Corpus overview


Overview

MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Pneumonia (46)

Fever (40)

Cough (20)

Respiratory distress (14)

Anosmia (11)


Transmission

Seroprevalence
    displaying 511 - 520 records in total 802
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    Convergent Antibody SERO Responses to SARS-CoV-2 Infection MESHD in Convalescent Individuals

    Authors: Davide F. Robbiani; Christian Gaebler; Frauke Muecksch; Julio Cetrulo Lorenzi; Zijun Wang; Alice Cho; Marianna Agudelo; Christopher Barnes; Shlomo Finkin; Thomas Hagglof; Thiago Oliveira; Charlotte Viant; Arlene Hurley; Katrina Millard; Rhonda Kost; Melissa Cipolla; Anna Gazumyan; Kristie Gordon; Filippo Bianchini; Spencer Chen; Victor Ramos; Roshni Patel; Juan Dizon; Irina Shimeliovich; Pilar Mendoza; Harald Hartweger; Lilian Nogueira; Maggi Pack; Jill Horowitz; Fabian Schmidt; Yiska Weisblum; Hans-Heinrich Hoffmann; Eleftherios Michailidis; Alison Ashbrook; Eric F. Waltari; John Pak; Kathryn Huey-Tubman; Nicholas Koranda; Pauline Hoffman; Anthony West; Charles Rice; Theodora Hatziioannou; Pamela Bjorkman; Paul Bieniasz; Marina Caskey; Michel Nussenzweig

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.13.092619 Date: 2020-05-15 Source: bioRxiv

    During the COVID-19 pandemic, SARS-CoV-2 infected millions of people and claimed hundreds of thousands of lives. Virus entry into cells depends on the receptor binding domain (RBD) of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein (S). Although there is no vaccine, it is likely that antibodies SERO will be essential for protection. However, little is known about the human antibody SERO response to SARS-CoV-21-5. Here we report on 149 COVID-19 convalescent individuals. Plasmas SERO collected an average of 39 days after the onset of symptoms TRANS had variable half-maximal neutralizing titers ranging from undetectable in 33% to below 1:1000 in 79%, while only 1% showed titers >1:5000. Antibody SERO cloning revealed expanded clones of RBD-specific memory B cells expressing closely related antibodies SERO in different individuals. Despite low plasma SERO titers, antibodies SERO to three distinct epitopes on RBD neutralized at half-maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50s) as low as single digit ng/mL. Thus, most convalescent plasmas SERO obtained from individuals who recover from COVID-19 do not contain high levels of neutralizing activity. Nevertheless, rare but recurring RBD-specific antibodies SERO with potent antiviral activity were found in all individuals tested, suggesting that a vaccine designed to elicit such antibodies SERO could be broadly effective.

    SARS-CoV-2 antibody SERO seroprevalence SERO in industry workers in Split-Dalmatia and Sibenik-Knin County, Croatia

    Authors: Ivan Jerkovic; Toni Ljubic; Zeljana Basic; Ivana Kruzic; Nenad Kunac; Josko Bezic; Arijana Vuko; Alemka Markotic; Simun Andjelinovic

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.11.20095158 Date: 2020-05-15 Source: medRxiv

    BACKGROUND As a result of global spread, COVID-19 has also affected the Republic of Croatia in the last week of February. Although official data show that the number of newly infected is declining, it is still unknown what proportion of the population has been affected by the disease MESHD. AIM To examine seroprevalence SERO of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies SERO in industry workers population sample. METHODS From 23 to 28 April 2020, we conducted serological testing SERO for antibodies (IgG and IgM SERO) on 1494 factory employees living in the Split-Dalmatia and Sibenik-Knin County (Croatia). We analysed antibody SERO seroprevalence SERO on the level of the company, county, and separately for employees living at the factory premises with limited mobility during the lockdown measures. RESULTS In a total sample of tested company employees, we detected antibodies SERO in 1.27% of participants (95% CI 0.77-1.98%). In Split facility 13/1316 (0.99%, 95% CI 0.53-1.68%) of participants were tested positive, of which 13/1079 (1.20%, 95% CI 0.64-2.05%) of those living outside the facility and 0/237 (0%, 95% CI 0-1.26%) of those living inside the facility. In Knin facility, 6/178 (3.37%, 95% CI 1.25-7.19%) participants were tested positive for antibodies SERO. The difference between Split (no mobility restrictions) and Knin, was not statistically significant ({chi}2 = 3.47, P = 0.062). CONCLUSIONS The study showed relatively small SARS-CoV-2 antibody SERO seroprevalence SERO in the DIV Group population sample. When the study findings are interpreted on the county levels, they could indicate that most of the counties' population was not exposed to the virus.

    Broad sarbecovirus neutralizing antibodies SERO define a key site of vulnerability on the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein

    Authors: Anna Z Wec; Daniel Wrapp; Andrew S Herbert; Daniel P Maurer; Denise Haslwanter; Mrunal Sakharkar; Rohit K Jangra; M. Eugenia Dieterle; Asparouh Lilov; Deli Huang; Longping V Tse; Nicole V Johnson; Ching-Lin Hsieh; Nianshuang Wang; Juergen H Nett; Elizabeth Champney; Irina Burnina; Michael Brown; Shu Lin; Melanie Sinclair; Carl Johnson; Sarat Pudi; Robert Bortz III; Ariel S Wirchnianski; Ethan Laudermilch; Catalina Florez; J. Maximilian Fels; Barney S Graham; David Nemazee; Dennis R Burton; Ralph S Baric; James E Voss; Kartik Chandran; John M Dye; Jason S McLellan; Laura M Walker

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.15.096511 Date: 2020-05-15 Source: bioRxiv

    Broadly protective vaccines against known and pre-emergent coronaviruses are urgently needed. Critical to their development is a deeper understanding of cross- neutralizing antibody SERO responses induced by natural human coronavirus (HCoV) infections MESHD. Here, we mined the memory B cell repertoire of a convalescent SARS donor and identified 200 SARS-CoV-2 binding antibodies SERO that target multiple conserved sites on the spike (S) protein. A large proportion of the antibodies SERO display high levels of somatic hypermutation and cross-react with circulating HCoVs, suggesting recall SERO of pre-existing memory B cells (MBCs) elicited by prior HCoV infections MESHD. Several antibodies SERO potently cross-neutralize SARS-CoV, SARS-CoV-2, and the bat SARS-like virus WIV1 by blocking receptor attachment and inducing S1 shedding. These antibodies SERO represent promising candidates for therapeutic intervention and reveal a new target for the rational design of pan-sarbecovirus vaccines.

    Pre-existing and de novo humoral immunity to SARS-CoV-2 in humans

    Authors: Kevin W Ng; Nikhil Faulkner; Georgina Cornish; Annachiara Rosa; Ruth Harvey; Saira Hussain; Rachel Ulferts; Christopher Earl; Antoni Wrobel; Donald Benton; Chloe Roustan; William Bolland; Rachael Thompson; Ana Agua-Doce; Philip Hobson; Judith Heaney; Hannah Rickman; Stavroula Paraskevopoulou; Catherine F Houlihan; Kirsty Thomson; Emilie Sanchez; David Brealey; Gee Yen Shin; Moira J Spyer; Dhira Joshi; Philip A Walker; Svend Kjaer; Andrew Riddell; Catherine Moore; Bethany R Jebson; Lucy R Marshall; Meredyth G Wilkinson; Elizabeth C Rosser; Anna Radziszewska; Hannah Peckham; Coziana Ciurtin; Lucy R Wedderburn; Rupert Beale; Charles Swanton; Sonia Gandhi; Brigitta Stockinger; John McCauley; Steve Gamblin; Laura E McCoy; Peter Cherepanov; Eleni Nastouli; George Kassiotis

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.14.095414 Date: 2020-05-15 Source: bioRxiv

    Several related human coronaviruses (HCoVs) are endemic in the human population, causing mild respiratory infections1. Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome MESHD Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the etiologic agent of Coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19), is a recent zoonotic infection MESHD that has quickly reached pandemic proportions2,3. Zoonotic introduction of novel coronaviruses is thought to occur in the absence of pre-existing immunity in the target human population. Using diverse assays for detection of antibodies reactive with the SARS-CoV-2 SERO spike (S) glycoprotein, we demonstrate the presence of pre-existing humoral immunity in uninfected and unexposed humans to the new coronavirus. SARS-CoV-2 S-reactive antibodies SERO were readily detectable by a sensitive flow cytometry-based method in SARS-CoV-2-uninfected individuals and were particularly prevalent in children TRANS and adolescents. These were predominantly of the IgG class and targeted the S2 subunit. In contrast, SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD induced higher titres of SARS-CoV-2 S-reactive IgG antibodies SERO, targeting both the S1 and S2 subunits, as well as concomitant IgM and IgA antibodies SERO, lasting throughout the observation period of 6 weeks since symptoms onset TRANS. SARS-CoV-2-uninfected donor sera also variably reacted with SARS-CoV-2 S and nucleoprotein (N), but not with the S1 subunit or the receptor binding domain (RBD) of S on standard enzyme immunoassays SERO. Notably, SARS-CoV-2-uninfected donor sera exhibited specific neutralising activity against SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV-2 S pseudotypes, according to levels of SARS-CoV-2 S-binding IgG and with efficiencies comparable to those of COVID-19 patient sera. Distinguishing pre-existing and de novo antibody SERO responses to SARS-CoV-2 will be critical for our understanding of susceptibility to and the natural course of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD.

    Yeast-Expressed SARS-CoV Recombinant Receptor-Binding Domain (RBD219-N1) Formulated with Alum Induces Protective Immunity and Reduces Immune Enhancement

    Authors: Wen-Hsiang Chen; Xinrong Tao; Anurodh Agrawal; Abdullah Algaissi; Bi-Hung Peng; Jeroen Pollet; Ulrich Strych; Maria Elena Bottazzi; Peter J Hotez; Sara Lustigman; Lanying Du; Shibo Jiang; Chien-Te K Tseng

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.15.098079 Date: 2020-05-15 Source: bioRxiv

    We developed a severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD (SARS) subunit recombinant protein vaccine candidate based on a high-yielding, yeast-engineered, receptor-binding domain (RBD219-N1) of the SARS beta-coronavirus (SARS-CoV) spike (S) protein. When formulated with Alhydrogel®, RBD219-N1 induced high-level neutralizing antibodies SERO against both pseudotyped virus and a clinical (mouse-adapted) isolate of SARS-CoV. Here, we report that mice immunized with RBD219-N1/Alhydrogel® were fully protected from lethal SARS-CoV challenge (0% mortality), compared to ∼ 30% mortality in mice when immunized with the SARS S protein formulated with Alhydrogel®, and 100% mortality in negative controls. An RBD219-N1 formulation Alhydrogel® was also superior to the S protein, unadjuvanted RBD, and AddaVax (MF59-like adjuvant)-formulated RBD in inducing specific antibodies SERO and preventing cellular infiltrates in the lungs upon SARS-CoV challenge. Specifically, a formulation with a 1:25 ratio of RBD219-N1 to Alhydrogel® provided high neutralizing antibody SERO titers, 100% protection with non-detectable viral loads with minimal or no eosinophilic pulmonary infiltrates HP. As a result, this vaccine formulation is under consideration for further development against SARS-CoV and potentially other emerging and re-emerging beta-CoVs such as SARS-CoV-2.Competing Interest StatementThe authors have declared no competing interest.View Full Text

    IgA MAb blocks SARS-CoV-2 Spike-ACE2 interaction providing mucosal immunity

    Authors: Monir Ejemel; Qi Li; Shurong Hou; Zachary A. Schiller; Aaron L. Wallace; Alla Amcheslavsky; Nese Kurt Yilmaz; Jacqueline R. Toomey; Ryan Schneider; Brianna J. Close; Da-Yuan Chen; Hashan L. Conway; Mohsan Saeed; Lisa A. Cavacini; Mark S. Klempner; Celia A. Schiffer; Yang Wang

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.15.096719 Date: 2020-05-15 Source: bioRxiv

    COVID-19 caused by SARS-CoV-2 has become a global pandemic requiring the development of interventions for the prevention or treatment to curtail mortality and morbidity. No vaccine to boost mucosal immunity or as a therapeutic has yet been developed to SARS-CoV-2. In this study we discover and characterize a cross-reactive human IgA monoclonal antibody SERO, MAb362. MAb362 binds to both SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 spike proteins and competitively blocks hACE2 receptor binding, by completely overlapping the hACE2 structural binding epitope. Furthermore, MAb362 IgA neutralizes both pseudotyped SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 in human epithelial cells expressing hACE2. SARS-CoV-2 specific IgA antibodies SERO, such as MAb362, may provide effective immunity against SARS-CoV-2 by inducing mucosal immunity within the respiratory system, a potentially critical feature of an effective vaccine.

    A single dose SARS-CoV-2 simulating particle vaccine induces potent neutralizing activities

    Authors: Yujia Cai; Di Yin; Sikai Ling; Xiaolong Tian; Yang Li; Zhijue Xu; Hewei Jiang; Xue Zhang; Xiaoyuan Wang; Yi Shi; Yan Zhang; Lindai Da; Sheng-ce Tao; Quanjun Wang; Jianjiang Xu; Tianlei Ying; Jiaxu Hong

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.14.093054 Date: 2020-05-15 Source: bioRxiv

    Coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) for which a vaccine is urgently needed to control its spreading. To facilitate the representation of a native-like immunogen without being infectious, here, we reported a SARS-CoV-2 vaccine candidate (designated ShaCoVacc) by incorporating spike-encoding mRNA inside and decorating spike protein on the surface of the virus simulating particles (VSPs) derived from lentiviral particles. We characterized the mRNA copy number, glycosylation status, transduction efficiency, and innate immune property of the new vaccine platform. Importantly, we showed the ShaCoVacc induced strong spike-specific humoral immune responses and potent neutralizing activities by a single injection. Additionally, we disclosed the epitopes of spike-specific antibodies SERO using peptide microarray and revealed epitopes susceptible to specific neutralizing antibodies SERO. These results support further development of ShaCoVacc as a candidate vaccine for COVID-19 and VSP may serve as a new vaccine platform for emerging infectious diseases MESHD.

    A Translatable Subunit Nanovaccine for COVID-19

    Authors: Lixin Liu; Zhijia Liu; Haolin Chen; Hong Liu; Qiang Gao; Feng Cong; Guangxia Gao; Yongming Chen

    doi:10.26434/chemrxiv.12301157.v1 Date: 2020-05-15 Source: ChemRxiv

    In order to combat severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic in the world, we formulate S1 subunit of the virus with two types of adjuvants, amphiphilic adjuvant monophosphoryl lipid A (MPLA) for Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and CpG ODN for TLR9, into cationic multifunctional liposomes to produce a potent, safer, and translatable nanovaccine. The results show that the nanovaccine can efficiently elicit humoral immune response in mice. The sera from the vaccinated mice significantly inhibit SARS-CoV-2 to infect Vero cells. Moreover, relatively to the free S1 with traditional Alum adjuvant, the nanovaccine can elicit strong T cell immunity by activating both CD4+ and CD8+ cells, which may play critical roles in eliminating viral load in patients. Most importantly, the nanovaccine can elicit strong IgA antibody SERO, providing potential mucosal protection to host. Altogether, this study offers a translatable design for a potent subunit SARS-CoV-2 nanovaccine.

    No evidence of Re- infection MESHD or Human-to-Human Transmission in Cured COVID-19 Patients, a Retrospective Cohort Study

    Authors: Gang Xu; Feng Liu; Jun Zhao; Min Ye; Congrui Feng; Yudong Hu; Yuluo Chen; Liuqian Wang; Yueping Li; Haiyan Shi; Fuchun Zhang; Yuwei Tong; Wei Ma

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-29355/v1 Date: 2020-05-15 Source: ResearchSquare

    Objective: To clarify the clinical features of cured patients with coronavirus disease MESHD (COVID-19) and the relevance of IgM and IgG testing.Methods: A total of 187 cured COVID-19 patients with antibody SERO test were followed up every two weeks at Guangzhou Eighth People's hospital. Assessment for general condition, symptoms, epidemiological contact history, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay, and antibody tests were performed and recorded. Information from Guangzhou CDC was also screened.Results: There were 154 (82.4%) patients with positive results for IgG and 35 (18.7%) patients with positive results for IgM. PCR assay was positive in 10 (5.3%) patients. Neither IgG nor IgM results showed a relationship with PCR test results (all P > 0.05). No re-infection was found in the cured patients. Among people who were in close contact TRANS with the cured patients, no one was diagnosed with COVID-19 as reported both by the cured patients and the Guangzhou CDC. Factors associated with appearance of IgG comprised hospitalization days (OR: 1.07, 95%CI: 1.02-1.13, P = 0.004) and antibiotics treatment (OR: 2.78, 95%CI: 1.10-7.01, P = 0.031) .Conclusion: In our study, neither re- infection MESHD nor human-to-human transmission was found in cured patients with COVID-19. Additionally, neither IgG nor IgM can be used to replace the PCR test in cured patients.

    Generation and Evaluation of Chicken IgY-scFv for the Purposes of CPV Diagnosis and Therapy

    Authors: Shikun Ge; Long Xu; Ben Li; Fagang Zhong; XiaoYing Zhang

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-28773/v1 Date: 2020-05-14 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: Canine parvovirus (CPV) can cause acute and highly contagious enteritis MESHD in dog, antibodies SERO have been used for diagnosis and therapy of CPV disease MESHD, generation of functional antibody SERO fragments by using novel antibody SERO engineering platforms is promising in veterinary practice. Results: The IgY single chain fragment variables (scFv) were generated by T7 phage display system and expressed in E. coli system after immunizing hens with virus-like particles (VLP) of CPV-VP2. The titer of the primary scFv library reached to 1.5×10 6 pfu/mL, and 95% of the phages contained the target fragments. The CPV-VLP and CPV-VP2 protein showed similar reaction values to the purified scFv in the ELISA SERO test, and the results of ELISA SERO analysis using IgY-scFv toward CPV clinical samples were consistent with commercial immunochromatographic assay (ICA) and PCR detection, the scFv did not show cross reactivity with canine distemper MESHD virus (CDV) and canine coronavirus (CCV). IgY-scFv was successfully expressed in CRFK cells, and in the virus suppression assay, 55% of CPV infections MESHD were eliminated within 24 hours. Docking results demonstrated that the number of amino acids of the binding sides between scFv and VP2 were AA37 and AA40, respectively. Conclusions: This study revealed the feasibility of a novel functional antibody SERO fragment development strategy by generating diversified avian IgY-scFv libraries towards the pathogenic target of interest for both detection and therapeutic purposes in veterinary medicine.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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