Corpus overview


Overview

MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Pneumonia (48)

Fever (41)

Cough (21)

Respiratory distress (14)

Anosmia (12)


Transmission

Seroprevalence
    displaying 521 - 530 records in total 851
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    A previously uncharacterized gene in SARS-CoV-2 illuminates the functional dynamics and evolutionary origins of the COVID-19 pandemic

    Authors: Chase W. Nelson; Zachary Ardern; Tony L. Goldberg; Chen Meng; Chen-Hao Kuo; Christina Ludwig; Sergios-Orestis Kolokotronis; Xinzhu Wei

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.21.109280 Date: 2020-05-22 Source: bioRxiv

    Understanding the emergence of novel viruses requires an accurate and comprehensive annotation of their genomes. Overlapping genes (OLGs) are common in viruses and have been associated with the origins of pandemics, but are still widely overlooked. We identify ORF3c, a novel OLG in SARS-CoV-2 that is also present in Guangxi pangolin-CoVs but not more closely related pangolin-CoVs (Guangdong) or bat-CoVs (RaTG13 and RmYN02). We then document evidence of translation from ribosome profiling and conduct an evolutionary analysis at three levels: between-species (n=21 betacoronavirus genomes), between-host (n=3,978 SARS-CoV-2 consensus sequences), and within-host (401 deeply sequenced SARS-CoV-2 samples). ORF3c has been independently identified and shown to elicit a strong antibody SERO response in COVID-19 patients. However, it has been misclassified as ORF3b, an unrelated gene in other SARS-related betacoronaviruses, leading to confusion MESHD confusion HP and unfounded functional inferences. Our results liken ORF3c to other viral accessory genes and stress the importance of studying OLGs.

    The Dynamic Changes of Antibodies SERO against SARS-CoV-2 during the Infection MESHD and Recovery of COVID-19

    Authors: Kening Li; Min Wu; Bin Huang; Aifang Zhong; Lu Li; Yun Cai; Lingxiang Wu; Mengyan Zhu; Jie Li; Ziyu Wang; Wei Wu; Wanlin Li; Bakwatanisa Bosco; Zhenhua Gan; Zhihua Wang; Qinghua Qiao; Jian Wu; qianghu wang; Shukui Wang; Xinyi Xia

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.18.20105155 Date: 2020-05-21 Source: medRxiv

    Deciphering the dynamic changes of antibodies SERO against SARS-CoV-2 is essential for understanding the immune response in COVID-19 patients. By comprehensively analyzing the laboratory findings of 1,850 patients, we describe the dynamic changes of the total antibody SERO, spike protein (S)-, receptor-binding domain (RBD)-, and nucleoprotein (N)- specific IgM and IgG levels during SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD and recovery. Our results indicate that the S-, RBD-, and N- specific IgG generation of severe/critical COVID-19 patients is one week later than mild/moderate cases, while the levels of these antibodies SERO are 1.5-fold higher in severe/critical patients during hospitalization (P<0.01). The decrease of these IgG levels indicates the poor outcome of severe/critical patients. The RBD- and S-specific IgG levels are 2-fold higher in virus-free patients (P<0.05). Notably, we found that the patients who got re-infected had a low level of protective antibody SERO on discharge. Therefore, our evidence proves that the dynamic changes of antibodies SERO could provide an important reference for diagnosis, monitoring, and treatment, and shed new light on the precise management of COVID-19.

    Cancer immunotherapy does not increase the risk of death MESHD by COVID-19 in melanoma MESHD melanoma HP patients

    Authors: Maria Gonzalez-Cao; Monica Antonazas-Basa; Teresa Puertolas; Eva Munoz-Couselo; Jose Luis Manzano; Cristina Carrera; Ivan Marquez-Rodas; Pilar Lopez-Criado; Juan Francisco Rodriguez-Moreno; Almudena Garcia-Castano; Juan Martin-Liberal; Pedro Rodriguez-Jimenez; Susana Puig; Pablo Cerezuela; Marta Feito-Rodriguez; Belen Rubio-Viqueira; Guillermo Crespo; Pablo Luna-Fra; Cristina Aguayo; Pablo Ayala de Miguel; Rosa Feltes; Lara Valles; Ana Drozdowskyj; Ainara Soria; Cayetana Maldonado; Luis Fernandez-Morales; Rafael Rosell; Mariano Provencio; Alfonso Berrocal

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.19.20106971 Date: 2020-05-21 Source: medRxiv

    Background: Covid-19 pandemic by the new coronavirus SARS-Cov-2 has produced devastating effects on the health care system, affecting also cancer patient care. Data about COVID-19 infection MESHD in cancer patients are scarce, and they point out a higher risk of complications due to the viral infection MESHD in this population. Moreover, cancer treatments could increase viral complications, specially those treatments based on the use of immunotherapy with checkpoints antibodies SERO. There are no clinical data about the safety of immune check point antibodies SERO in cancer patients when they become infected by SARS-CoV-2. As checkpoint inhibitors, mainly anti PD-1 and anti CTLA-4 antibodies SERO, are an effective treatment for most melanoma MESHD melanoma HP patients, avoiding their use during the pandemic could lead to a decrease in the chances of curing melanoma MESHD melanoma HP. Methods: In Spain we have started a national registry of melanoma MESHD melanoma HP patients infected by SARS-Cov-2 since April 1st, 2020. A retrospective analysis of patients included in the Spanish registery has been performed weekly since the activation of the study. Interim analysis shows unexpected findings about cancer treatment safety in SARS-Cov-2 infected melanoma MESHD melanoma HP patients, so a rapid communication to the scientific community is mandatory Results: Fifty patients have been included as of May 17th, 2020. Median age TRANS is 69 years (range 6 to 94 years), 27 (54%) patients are males TRANS and 36 (70%) patients have stage IV melanoma MESHD melanoma HP. Twenty-two (44%) patients were on active anticancer treatment with anti PD-1 antibodies SERO, 16 (32%) patients were on treatment with BRAF plus MEK inhibitors and 12 (24%) patients were not on active cancer treatment. COVID-19 episode has been resolved in 43 cases, including 30 (70%) patients cured, four (9%) patients that have died due to melanoma MESHD melanoma HP progression, and nine (21%) patients that have died from COVID-19. Mortality rates from COVID-19 according to melanoma MESHD melanoma HP treatment type were 16%, 15% and 36% for patients on immunotherapy, targeted drugs, and for those that were not undergoing active cancer treatment, respectively. Conclusion: These preliminary findings show that the risk of death MESHD in those patients undergoing treatment with anti PD-1 antibodies SERO does not exceed the global risk of death MESHD in this population. These results could be relevant in order to select melanoma MESHD melanoma HP therapy during the COVID-19 pandemic

    Immunization with the receptor-binding domain of SARS-CoV-2 elicits antibodies SERO cross-neutralizing SARS-CoV- 2 and SARS-CoV without antibody SERO-dependent enhancement

    Authors: Jinkai Zang; Chenjian Gu; Bingjie Zhou; Chao Zhang; Yong Yang; Shiqi Xu; Xueyang Zhang; Yu Zhou; Lulu Bai; Yang Wu; Zhiping Sun; Rong Zhang; Qiang Deng; Zhenghong Yuan; Hong Tang; Di Qu; Dimitri Lavillette; Youhua Xie; Zhong Huang

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.21.107565 Date: 2020-05-21 Source: bioRxiv

    Recently emerged severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the pathogen responsible for the ongoing coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Currently, there is no vaccine available for preventing SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD. Like closely related severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus (SARS-CoV), SARS-CoV-2 also uses its receptor-binding domain (RBD) on the spike (S) protein to engage the host receptor, human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), facilitating subsequent viral entry. Here we report the immunogenicity and vaccine potential of SARS-CoV-2 RBD (SARS2-RBD)-based recombinant proteins. Immunization with SARS2-RBD recombinant proteins potently induced a multi-functional antibody SERO response in mice. The resulting antisera could efficiently block the interaction between SARS2-RBD and ACE2, inhibit S-mediated cell-cell fusion, and neutralize both SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus entry and authentic SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD. In addition, the anti-RBD sera also exhibited cross binding, ACE2-blockade, and neutralization effects towards SARS-CoV. More importantly, we found that the anti-RBD sera did not promote antibody SERO-dependent enhancement of either SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus entry or authentic virus infection MESHD of Fc receptor-bearing cells. These findings provide a solid foundation for developing RBD-based subunit vaccines for SARS-CoV2.

    Vasculitis MESHD Vasculitis HP-Associated Auto- antibodies SERO and Complement Levels in patients with COVID-19 Infection 

    Authors: Maryam Mobini; Roya Ghasemian; Laleh Vahedi Larijani; Maeede Mataji; Iradj Maleki

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-30488/v1 Date: 2020-05-21 Source: ResearchSquare

    Introduction / objectives: The cause of coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) is severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD 2 (SARS-CoV-2). There are evidences of involvement of immune system in pathogenesis of this disease MESHD. We investigated the presence of various vasculitis MESHD vasculitis HP-associated auto- antibodies SERO and complement levels in a series of patients with COVID-19 infection MESHD admitted to our hospital.Methods: Forty patients with severe or critical type of COVID 19 were evaluated for symptoms, signs MESHD and laboratory tests of vasculitis MESHD vasculitis HP syndromes MESHD including rheumatoid factor (RF), anti-nuclear antibody SERO (ANA), anti dsDNA, c and p anti-neutrophilic cytoplasmic antibody SERO (c ANCA and p ANCA) and complement levels. Descriptive statistics methods were used to describe the clinical / laboratory findings.Results: Forty patients with severe to critical illness MESHD were enrolled in the study. The mean age TRANS of the patients was 48.5 ± 9.8 years. All patients had pulmonary involvement in lung CT scan. Lymphopenia MESHD Lymphopenia HP in 19 (47.5%), raised creatinine in 8(20%) and hyperbilirubinemia MESHD hyperbilirubinemia HP in 19(47.5%) of patients were seen. Vasculitis MESHD Vasculitis HP laboratory test results included: RF in 2 patients, ANA in 3 patients and ANCA in one patient. 17(42.5%) of patients had hypocomplementemia in one or more complement tests. Of the four patients who were expired, three had a decrease in complement.Conclusion: In 17 of patients (42.5%) we detected low complement levels. A decrease in complement levels may predict a critical state of the disease MESHD. Therefore, measuring its levels may be helpful in making earlier decisions to initiate disease MESHD-suppressing treatments, including corticosteroids and IVIG.

    Immunogenic profile of SARS-CoV-2 spike in individuals recovered from COVID-19

    Authors: Jennifer A Juno; Hyon-Xhi Tan; Wen Shi Lee; Arnold Reynaldi; Hannah G Kelly; Kathleen Wragg; Robyn Esterbauer; Helen E Kent; C Jane Batten; Francesca L Mordant; Nicholas A Gherardin; Phillip Pymm; Melanie H Dietrich; Nichollas E Scott; Wai-Hong Tham; Dale I Godfrey; Kanta Subbarao; Miles P Davenport; Stephen J Kent; Adam K Wheatley

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.17.20104869 Date: 2020-05-21 Source: medRxiv

    The rapid global spread of SARS-CoV-2 and resultant mortality and social disruption have highlighted the need to better understand coronavirus immunity to expedite vaccine development efforts. Multiple candidate vaccines, designed to elicit protective neutralising antibodies SERO targeting the viral spike glycoprotein, are rapidly advancing to clinical trial. However, the immunogenic properties of the spike protein in humans are unresolved. To address this, we undertook an in-depth characterisation of humoral and cellular immunity against SARS-CoV-2 spike in humans following mild to moderate SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD. We find serological antibody SERO responses against spike are routinely elicited by infection MESHD and correlate with plasma SERO neutralising activity and capacity to block ACE2/RBD interaction. Expanded populations of spike-specific memory B cells and circulating T follicular helper cells (cTFH) were detected within convalescent donors, while responses to the receptor binding domain (RBD) constitute a minor fraction. Using regression analysis, we find high plasma SERO neutralisation activity was associated with increased spike-specific antibody SERO, but notably also with the relative distribution of spike-specific cTFH subsets. Thus both qualitative and quantitative features of B and T cell immunity to spike constitute informative biomarkers of the protective potential of novel SARS-CoV-2 vaccines.

    Quantifying antibody SERO kinetics and RNA shedding during early-phase SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD

    Authors: Benny Borremans; Amandine Gamble; K C Prager; Sarah K Helman; Abby M McClain; Caitlin Cox; Van Savage; James O Lloyd-Smith

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.15.20103275 Date: 2020-05-20 Source: medRxiv

    Our ability to understand and mitigate the spread of SARS-CoV-2 depends largely on antibody SERO and viral RNA data that provide information about past exposure and shedding. Five months into the outbreak there is an impressive number of studies reporting antibody SERO kinetics and RNA shedding dynamics, but extensive variation in detection assays, study group demographics, and laboratory protocols has presented a challenge for inferring the true biological patterns. Here, we combine existing data on SARS-CoV-2 IgG, IgM and RNA kinetics using a formal quantitative approach that enables integration of 3,214 data points from 516 individuals, published in 22 studies. This allows us to determine the mean values and distributions of IgG and IgM seroconversion times and titer kinetics, and to characterize how antibody SERO and RNA detection probabilities change during the early phase of infection MESHD. We observe extensive variation in antibody SERO response patterns and RNA detection patterns, explained by both individual heterogeneity and protocol differences such as targeted antigen and sample type. These results provide a robust reference for clinical management of individual patients, and a foundation for the mathematical models and serological surveys that underpin public health policies.

    Serological prevalence SERO of antibodies to SARS CoV-2 SERO amongst cancer centre staff

    Authors: Karol Sikora; Ian Barwick; Ceri Hamilton

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.16.20099408 Date: 2020-05-20 Source: medRxiv

    Objectives: the aim of this study was to test Rutherford Health (RH) staff for the presence of SARS CoV-2 antibodies SERO to reduce the risk of infection TRANS risk of infection TRANS infection MESHD to cancer patients. Setting: Between 14 and 24 April 2020 we tested 161 staff at four locations: our cancer centres in Reading - Berkshire, Newport - S Wales, Liverpool - Merseyside, and Bedlington in Northumberland. Participants: Testing was available to all staff who were on site at the four locations named above at the time the study was carried out. 161 staff (80 men, 81 women) gave voluntary consent to have the tests and all testing gave rise to valid results. Interventions: We used the South Korean test for antibodies SERO to SARS CoV-2: Sugentech SGTi-flex COVID-19 IgM/IgG1. For each test, blood SERO was collected and added to the sample well of the test cassette SERO and buffer solution added. The test result was legible after 15 minutes. Outcome measures: The number of tests positive for the presence of antibodies SERO was the primary outcome measure. The ratio of tests positive for the presence of IgM antibodies SERO versus IgG antibodies SERO was the secondary outcome measure. Results: Between 14 and 24 April 2020, 161 staff ( age TRANS m = 43) were tested at four Rutherford Cancer Care centres that offer proton beam therapy, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Out of 161, 12 samples (7.50%) tested positive of which 7 samples (4.35%) detected IgM only, 2 samples (1.24%) detected IgG only and 3 samples (1.86%) detected both IgM and IgG. Conclusions: The low seroconversion rate in the sample population limits the current utility of the test as a way of reducing risk to vulnerable patient populations but longitudinal retesting will provide further data.

    Clinical And Analytical Performance SERO Of An Automated Serological Test SERO That Identifies S1/S2 Neutralizing IgG In Covid-19 Patients Semiquantitatively.

    Authors: Fabrizio Bonelli; Antonella Sarasini; Claudia Zierold; Mariella Calleri; Alice Bonetti; Frank A Blocki; Luca Pallavicini; Alberto Chinali; Daniela Campisi; Elena Percivalle; Anna Pia DiNapoli; Carlo Federico Perno; Fausto Balldanti

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.19.105445 Date: 2020-05-20 Source: bioRxiv

    BACKGROUNDIn the Covid-19 pandemic, highly selective serological testing SERO is essential to define exposure to SARS-CoV-2 virus. Many tests have been developed, yet with variable speed to first result, and of unknown quality, particularly when considering the prediction of neutralizing capacity. OBJECTIVES/METHODSThe LIAISON(R) SARS-CoV-2 S1/S2 IgG assay was designed to measure antibodies SERO against the SARS-CoV-2 native S1/S2 proteins in a standardized automated chemiluminescent assay. Clinical and analytical performance SERO of the test were validated in an observational study using residual samples (>1500) with positive or negative Covid-19 diagnosis. RESULTSThe LIAISON(R) SARS-CoV-2 S1/S2 IgG assay proved highly selective and specific, and offers semiquantitative measures of serum SERO or plasma SERO levels of anti-S1/S2 IgG with neutralizing activity. The diagnostic sensitivity SERO was 91.3% and 95.7% at >5 or [≥]15 days from diagnosis respectively, and 100% when assessed against a neutralizing assay. The specificity ranged between 97% and 98.5%. The average imprecision of the assay was <5 % coefficient of variation. Assay performance SERO at 2 different cut-offs was evaluated to optimize predictive values in settings with different % disease MESHD prevalence SERO. CONCLUSIONS. The automated LIAISON(R) SARS-CoV-2 S1/S2 IgG assay brings efficient, sensitive, specific, and precise serological testing SERO to the laboratory, with the capacity to test large amounts of samples per day: first results are available within 35 minutes with a throughput of 170 tests/hour. The test also provides a semiquantitative measure to identify samples with neutralizing antibodies SERO, useful also for a large scale screening of convalescent plasma SERO for safe therapeutic use. IMPORTANCEWith the worldwide advance of the COVID-19 pandemic, efficient, reliable and accessible diagnostic tools are needed to support public health officials and healthcare providers in their efforts to deliver optimal medical care, and articulate sound demographic policy. DiaSorin has developed an automated serology based assay for the measurement of IgG specific to SARS CoV-2 Spike protein, and tested its clinical performance SERO in collaboration with Italian health care professionals who provided access to large numbers of samples from infected and non-infected individuals. The assay delivers excellent sensitivity SERO and specificity, and is able to identify samples with high levels of neutralizing antibodies SERO. This will provide guidance in assessing the true immune status of subjects, as well as meeting the pressing need to screen donors for high titer convalescent sera for subsequent therapeutic and prophylactic use.

    Tiger team: a panel of human neutralizing mAbs targeting SARS-CoV-2 spike at multiple epitopes

    Authors: Tal Noy-Porat; Efi Makdasi; Ron Alcalay; Adva Mechaly; Yinon Levy; Adi Bercovich-Kinori; Ayelet Zauberman; Hadas Tamir; Yfat Yahalom-Ronen; Eyal Epstein; Hagit Achdout; Sharon Melamed; Theodor Chitlaru; Shay Weiss; Eldar Peretz; Osnat Rosen; Nir Paran; Shmuel Yitzhaki; Shmuel C. Shapira; Tomer Israely; Ohad Mazor; Ronit Rosenfeld

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.20.106609 Date: 2020-05-20 Source: bioRxiv

    The novel highly transmissible human coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 is the causative agent of the COVID-19 pandemic. Thus far, there is no approved therapeutic drug, specifically targeting this emerging virus. Here we report the isolation and characterization of a panel of human neutralizing monoclonal antibodies SERO targeting the SARS-CoV-2 receptor binding domain (RBD). These antibodies SERO were selected from a phage display library constructed using peripheral circulatory lymphocytes collected from patients at the acute phase of the disease MESHD. These neutralizing antibodies SERO are shown to recognize distinct epitopes on the viral spike RBD, therefore they represent a promising basis for the design of efficient combined post-exposure therapy for SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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