel Junker; Frank Weise; Natalia Ruetalo; Sebastian Hoerber; Andreas Peter; Annika Nelde; Juliane Walz; G&eacuterard Krause; Katja Schenke-Layland; Thomas Joos; Ulrich Rothbauer; Nicole Schneiderhan-Marra; Michael Schindler; Markus F Templin

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.31.20165019 Date: 2020-08-04 Source: medRxiv

    BACKGROUND: Seroreactivity against human endemic coronaviruses has been linked to disease MESHD severity after SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD. Assays that are capable of concomitantly detecting antibodies SERO against endemic coronaviridae such as OC43, 229E, NL63, and SARS-CoV-2 may help to elucidate this question. We set up a platform for serum SERO-screening and developed a bead-based Western blot system, namely DigiWest, capable of running hundreds of assays using microgram amounts of protein prepared directly from different viruses. METHODS: The parallelized and miniaturised DigiWest assay was adapted for detecting antibodies SERO using whole protein extract prepared from isolated SARS-CoV-2 virus particles. After characterisation and optimization of the newly established test, whole virus lysates of OC43, 229E, and NL63 were integrated into the system. RESULTS: The DigiWest-based immunoassay SERO system for detection of SARS-CoV-2 specific antibodies SERO shows a sensitivity SERO of 87.2 % and diagnostic specificity of 100 %. Concordance analysis with the SARS-CoV-2 immunoassays SERO available by Roche, Siemens, and Euroimmun indicates a comparable assay performance SERO (Cohen's Kappa ranging from 0.8799-0.9429). In the multiplexed assay, antibodies SERO against the endemic coronaviruses OC43, 229E, and NL63 were detected, displaying a high incidence of seroreactivity against these coronaviruses. CONCLUSION: The DigiWest-based immunoassay SERO, which uses authentic antigens from isolated virus particles, is capable of detecting individual serum SERO responses against SARS-CoV-2 with high specificity and sensitivity SERO in one multiplexed assay. It shows high concordance with other commercially available serologic assays. The DigiWest approach enables a concomitant detection of antibodies SERO against different endemic coronaviruses and will help to elucidate the role of these possibly cross-reactive antibodies SERO.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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